Friulian language series: Gjenesi 48, Efraim e Manasse

In your study of the Friulian language, you have now reached chapter 48 of the book of Genesis; the subject matter of Gjenesi 48 is Efraim e Manasse (Ephraim and Manasseh).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 48

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 48. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: un fat (fact), dopo di chescj fats (after this), no jessi trop ben (to not be too well, to be ill), il sfuarç (force, effort), metisi in senton (to sit up), il jet (bed), comparî (to appear), la semblee (assembly, multitude), par simpri (forever), compagn di (just like, in the same way as), invezit (on the other hand), par cont di (on account of), la ereditât (inheritance), par viaç (on the journey), un biel toc (a good bit; to be understood here as some distance away), soterâ (to bury), su la strade di (on the way to), ven a stâi (that is to say, in other words).

You read, in verse 1, viôt che to pari nol è trop ben (see [now] that your father is not very well). Viôt is the second-person singular imperative of the verb viodi; it is used here to draw attention to what one is about to say.

In verse 2, you then read the following of Israel: cun tun grant sfuarç (with [a] great effort), si metè in senton sul jet (he sat up on the bed). You will recognise cun tun as a spelling variant of cuntun.

Take note of prime che o vignìs jù (before I came down), from verse 5. Recall that the subjunctive is used following prime che; in this case, you find the coniuntîf imperfet because it is question of past time.

o ven jù
prime che o vegni jù
I come down
before I come down

o vignii jù
prime che o vignìs jù
I came down
before I came down

There are a number of usages in verse 7 to be sure to understand. Israel says: cuant che jo o stavi tornant di Padan means when I was returning from Padan; it uses the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ followed by the present participle of tornâ to convey the ongoing nature of the action in the past. You have encountered this before, but take a few moments to review it:

o stavi tornant
al stave fevelant
a stavin spietant
I was returning
he was speaking
they were waiting

Using the present tense of stâ, you can convey the ongoing nature of the action in present time:

o stoi tornant
al sta fevelant
a stan spietant
I am returning
he is speaking
they are waiting

Still in verse 7, Israel then says: par viaç mi è muarte tô mari Rachêl (on the journey, your mother died on me). English would probably not normally express on me in a statement such as this, but this is what mi conveys in the Friulian. Israel also says: al mancjave ancjemò un biel toc prin di rivâ a Efrate (there was still a way to go before arriving at Ephrath). Un biel toc can be understood literally as a good amount, a good bit, etc. Review how the past participle in jo le ai soterade li (I buried her there) agrees in gender with the le preceding it; I buried him there would be jo lu ai soterât li.

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: ca jù (down here; that is, in Egypt), fruiâ (to wear out), par colpe di (because of, due to), la vecjae (old age; also la vecjaie), dibot nuie (almost nothing), bussâ (to kiss), strengi tai braçs (to hug; also strenzi), crodi (to believe), la muse (face), dâ la gracie di (to make the concession of), il genoli (knee; also il zenoli), gjestri (right; also dret, diestri), çamp (left), slungjâ (to extend), incrosâ (to cross), cun dut che (even though, despite the fact that).

You find a question in verse 8: cui sono chei li? (who are they?; literally, who are those [ones] there?).

In verse 9, observe menimai dongje (bring them to me); the second-person singular imperative mene becomes meni before the addition of mai, which is a contraction of mi + ju. In full, you read: menimai dongje che ju benedissi (bring them to me so that I may bless them).

In verse 11, you read: no varès mai crodût di tornâ a viodi la tô muse (I would have never believed that I would see your face again).

o ai crodût
o varès crodût
no varès crodût
no varès mai crodût
I have believed; I believed
I would have believed
I would have not believed
I would have never believed

In verse 13, you find te man gjestre (in the right hand) and te man çampe (in the left hand). The Friulian adjective for right is dret, which is also expressed as diestri or gjestri; the Friulian adjective for left is çamp. Of course, you find these adjectives in feminine form in the text to agree with the feminine noun man. You also find in the text a gjestre (to the right) and a çampe (to the left); note that these expressions use the feminine nouns la gjestre and la çampe, rather than adjectives. Of course, la gjestre can also be expressed as la drete and la diestre.

la man drete
la man diestre
la man gjestre
la man çampe

a drete
a diestre
a gjestre
a çampe

Versets 15-22

Vocabulary: il pastôr (shepherd), nassi (to be born), fintremai cumò (until now), un agnul (angel), salvâ di (to save from), il mâl (evil), i vons (forefathers), slargjâsi (to extend oneself), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself; also moltiplicâsi), restâ malapaiât (to be displeased), no cussì (not like that, not in that way), pai (father, dad), rifudâ (to refuse; also refudâ), in chê dì (on that day), sintî che (to feel that), une part di plui (one portion more), la spade (sword), un arc (bow).

Take note of the following Friulian wording in verse 15: il Diu che a àn cjaminât denant di lui i miei paris (the God before whom my fathers walked; literally, the God that my fathers walked before him).

In the notes for Gjenesi 47, you observed that the definite article il was not used before the singular pari in the possessive: gno pari, to pari, di so pari; on the other hand, you also observed that, before the plural fradis, the definite article i was used: i miei fradis, i tiei fradis, dai siei fradis. In the current verse now, you see that the definite article i, before the plural paris, is used: i miei paris; in other words, gno pari, i miei paris, i miei fradis.

In verse 19, note the use of lu sai, meaning I know (literally, I know it). In verse 21, Israel says: o sint ch’e je rivade la mê ore (I feel that my time has come); this means, of course, that he can feel death upon him. Note the use of no in verse 22: a ti (to you) ti darai une part di plui (I shall give you a portion more) che no ai tiei fradis (than to your brothers). He continues: ce che ur ai cjolt ai amoreus (that which I took from the Amorites) cu la mê spade e cul gno arc (by my sword and by my bow).