Friulian language series: Gjenesi 48, Efraim e Manasse

The forty-eighth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of Ephraim and Manasseh: Efraim e Manasse.

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Read Gjenesi 48

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Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: un fat (fact, matter), vignî (to come), no jessi trop ben (to not be too well, to be rather ill), menâ daûrsi (to lead along), il fi (son), cjatâ (to find, to meet with), il sfuarç (force, effort), metisi in senton (to sit up), il jet (bed), comparî (to appear), la tiere (land), benedî (to bless), multiplicâ (to multiply), la semblee (assembly), il popul (people), la gjernazie (line), par simpri (for ever), vignî jù (to come down), compagn di (like), il frut (male child), invezit (on the other hand), puartâ (to bear), il non (name), par cont di (in matter of), la ereditât (inheritance), tornâ di (to return from), par viaç (on the journey), murî (to die), la mari (mother), mancjâ (to lack), ancjemò (yet), il toc (piece), rivâ (to arrive), soterâ (to bury), la strade (way, road), ven a stâi (which is to say).

Verse 1: Dopo di chescj fats (after these matters), a vignirin a dîi a Josef (Joseph was told [they came to tell Joseph]): viôt che to pari nol è trop ben (see that your father is not very well; see that your father is rather ill). Dopo di chescj fats conveys the passage of a certain amount of time. Viôt is the second-person singular imperative of the verb viodi. E lui al menà daûrsi i siei doi fîs: and he led along his two sons; and he led with him his two sons.

Verse 2: Cuant che i diserin a Jacop (when Jacob was told [when they said to Jacob]): ve che al è vignût to fi Josef a cjatâti (so it is that your son Joseph has come to see you), Israel, cun tun grant sfuarç (Israel, with great effort), si metè in senton sul jet (sat up on the bed). Cun tun is a spelling variant of cuntun.

Verses 3-4: Jacop i disè a Josef (Jacob said to Joseph): El-Shadai mi à comparît a Luz (El-Shaddai appeared to me at Luz), te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan), mi a benedît e mi à dit (he blessed me and said to me): ti darai une grande gjernazie (I will give you a great line), ti multiplicarai (I will multiply you), ti fasarai deventâ une semblee di popui (I will make you become an assembly of peoples) e ur darai cheste tiere a la tô gjernazie dopo di te par simpri (and I will give this land to your line after you for ever).

Verse 5: Cumì i doi fîs che tu âs vûts te tiere dal Egjit (now, the two sons whom you begot in the land of Egypt), prime che o vignìs jù ancje jo cun te in Egjit (before I, too, came down with you into Egypt), a saran miei (shall be mine). Efraim e Manasse a saran miei compagn di Ruben e di Simeon: Ephraim and Manasseh shall be mine, like Reuben and Simeon. The subjunctive is used following prime che; in the text of this verse, you find the coniuntîf imperfet because it is question of past time. Observe: o ven jù; prime che o vegni jù (I come down; before I come down); o vignii jù; prime che o vignìs jù (I came down; before I came down).

Verse 6: I fruts che tu âs vûts dopo, invezit (the male children whom you begot afterwards, on the other hand), a saran tiei (shall be yours); a puartaran il non dai lôr fradis par cont di ereditât (they shall bear the name of their brethren in matter of inheritance).

Verse 7: Cuant che jo o stavi tornant di Padan (when I was returning from Paddan), par viaç mi è muarte tô mari Rachêl (your mother died on me on the journey) te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan), che al mancjave ancjemò un biel toc prin di rivâ a Efrate (when yet was lacking a great bit {of way} before arriving at Ephrath), e jo le ai soterade li (and I buried her there), su la strade di Efrate (on the road to Ephrath), ven a stâi Betlem (which is to say, Bethlehem). Jo o stavi tornant: this employs the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ followed by the present participle of tornâ to convey the ongoing nature of the action in the past. Review these examples: o stavi tornant; al stave fevelant; a stavin spietant (I was returning; he was speaking; they were waiting). Using the present tense of stâ, you can convey the ongoing nature of an action in present time: o stoi tornant; al sta fevelant; a stan spietant (I am returning; he is speaking; they are waiting).

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), il fi (son), domandâ (to ask), ca jù (down here), rispuindi (to respond), il pari (father), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), benedî (to bless), fruiâ (to wear out), il voli (eye), la colpe (fault), la vecjae (old age; also vecjaie), dibot nuie (almost nothing), lâ dongje (to go alongside), bussâ (to kiss), strengi tai braçs (to embrace in one’s arms; also strenzi), crodi (to believe), la muse (face), (to give), la gracie (grace), tirâ vie (to draw away), il genoli (knee; also zenoli), butâsi (to cast oneself), la muse (face), la tiere (ground), cjapâ (to take), la man (hand), gjestri (right; also dret, diestri), in mût che ({in order} that), çamp (left), slungjâ (to extend), meti (to put), il cjâf (head), il secont (second one), incrosâ (to cross), il braç (arm), cun dut che (although, even though), plui grant (older).

Verse 8: Israel al viodè i doi fîs di Josef e al domandà (Israel saw Joseph’s two sons and asked): cui sono chei li? (who are those there?).

Verse 9: A son i fîs che Diu mi à dâts ca jù (they are the sons whom God has given me down here) i rispuindè Josef a so pari, e chel al disè (Joseph responded to his father, and he [that one] said): menimai dongje che ju benedissi (lead them alongside me that I may bless them). The second-person singular imperative mene becomes meni before the addition of mai, which is a contraction of mi + ju.

Verse 10: Israel al veve fruiâts i vôi (Israel had worn out his eyes) par colpe de vecjae (by fault of his old age) e nol viodeve dibot nuie (and could see almost nothing). Alore Josef ju fasè lâ dongje (so Joseph made them go alongside) e lui ju bussà e ju strengè tai siei braçs (and he kissed them and embraced them in his arms).

Verse 11: Israel says to Joseph: no varès mai crodût di tornâ a viodi la tô muse (never would I have believed that I would see your face again) e ve che Diu mi à dade la gracie di viodi ancje i tiei fîs (and so it is that God has given me the grace of seeing even your sons). Study the following: o ai crodût (I have believed; I believed); o varès crodût (I would have believed); no varès crodût (I would not have believed); no varès mai crodût (I would have never believed).

Verse 12: Alore Josef ju tirà vie dai siei genôi (then Joseph drew them away from his knees) e si butà cu la muse par tiere (and cast himself with his face to the ground).

Verse 13: Josef ju cjapà ducj i doi (Joseph took them both); Efraim te man gjestre in mût che al fos a çampe di Israel (Ephraim with his right hand [in the right hand] that he should be to the left of Israel) e Manasse te man çampe par che al fos a gjestre di Israel (and Manasseh with his left hand [in the left hand] that he should be to the right of Israel), e ju menà dongje di lui (and led them alongside him).Al fos is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. The coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations of jessi are found below, in side-by-side format. The Friulian adjective for right is dret, also expressed as diestri or gjestri; for left, it is çamp. These adjectives are found in feminine form in the text of this verse to agree with the feminine man. Also found in the text are: a gjestre (to the right); a çampe (to the left). Observe the following, which includes possible variants: la man drete, la man diestre, la man gjestre (right hand); la man çampe (left hand); a drete, a diestre, a gjestre (to the right); a çampe (to the left).

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive* imperfect subjunctive
o sedi
o fos
tu sedis
tu fossis
al sedi
al fos

e sedi
e fos

o sedin
o fossin
o sedis
o fossis
a sedin
a fossin

*An alternative form exists in the present subjunctive: o sei, tu seis, al sei, e sei, o sein, o seis, a sein.

Verse 14: Ma Israel al slungjà la man gjestre (but Israel extended his right hand) e le metè sul cjâf di Efraim, che al jere il secont (and put it on Ephraim the younger one’s head [and put it on the head of Ephraim who was the second one]), e la man çampe sul cjâf di Manasse (and his left hand on Manasseh’s head), incrosant i braçs (thereby crossing his arms), cun dut che Manasse al jere il plui grant (although Manasseh was the older one).

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: benedî (to bless), il fi (son), cjaminâ (to walk), denant di (before), il pari (father), il pastôr (shepherd), nassi (to be born), fintremai cumò (hitherto), un agnul (angel), salvâ di (to redeem from), il mâl (ill), i vons (forefathers), il frut (lad), restâ (to remain), il non (name), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), la tiere (earth), intant (meanwhile), viodi (to see), meti la man (to put one’s hand), il cjâf (head), la gjestre (right hand), restâ malapaiât (to be displeased), cjapâ (to take), tirâ vie (to draw away), no cussì (not so, not like that), il prin (firstborn son), rifudâ (to refuse, to decline; also refudâ), savê (to know), deventâ (to become), il popul (people), grant (great), ma pûr (yet), il fradi (brother), il secont (second one), la gjernazie (line), la semblee (assembly), in chê dì (on that day), midiant di (by way of), compagn di (like), meti prin di (to put before), sintî che (to feel that), la ore (hour, time), tornâ a menâ (to lead back), une part di plui (one portion more), cjoli (to take), un amoreu (Amorite), la spade (sword), un arc (bow).

Verses 15-16: Alore al benedì i fîs di Josef cussì (he then blessed the sons of Joseph so): che il Diu che a àn cjaminât denant di lui i miei paris Abram e Isac (may the God before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked), che il Diu che al è stât il gno pastôr di cuant che o soi nassût fintremai cumò (may the God who has been my shepherd from when I was born hitherto), che l’agnul che mi à salvât di ogni mâl, al benedissi chescj fruts (may the angel who has redeemed me from all ill bless these lads). Che al resti in lôr il gno non e il non dai miei vons Abram e Isac (may my name and the name of my forefathers Abraham and Isaac remain in them), e che si slargjin e che si multiplichin su la tiere (and may they broaden and multiply themselves on the earth).

Verses 17-18: Intant Josef al veve viodût (meanwhile Joseph saw [had seen]) che so pari al veve metude la man gjestre sul cjâf di Efraim (that his father had put his right hand on Ephraim’s head) e al restà malapaiât (and was displeased). Al cjapà la man di so pari (he took his father’s hand) par tirâle vie dal cjâf di Efraim (to draw it away from Ephraim’s head) e metile sul cjâf di Manasse (and put it on Manasseh’s head) e Josef i disè a so pari (and Joseph said to his father): no cussì po, pai (not so, father); al è chest culì il prin; met la gjestre sul so cjâf (this one here is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head). Pai is an affectionate term of address for a father.

Verse 19: Ma so pari al rifudà e al disè (but his father refused and said): lu sai, fi gno, lu sai (I know, my son, I know [I know it, my son, I know it]): ancje lui al deventarà un popul (he too shall become a people), ancje lui al sarà grant (he too shall be great). Ma pûr so fradi, il secont, al sarà plui grant di lui (yet his younger brother [his brother, the second one] shall be greater than he), la sô gjernazie e deventarà une semblee di popui (his line shall become an assembly of peoples).

Verse 20: Israel al benedissarà midiant di vualtris disint (Israel will bless by way of you, saying): che Diu ti fasi deventâ compagn di Efraim e di Manasse (may God make you become like Ephraim and Manasseh). E cussì al metè Efraim prin di Manasse: and so he put Ephraim before Manasseh.

Verse 21: Po Israel i disè a Josef (Israel then said to Joseph): o sint ch’e je rivade la mê ore (I feel that my time has arrived*), ma Diu al sarà cun vualtris (but God will be with you) e al tornarà a menâus te tiere dai vuestris vons (and will lead you back into the land of your forefathers). *That is to say, I sense that I am about to die.

Verse 22: A ti (to you) ti darai une part di plui (I will give you one portion more) che no ai tiei fradis (than to your brethren), ce che ur ai cjolt ai amoreus (that which I took from the Amorites) cu la mê spade e cul gno arc (with my sword and with my bow).