Friulian language series: Gjenesi 47, zurament di Josef

After a relatively easy read in the past two chapters, the Friulian of the forty-seventh chapter of Genesis presents more of a challenge: there is new vocabulary to be learned, as well as quite a few usages from previous chapters to be reviewed. The subjects of this chapter are: i ebreus te tiere di Ramses (Hebrews in the land of Ramses); la ministrazion di Josef (Joseph’s administration); il zurament di Josef (Joseph’s oath).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 47

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 47. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: duncje (therefore), visâ (to inform), il faraon (pharaoh), il pari (father), il fradi (brother), rivâ (to arrive), la tiere (land, earth), la mandrie (herd), la robe minude (small livestock, sheep, flocks), la robe grande (large livestock, oxen, herds), la regjon (region), cjoli (to take), cinc (five), presentâ (to present), domandâ (to ask), il mistîr (skill, trade, occupation), rispuindi (to respond), il famei (servant), il pastôr (shepherd), i vons (forefathers), il forest (foreigner, outsider), il passon (pasture), di fat (in fact), regnâ (to reign), la miserie (famine), di fâ spavent (frightful, terrible), lassâ (to allow, to permit), almancul (at least), fermâsi (to dwell).

Verse 1: Josef al lè duncje a visâ il faraon: Joseph went therefore to inform the Pharaoh. Joseph tells the Pharaoh that his father and brothers have arrived: a son rivâts de tiere di Canaan (they have arrived from the land of Canaan) cun dutis lis lôr mandriis (with all their herds), robe minude e robe grande (small and large livestock). Veju chi te regjon di Gosen: here they are in the region of Goshen.

Verse 2: Al veve cjolt cun sè cinc fradis: he took five brothers with him. Ju presentà al faraon: he presented them to the Pharaoh.

Verse 3: The Pharaoh asks the brothers: ce mistîr fasêso? (what is your occupation [what occupation (trade) do you do]?). They respond: i tiei fameis a son pastôrs (your servants are shepherds), nô e, prime di nô, i nestris vons (us and our forefathers before us).

Verse 4: The brothers continue: o sin vignûts a stâ (we have come to stay) culì te regjon (here in the region) tant che forescj (as foreigners) parcè che no ’nd è plui passon (because there is no more pasture) pes mandriis dai tiei fameis (for the herds of your servants). The lack of pasture was on account of the famine: e regne une miserie di fâ spavent (a frightful famine is raging [reigning]). You find an example of lassâ che, which you began examining in previous chapters: lasse almancul che (pray permit that [permit at least that]) i tiei fameis si fermin te regjon di Gosen (your servants dwell in the region of Goshen). Consider: i tiei fameis si fermin (your servants dwell); lasse che i tiei fameis si fermin (let your servants dwell); in the second sentence, the subjunctive is used but is not obvious because the present indicative and present subjunctive take the same form: si fermin. In the following, the use of the subjunctive becomes obvious: il to famei al dîs; lasse che il to famei al disi (your servant says; let your servant say); il frut al ven; lasse che il frut al vegni (the lad comes; let the lad come).

Versets 5-12

Vocabulary: il faraon (pharaoh), il pari (father), il fradi (brother), vignî a stâ (to come to stay), il paron espotic (lord of the land), la tiere (land, earth), sistemâ (to [cause to] settle in), la miôr tiere (the best land), la regjon (region), che anzit (and what is more), cjatâ (to find), framieç di (amongst), di mistîr (skilled, of skill), dâ in man (to hand over, to put into one’s charge), la mandrie (herd), menâ dentri (to bring in), presentâ (to present), benedî (to bless), domandâ (to ask), trop (how many), un an (year), rispuidi (to respond), tocjâ di (to come upon), torseonâ (to wander), cent e trente (one hundred and thirty), pôc (few), sfurtunât (unfortunate; also sfortunât), la etât (age), i vons (forefathers), slontanâsi di (to distance oneself from, to depart from), un toc di tiere (piece of land), la miôr regjon (the best region), ordenâ (to command), pensâ par (to take care of, to see to), la bocjade (food, bread), la famee (family), il pan (bread), daûr dal numar di (according to the number of), la persone (person, individual).

Verse 5: To pari e i tiei fradis a son vignûts a stâ cun te: your father and your brothers have come to stay with you.

Verse 6: Ti lassi paron espotic de tiere dal Egjit: I make (leave) you lord the land of Egypt. Sisteme to pari e i tiei fradis te miôr tiere: settle your father and your brothers in the best land. The Pharaoh also says: a puedin stâ te regjon di Gosen (they can stay in the region of Goshen); che anzit (and what is more), se tu cjatis framieç di lôr int di mistîr (if you find amongst them men of skill), daur in man ancje lis mês mandriis (put them in charge of my herds as well). Che anzit is used here to give emphasis to what had just been said.

Verse 7: Alore Josef al à menât dentri so pari Jacop: Joseph then brought his father Jacob in.

Verse 8: Trops agns âstu?: how old are you (how many years have you)? Pronunciation note: When trop means how many, the pronunciation of the p drops in the masculine plural trops; when trop means flock, the pronunciation of the p is maintained in the plural trops.

Verse 9: Jacob says to the Pharaoh: i agns che mi à tocjât (the years that have come upon me) di torseonâ sun cheste tiere (to wander upon this earth) a son cent e trente (are one hundred and thirty). He also says: i miei agns a son stâts pôcs e sfurtunâts (my years have been few and unfortunate) e no àn rivât a la etât dai miei vons (and they have not amounted to [reached] the age of my forefathers), ai agns dal lôr torseonâ (in the years of their wandering). Torseonâ is used here as a noun: il lôr torseonâ. The masculine plural pôcs is pronounced pôs.

Verse 10: Jacop al benedì il faraon e si slontanà di lui: Joseph blessed the Pharaoh and departed from him.

Verse 11: Ur dè un toc di tiere in Egjit: he gave them a piece of land in Egypt. Te miôr regjon, la tiere di Ramses: in the best region, the land of Ramses. Come che al veve ordenât il faraon: as the Pharaoh had commanded.

Verse 12: Josef al pensà pe bocjade di so pari (Joseph saw to the food [bread] for his father), dai siei fradis (for his brothers) e di dute la famee di so pari (and for all the family of his father), dantjur il pan (giving them bread) daûr dal numar des personis (according to the number of individuals). Be sure not to confuse daur (verse 6) and daûr (verse 12): daur means give to them; daûr means behind. Observe the use of the possessive in all the following: from verse 12, Josef al pensà pe bocjade di so pari, dai siei fradis (Joseph took care of the bread [food] for his father, for his brothers); from verse 5: to pari e i tiei fradis a son vignûts a stâ cun te (your father and your brothers have come to stay with you); from verse 1: gno pari e i miei fradis […] a son rivâts de tiere di Canaan (my father and my brothers have arrived from the land of Canaan). With the singular pari, the definite article il is not used in the possessive (gno pari, to pari, di so pari). With the plural fradis, the definite article i is used (i miei fradis, i tiei fradis, dai siei fradis); as with the singular pari, the article would drop with the singular fradi: chel al è gno fradi (he is my brother).

Versets 13-17

Vocabulary: mancjâ (to be lacking), la spese (provisions), dapardut (everywhere), la miserie (famine), masse (too, exceedingly), grant (great), la tiere (land), la fan (hunger), patî la fan (to suffer from hunger, to go hungry), tirâ dongje (to gather), i bêçs (money), cjatâ (to find), sore di (in exchange for), il forment (grain), comprâ (to buy), puartâ (to bring), il palaç (palace), il faraon (pharaoh), finî (to finish), un egjizian (Egyptian), vignî di (to come unto), dâ di mangjâ (to give [something] to eat), murî (to die), sot (beneath), il voli (eye), no vê plui une palanche (to be without money), il nemâl (animal), la mandrie (herd), menâ (to bring), al presit di (at the price of), il cjaval (horse), a robe minude (small livestock, sheep, flocks), la robe grande (large livestock, oxen, herds), il mus (ass, donkey), nudrî di (to nourish with, to feed), il pan (bread), un an (year), un arment (herd).

Verse 13: E mancjave la spese dapardut: provisions were lacking everywhere. La miserie e jere masse grande: the famine was very severe (too great). La tiere dal Egjit e la tiere di Canaan a pativin la fan: the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan suffered (were suffering) from hunger; were going hungry.

Verse 14: Josef al tirà dongje ducj i bêçs che al cjatave: Joseph gathered all the money that he could find (was finding). Bêçs is pronounced bês. Sore dal forment che a compravin: in exchange for the grain that was being bought (that they were buying). Al puartà chescj bêçs tal palaç dal faraon: he brought this money into the Pharaoh’s palace.

Verse 15: Finîts i bêçs: the money having run out (having finished); better expressed in English as: when the money ran out, when the money gave out. Ducj i egjizians a vignirin di Josef a dîi: all the Egyptians came unto Joseph to say to him. Danus di mangjâ: give us to eat. Parcè varessino di murî sot i tiei vôi?: why should we have to die before (beneath) your eyes? O varessin (we would have) is the first-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê; you find it used here as part of the expression vê di. You can understand parcè varessino di as meaning why should we have to, where varessino is in interrogative form. No vin plui une palanche: we are without money; we have no money left. In a contemporary context, no vin plui une palanche could also be rendered we are penniless.

Verse 16: Se no vês bêçs daitmi i vuestris nemâi: if you have no money, give me your animals. Jo us darai di mangjâ sore des vuestris mandriis: I shall give you to eat in exchange for your herds.

Verse 17: E cussì i menarin lis lôr mandriis: and so they brought their herds. Lui ur dè di mangjâ al presit dai cjavai: he gave them to eat after the value (at the price) of the horses. Ju nudrì di pan: he fed them bread. In chel an: in that year. Sore dai lôr arments: in exchange for their herds.

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass), un an (year), tornâ (to return), l’an dopo (the following year), jessi dibant (to be in vain), platâ (to hide), il paron (lord), finî (to finish), i bêçs (money), il nemâl (animal), cumò (now), restâ (to remain), dome (only), la vite (life), la tiere (land), murî (to die), fâ gambio (to exchange; also, fâ cambi), la robe (possessions), la bocjade (food, bread), deventâ sclâf (to become a slave), almancul (at least), la semence (seed), restâ in vite (to remain alive), no scugnî murî (to need not die), viodi (to see), il desert (desert), comprâ (to buy), vendi (to sell), il cjamp (field), la fan (hunger), passâ tes mans di (to pass into the hands of, to pass over to), rivuardâ (to regard, to concern), par chel che al rivuarde (as for, with regard to), depuartâ (to deport), la citât (city), il confin (confine, border), il predi (priest), la rendite (earnings), tirâ une rendite (to take in earnings), conventâ (to be necessary).

Verse 18: Passât chel an: that year having passed by. A tornarin l’an dopo: they returned the following year. Al è dibant platâlu al nestri paron: it is in vain to hide it from our lord. O vin finîts i bêçs: we have spent all (finished) the money. I nemâi ju à ducj il nestri paron: our lord has all our animals; following the word order of the Friulian: the animals, our lord has them all. Cumò nus reste dome la nestre vite e la nestre tiere: now we have left but our lives and our land (now remain unto us only our life and our land).

Verse 19: Fâ gambio di: to exchange; literally, to make change of. Fasìn gambio de nestre vite e de nestre robe cu la bocjade: let us exchange our lives (our life) and our possessions for bread (food). E nô, cu la nestre tiere, o deventarìn sclâfs dal faraon: and we and our land shall become slaves to the Pharaoh. Ma danus almancul la semence par podê restâ in vite: but pray give us (but give us at least) seed so as to remain alive. E [par] no scugnî murî: and so as to need not die. E [par no] viodi la nestre tiere deventade un desert: and so as not to see our land’s having become a desert.

Verse 20: Comprâ pal faraon: to buy for the Pharaoh. Ducj i egjizians a venderin i lôr cjamps: all the Egyptians sold their fields. Cun tante fan che a vevin: with such hunger as they had (were having); that is, so hungry as they were. La tiere e passà tes mans dal faraon: the land passed into the hands of the Pharaoh.

Verse 21: Par chel che al rivuarde il popul: as for the people; with regard to the people. Ju depuartà tes citâts: he removed (deported) them from the cities. Di un confin al altri dal Egjit: from one border of Egypt to the other.

Verse 22: Dome la tiere dai predis no le comprà: only the land of the priests he did not buy. I predis a tiravin une rendite dal faraon: the priests took in (were taking in) earnings from the Pharaoh. A vivevin cu la rendite: they lived (were living) off the earnings. Cussì no ur coventà di vendi la lôr tiere: they were as such not required to sell their land (thus unto them it was not necessary to sell their land).

Versets 23-26

Vocabulary: cumò (now), comprâ (to buy), il faraon (pharaoh), la robe (possessions, substance), la semence (seed), semenâ (to sow), la tiere (land), la ricolte (harvest; also la racuelte), la part (part, share), la cuinte part (one fifth), cuatri (four), restâ (to remain), mangjâ (to eat), la famee (family), la int (people), vê su pe schene (to be responsible for), rispuindi (to respond), salvâ la vite (to save one’s life), bastâ (to be sufficient), dome (only), vêi a grât a (to find favour with), il paron (lord), jessi sclâf di (to be a slave to), d’in chê volte (from then on), la leç (law), valê (to be valid), ancjemò (yet, still), in dì di vuê (today, this day), il predi (priest), meti man su (to take possession of).

Verse 23: Cumò us ai comprât pal faraon cun dute la vuestre robe: I have now bought you, along with all your substance, for the Pharaoh. Ve chi la semence par che o podês semenâ la vuestre tiere: here is seed that you may sow your land.

Verse 24: Ma però, su la ricolte, o varês di dâi al faraon la cuinte part: but from the harvest, you must give one fifth (the fifth part) to the Pharaoh. E chês altris cuatri parts: and the other four fifths (and the other four parts). Us restaran a vualtris par semenâ, par mangjâ: they shall remain yours (remain unto you) that you sow and eat. La int che o vês su pe schene: the people for whom you are responsible (whom you have upon your back); this would appear to refer to their children.

Verse 25: Tu nus âs salvade la vite: you have saved our lives (life). Nus baste dome di vêi a grât al nestri paron: we need only find favour with our lord; nus baste dome di can be understood literally as it is sufficient unto us only to. O sarìn sclâfs dal faraon: we shall be slaves to the Pharaoh.

Verse 26: D’in chê volte (from then on), Josef al fasè une leç (Joseph made a law) ch’e vâl ancjemò in dì di vuê (which is still valid today) pe tiere dal Egjit (in [for] the land of Egypt). Si à di dâi la cuinte part al faraon: one must give a fifth (the fifth part) to the Pharaoh; you will recognise here the use of vê di. Dome su la robe dai predis nol pò meti man il faraon: only of the substance of the priests can the Pharaoh not take possession; literally, only upon the substance of the priests the Pharaoh cannot lay (his) hand.

Versets 27-31

Vocabulary: sistemâsi (to settle), la tiere (land), la regjon (region), comprâ (to buy), une vore di (a great deal of), la robe (possessions, substance), cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi un disordin (to increase [multiply oneself] greatly), vivi (to live), disesiet (seventeen), un an (year), in dut (in all, altogether), cent e corantesiet (one hundred and forty-seven), rivâ (to arrive, to come), sintî (to feel), l’ore di murî (time to die), clamâ (to call, to summon), il fi (son), volê ben (to love), meti (to put, to place), la man (hand), sot di (under), la cuesse (thigh), fâ viodi (to show), il bonvolê (goodwill), la fedeltât (loyalty), soterâ (to bury), indurmidîsi (to fall asleep; figuratively, to lie in death), i vons (forefathers), puartâ vie (to take away), il tombâl (grave), rispuindi (to respond), il pari (father), insisti (to insist), zurâ (to swear), pleâsi jù (to bend down, to bow oneself), il cjaveçâl (head; of bed), il jet (bed).

Verse 27: Sistemâsi te tiere dal Egjit: to settle in Egypt. A comprarin une vore di robe: they acquired a great deal of substance. A cresserin e si multiplicarin un disordin: they grew and increased greatly; they increased and multiplied greatly.

Verse 28: Jacop al vivè disesiet agns te tiere dal Egjit: Jacob lived seventeen years in the land of Egypt. Cent e corantesiet agns: one hundred and forty-seven years.

Verse 29: Cuant che Jacop al sintì che e jere rivade l’ore di murî: when Jacob felt that his time to die had come. Se tu mi vuelis ben, met la tô man sot de mê cuesse: if you love me, put your hand under my thigh. Fasimi viodi il to bonvolê e la tô fedeltât: show me your goodwill and loyalty. No sta soterâmi in Egjit: do not bury me in Egypt.

Verse 30: Cuant che mi sarai indurmidît cui miei vons: when I lie (in death) with my forefathers; literally, when I shall have fallen asleep with my forefathers. Puartâ vie dal Egjit: to take away from Egypt. Tu mi soterarâs tal lôr tombâl: you shall bury me in their grave. O fasarai ce che tu âs dit: I shall do as you have said (that which you have said).

Verse 31: You have seen zurimal before; recall that it means swear (it) to me: the second-person singular imperative zure becomes zuri before the addition of mal, which is a contraction of mi + lu, where lu refers to what is to be sworn upon (here, that Jacob shall not be buried in Egypt). Ma so pari al insistè: zurimal: but his father insisted: swear (it) to me. After Joseph’s swears, Jacob bows himself upon the bed: alore Jacop si pleà jù (then Jacob bowed himself [down]) sul cjaveçâl dal jet (at the head of the bed).