Friulian language series: Gjenesi 49, muart di Jacop

In terms of both Friulian vocabulary and interpretation of subject matter, Gjenesi 49 is a difficult chapter; the grammar of it, on the other hand, is relatively straightforward. In this forty-ninth chapter, you will read about lis benedizions di Jacop (Jacob’s blessings) and la muart di Jacop (the death of Jacob). To assist in understanding the contents of this chapter, you may wish to consult an outside source as you work through the Friulian text, as the notes here will only cover aspects of language. You have nearly completed your study of the entire book of Genesis through the Friulian language; sustain your effort and see your study through to the end of this book, in which the next chapter is the final one.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Read Gjenesi 49

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 49. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: cul lâ dal timp (with the passage of time), dâsi dongje (to gather round), scoltâ (to listen), la fuarce (force, strength), la primizie (first-born), la zoventût (youth), spreçâ (to burst), il morbìn (vigour, energy), il coragjo (courage, valour), compagn di (just like, in the same way as), cirî (to seek), saltâ fûr (to come out), montâ (to go up, to get on), montâ sul jet (to climb up on the bed), disonorâ (to dishonour), il stramaç ([straw] mat[tress]), un imprest (instrument, tool), la violence (violence), la spade (sword).

In verse 1, Jacob says to his sons: vignît ca di me (come to me), che us conti (so that I may tell you) ce che al sarà di vualtris cul lâ dal timp (what will become of you with the passage of time). Take note of the wording ce che al sarà di vualtris (literally, that which will be of you).

Daitsi dongje e scoltait, from verse 2, means gather round and listen. In verse 3, Jacob describes Reuben as la primizie de mê zoventût (the first of my youth). La primizie will have perhaps reminded you of lis primiziis (firstfruits; that is, early and best produce of the season), from Gjenesi 45:23, when you encountered: a so pari i mandà dîs mus cjamâts di dutis lis primiziis dal Egjit. He also says of Reuben: tu sprecis di morbin e di coragjo (you burst with vigour and valour). Another example: spreçâ di salût (to burst with health; that is, to be very healthy).

I imprescj, from verse 5, is the plural of il imprest. More examples of it: i imprescj dal marangon (the carpenter’s tools), la borse dai imprescj (tool bag), un imprest di cusine (kitchen utensil).

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: la anime (soul), jentrâ (to enter), la congreghe (alliance, assembly), il spirt (spirit), la semblee (assembly), la rabie (anger), fâ fûr (to kill), la prepotence (presumption), mutilâ (to mutilate), il taur (bull), maladet (cursed; also maledet), violent (violent), la fote (wrath), smamîsi (to die down, to fade), dividi (to divide), sparniçâ (to scatter), dî ben di (to speak well of), la cope ([nape of] neck), il nemì (enemy), il leon (lion), zovin (young), la prede (prey), scrufuiâsi (to crouch down, to squat down), platâsi (to lie low, to squat down), la mascje (female), une mascje di leon (lioness).

Si smamìs, from verse 7, is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the reflexive smamîsi (to die down); you read: maladete la lôr fote che no si smamìs (cursed be their wrath which does not die down). Cui i laraial dongje? (who will go unto him?), from verse 9, uses the interrogative form al larà (he will go).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: il baston (staff, sceptre), il comant (command), il pît (foot), spietâi a (to be due unto), peâ (to bind, to tie), une uvarie (vine), il mussut (foal [of a donkey]), la vît (vine), di prime (choice, best), la musse ([female] donkey), i vistîts (clothes), meti in muel (to let soak), il vin (wine), la munture (garments; also monture), il sanc (blood), la uve (grape; also ue), lusî (to shine, to sparkle), il dint (tooth), candît (whitened), il lat (milk), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell), sul ôr dal mâr (next to the sea, at the seashore), il marinâr (seaman, sailor), fâ il marinâr (to be a seaman), la nâf (ship), al so flanc (to one’s side), il mus (donkey), gaiart (strapping, hardy), un sierai (enclosure).

Observe the use of no, in combination with fin che, in verse 10: fin che no i puartaran dongje ce che i spiete (until that which is his will be brought to him) e che i popui no staran sot di lui (and [until] the people will obey him). This no is not expressed in English in combination with until.

Al pee, from verse 11, is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb peâ (to bind, to tie). Then, in verse 12, you read: i siei vôi a lusin di vin (his eyes sparkle with wine) e i siei dincj a son candîts di lat (and his teeth are whitened with milk). I dincj is the plural of il dint (tooth).

Versets 15-21

Vocabulary: il polsâ (rest), confâ (to befit, to suit), platâ (to hide), la schene (back; of the human body), la cjame (load, burden), deventâ sclâf (to become a slave), sot paron (under a master), fâ sentence di (to judge), la tribù (tribe), il madrac (snake), la strade (street), la lipare (viper), il cuar (horn), il troi (path), muardi (to bite), il cjaval (horse), il sghiret (hock, ankle joint), il cjavalîr (horseman, horserider), colâ (to fall), denant-daûr (backwards), spietâ (to wait for), la salvece (salvation), saltâ parmìs (to overtake, to overcome), il brigant (brigand, plunderer, marauder), saltâ intor par daûr (to come at from behind), il pan (bread), gras (fat), furnî (to furnish, to provide), une pietance di re (dish of a king, royal dish; also pitance), la cerve (doe; also cierve), svelt (quick), fâ piçui (to make babies).

You will have perhaps recognised the relation between la cjame (burden, load), from verse 15, and the verb cjamâ (to load), which you have seen a number of times in previous chapters.

In verse 17, you come across a noun which was amongst the first that you encountered in your Friulian study here: il madrac (snake, serpent). You will, of course, recall this noun from Gjenesi 3, when the first man and woman fall into guilty disobedience before God. You also encounter in this verse une lipare cul cuar, which you can understand as horned viper (literally, viper with horn). Of this viper, you read: e muart il cjaval (it bites the horse), where e muart is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb muardi (to bite). You also read: il cjavalîr al cole denant-daûr (the horseman falls backwards).

Here are examples (which you in fact have already seen) of how you might use the verb colâ in your own use of Friulian: colâ dal balcon (to fall out the window), mi è colât il libri di man (the book fell out of my hand; I dropped the book), o soi colât smontant de coriere (I fell whilst getting off the coach), vuê e cole la nêf (the snow is falling today), il soldat al è colât in bataie (the soldier fell [died] in battle).

Learn also some additional examples of denant-daûr (backwards): cjaminâ denant-daûr (to walk backwards), lâ denant-daûr (to get worse; literally, to go backwards), capî denant-daûr (to misunderstand; literally, to understand backwards).

La cerve (or cierve), meaning doe (female deer), is the feminine form of il cerf (or cierf), meaning buck (male deer).

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: la menade (sprout, shoot), di çoc che (of the sort that), butâ (to produce fruit), ad ôr di une nassint (next to a spring, alongside a spring), il ramaç (branch), ingrampâsi (to cling), il mûr (wall), tirâ a ciment (to put to the test), pestâ (to trounce, to hit), fâ cuintri (to attack), trai (to shoot), un arc (bow), intat (intact), il braç (arm), movisi (to move), la sveltece (nimbleness, agility), pes mans di (by the hands of), il Fuart di Jacob (mighty God of Jacob), il pastôr (shepherd), la piere (stone), midiant di (by way of), dâ une man (to help, to lend a hand), i cîi adalt (heavens above), un abìs (abyss), là jù (down there), il font (bottom), il pet (chest), il grim (womb), il spi (spike, ear [of grain]), il flôr (flower), la mont (mount), vielon (ancient, very old), la culine (hill), eterni (eternal), il cerneli (forehead), consacrât (consecrated).

Il ramaç (branch) appears in verse 22. Learn another example of this noun: il ramaç al jere cjamât di miluçs (the branch was full of [charged with] apples). A train, from verse 23, is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb trai (to shoot). You find benedizions dai cîi adalt (blessings from the heavens above) in verse 25, where cîi is, of course, the plural form of cîl.

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: il lôf (wolf), scuartâ (to dismember), a buinore (in the morning), fâ fûr (to kill), sore sere (in the evening), dividi (to divide), puartâ vie (to take away, to make away with), formâ (to form), dodis (twelve), une benedizion a part (a blessing of his own), dâ un ordin (to give an order), dâsi dongje de sô int (to gather oneself unto one’s people; used figuratively to mean to die), soterâ (to bury), i vons (forefathers), il landri (cave), il cjamp (field), un itit (Hittite), il tombâl di famee (family grave), sapulî (to bury; also sepulî), ad ôr dal cjamp (next to the field, alongside the field), comprâ (to buy), dâ une racomandazion (to give an admonition), ritirâ (to pull back), spirâ (to breathe one’s last).

In the final verse of this forty-ninth chapter (verse 33), you read: dopo di vêur dadis lis ultimis racomandazions ai siei fîs. This is to be understood as after having given to his sons the final admonitions. Rather than recommendation, la racomandazion is to be understood here in the sense of admonition, piece of advice, warning. In this same verse, you also read: Jacop al ritirà i pîts sul jet (Jacob pulled back his feet on the bed) e al spirà (and breathed his last) e al tornà a dâsi dongje de sô int (and gathered himself back unto his people).