Friulian language series: Gjenesi 47, zurament di Josef

The subjects of the forty-seventh chapter of the book of Genesis are: i ebreus te tiere di Ramses (Hebrews in the land of Ramses); la ministrazion di Josef (Joseph’s administration); il zurament di Josef (Joseph’s oath).

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: duncje (therefore), visâ (to inform), il faraon (pharaoh), il pari (father), il fradi (brother), rivâ (to arrive), la tiere (land, earth), la mandrie (herd, flock), la robe minude (small livestock, sheep, flocks), la robe grande (large livestock, oxen, herds), la regjon (region), cjoli (to take), cinc (five), presentâ (to present), domandâ (to ask), il mistîr (skill, trade), rispuindi (to respond), il famei (servant), il pastôr (shepherd), i vons (forefathers), il forest (foreigner, outsider), il passon (pasture), di fat (in fact), regnâ (to reign), la miserie (famine), di fâ spavent (frightful, terrible), lassâ (to allow, to permit), almancul (at least), fermâsi (to dwell).

Verse 1: Josef al lè duncje a visâ il faraon (so Joseph went to inform Pharaoh): gno pari e i miei fradis, dissal (my father and my brothers, he said), a son rivâts de tiere di Canaan (have come from the land of Canaan) cun dutis lis lôr mandriis (with all their stocks), robe minude e robe grande (flocks and herds); veju chi te regjon di Gosen (here they are in the region of Goshen).

Verse 2: Al veve cjolt cun sè cinc fradis (he had taken five brothers with him) e ju presentà al faraon (and presented them to Pharaoh).

Verse 3: Pharaoh asks the brothers: ce mistîr fasêso? (what is your occupation [what occupation (trade) do you do]?). They respond: i tiei fameis a son pastôrs (your servants are shepherds), nô e, prime di nô, i nestris vons (both we and our forefathers [us and before us our forefathers]).

Verse 4: The brothers continue: o sin vignûts a stâ (we have come to stay) culì te regjon (here in the region) tant che forescj (as foreigners) parcè che no ’nd è plui passon (for there is no more pasture) pes mandriis dai tiei fameis (for the flocks of your servants); te tiere di Canaan, di fat (in the land of Canaan, in fact), e regne une miserie di fâ spavent (a frightful famine is raging [reigning]). They also say: lasse almancul che (pray permit that [permit at least that]) i tiei fameis si fermin te regjon di Gosen (your servants dwell in the region of Goshen). Consider: i tiei fameis si fermin (your servants dwell); lasse che i tiei fameis si fermin (let your servants dwell); in the second example, the subjunctive is used but is not obvious because the present indicative and present subjunctive take the same form: si fermin. In the following, the use of the subjunctive becomes obvious: il to famei al dîs; lasse che il to famei al disi (your servant says; let your servant say); il frut al ven; lasse che il frut al vegni (the lad comes; let the lad come).

Versets 5-12

Vocabulary: il faraon (pharaoh), il pari (father), il fradi (brother), vignî a stâ (to come to stay), il paron espotic (lord of the land), la tiere (land), sistemâ (to {cause to} settle in), la miôr tiere (the best land), la regjon (region), che anzit (and what is more), cjatâ (to find), framieç di (amongst), di mistîr (skilled, of skill), dâ in man (to hand over, to put into one’s charge), la mandrie (herd, flock), menâ dentri (to bring in), presentâ (to present), benedî (to bless), domandâ (to ask), trop (how many), un an (year), rispuidi (to respond), tocjâi a (to fall to one’s lot), torseonâ (to wander), cent e trente (one hundred and thirty), pôc (few), sfurtunât (unfortunate; also sfortunât), la etât (age), i vons (forefathers), slontanâsi di (to distance oneself from, to depart from), un toc di tiere (piece of land), la miôr regjon (the best region), ordenâ (to command), pensâ par (to take care of, to see to), la bocjade (food, daily bread), la famee (family), il pan (bread), daûr dal numar di (according to the number of), la persone (person, individual).

Verse 5: Alore il faraon i disè a Josef (Pharaoh then said to Joseph): to pari e i tiei fradis a son vignûts a stâ cun te (your father and your brothers have come to stay with you).

Verse 6: Ti lassi paron espotic de tiere dal Egjit (I make [I leave] you lord the land of Egypt); sisteme to pari e i tiei fradis te miôr tiere (settle your father and your brothers in the best land). Pharaoh also says: a puedin stâ te regjon di Gosen (they can stay in the region of Goshen); che anzit (and what is more), se tu cjatis framieç di lôr int di mistîr (if you find amongst them men of skill), daur in man ancje lis mês mandriis (put them in charge of my stocks as well). Che anzit is used here to give emphasis to what had just been said.

Verse 7: Alore Josef al à menât dentri so pari Jacop (Joseph then brought his father Jacob in) e lu à presentât al faraon (and presented him to Pharaoh), e Jacop al benedì il faraon (and Jacob blessed Pharaoh).

Verse 8: Pharaoh asks Jacob: trops agns âstu? (how old are you [how many years have you]?). Pronunciation note: When trop means how many, the pronunciation of the p drops in the masculine plural trops; when trop means flock, the pronunciation of the p is maintained in the plural trops.

Verse 9: Jacob says to Pharaoh: i agns che mi à tocjât (the years that have fallen to my lot) di torseonâ sun cheste tiere (to wander upon this earth) a son cent e trente (are one hundred and thirty). He also says: i miei agns a son stâts pôcs e sfurtunâts (my years have been few and unfortunate) e no àn rivât a la etât dai miei vons (and have not amounted to [reached] the age of my forefathers), ai agns dal lôr torseonâ (in the years of their wandering). Torseonâ is used here as a noun: il lôr torseonâ. The masculine plural pôcs is pronounced pôs.

Verse 10: Jacop al benedì il faraon e si slontanà di lui: Joseph blessed Pharaoh and departed from him.

Verse 11: Josef al sistemà so pari e i siei fradis (Joseph settled his father and brothers) e ur dè un toc di tiere in Egjit (and gave them a piece of land in Egypt), te miôr regjon, la tiere di Ramses (in the best region, the land of Ramses), come che al veve ordenât il faraon (as Pharaoh had commanded).

Verse 12: Josef al pensà pe bocjade di so pari (Joseph saw to the sustenance of his father), dai siei fradis (of his brothers) e di dute la famee di so pari (and of all the family of his father), dantjur il pan (giving them bread) daûr dal numar des personis (according to the number of individuals). Be sure not to confuse daur (verse 6) and daûr (verse 12): daur means give to them; daûr means behind. Observe the use of the possessive in all the following: from verse 12, Josef al pensà pe bocjade di so pari, dai siei fradis; from verse 5: to pari e i tiei fradis a son vignûts a stâ cun te; from verse 1: gno pari e i miei fradis […] a son rivâts de tiere di Canaan. With the singular pari, the definite article il is not used in the possessive (gno pari, to pari, di so pari). With the plural fradis, the definite article i is used (i miei fradis, i tiei fradis, dai siei fradis); as with the singular pari, the article would drop with the singular fradi: chel al è gno fradi (he is my brother).

Versets 13-17

Vocabulary: mancjâ (to be lacking), la spese (provisions), dapardut (everywhere), la miserie (famine), masse (too, exceedingly), grant (great), la tiere (land), la fan (hunger), patî la fan (to suffer from hunger, to go hungry), tirâ dongje (to gather), i bêçs (money), cjatâ (to find), sore di (in exchange for), il forment (grain), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), puartâ (to bring), il palaç (palace), il faraon (pharaoh), finî (to finish), un egjizian (Egyptian), vignî di (to come unto), dâ di mangjâ (to give {something} to eat), murî (to die), sot (beneath), il voli (eye), no vê plui une palanche (to be without money), il nemâl (animal), la mandrie (herd, flock), menâ (to bring), al presit di (at the price of), il cjaval (horse), a robe minude (small livestock, sheep, flocks), la robe grande (large livestock, oxen, herds), il mus (ass, donkey), nudrî di (to nourish with, to feed), il pan (bread), un an (year), un arment (herd, stock).

Verse 13: E mancjave la spese dapardut (provisions were lacking everywhere), parcè che la miserie e jere masse grande (for the famine was very severe [too great]) e la tiere dal Egjit e la tiere di Canaan a pativin la fan (and the land of Egypt and the land of Canaan suffered [were suffering] from hunger).

Verse 14: Josef al tirà dongje ducj i bêçs che al cjatave (Joseph gathered all the money that he could find [was finding]) te tiere dal Egjit e te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan) sore dal forment che a compravin (in exchange for the grain that was being bought [that they were buying], e al puartà chescj bêçs tal palaç dal faraon (and he brought this money into Pharaoh’s palace). Bêçs is pronounced bês.

Verse 15: Finîts i bêçs te tiere dal Egjit e te tiere di Canaan (when the money gave out [the money finished] in the land of Egypt and in the land of Canaan), ducj i egjizians a vignirin di Josef a dîi (all the Egyptians came unto Joseph to say to him): danus di mangjâ (give us to eat). Parcè varessino di murî sot i tiei vôi?: why should we have to die before (beneath) your eyes? O varessin (we would have) is the first-person plural of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê; you find it used here as part of the expression vê di. Parcè varessino di can be understood as meaning why should we have to, where varessino is in interrogative form. No vin plui une palanche: we are without money; we have no money left. In a contemporary context, no vin plui une palanche could also be rendered we are penniless.

Verse 16: Joseph says: se no vês bêçs daitmi i vuestris nemâi (if you have no money, give me your animals) e jo us darai di mangjâ sore des vuestris mandriis (and I will give you to eat in exchange for your stocks).

Verse 17: E cussì i menarin lis lôr mandriis (and so they brought their stocks) e lui ur dè di mangjâ (and he gave them to eat) al presit dai cjavai, de robe minude e de robe grande e dai mus (after the value [at the price] of the horses, flocks, herds and asses); ju nudrì di pan (he fed them bread), in chel an (in that year), sore dai lôr arments (in exchange for their stocks).

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass), un an (year), tornâ (to return), l’an dopo (the following year), jessi dibant (to be in vain), platâ (to hide), il paron (lord), finî (to finish), i bêçs (money), il nemâl (animal), cumò (now), restâ (to remain), dome (only), la vite (life), la tiere (land), murî (to die), fâ gambio (to exchange; also fâ cambi), la robe (possessions), la bocjade (food, bread), deventâ sclâf (to become a slave), almancul (at least), la semence (seed), restâ in vite (to remain alive), no scugnî murî (to need not die), viodi (to see), il desert (desert), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), vendi (to sell), il cjamp (field), la fan (hunger), passâ tes mans di (to pass into the hands of, to pass over to), rivuardâ (to regard, to concern), par chel che al rivuarde (as for, with regard to), depuartâ (to displace, to move), la citât (city), il confin (confine, border), il predi (priest), la rendite (earnings), tirâ une rendite (to take in earnings), conventâ (to be necessary).

Verse 18: Passât chel an (that year having passed by), a tornarin l’an dopo e i diserin (they returned the following year and said to him): al è dibant platâlu al nestri paron (in vain should we hide it from our lord [it is in vain to hide it from our lord]): o vin finîts i bêçs (we have used up all the money [we have finished the money]) e i nemâi ju à ducj il nestri paron (and our lord has all our animals). Cumò nus reste dome la nestre vite e la nestre tiere: now we have left but our lives and our land (now remain unto us only our life and our land).

Verse 19: Parcè varessino di murî sot i tiei vôi, nô e la nestre tiere?: why should we have to die before (beneath) your eyes, both we and our land? Fâ gambio di: to exchange; literally, to make change of. Fasìn gambio de nestre vite e de nestre robe cu la bocjade (let us exchange our lives [our life] and our possessions for sustenance) e nô, cu la nestre tiere, o deventarìn sclâfs dal faraon (and we with our land will become slaves to Pharaoh). Ma danus almancul la semence par podê restâ in vite (but pray give us [but give us at least] seed that we may remain alive) e no scugnî murî e viodi la nestre tiere deventade un desert (and need not die or see our land’s having become a desert).

Verse 20: Alore Josef al comprà pal faraon (so Joseph acquired for Pharaoh) dute la tiere dal Egjit (all the land of Egypt), parcè che ducj i egjizians a venderin i lôr cjamps (for all the Egyptians sold their fields) cun tante fan che a vevin (hungry as they were [with so much hunger that they were having]), e la tiere e passà tes mans dal faraon (and the land passed into the hands of Pharaoh).

Verse 21: Par chel che al rivuarde il popul (as for the people; with regard to the people), ju depuartà tes citâts (he transplanted them into the cities), di un confin al altri dal Egjit (from one border of Egypt to the other).

Verse 22: Dome la tiere dai predis no le comprà (only the land of the priests did he not acquire), parcè che i predis a tiravin une rendite dal faraon (for the priests took in [were taking in] earnings from Pharaoh) e a vivevin cu la rendite (and lived [were living] off the earnings) che a tiravin dal faraon (that they took in [were taking in] from Pharaoh). Cussì no ur coventà di vendi la lôr tiere: so they were not required to sell their land (thus it was not necessary unto them to sell their land).

Versets 23-26

Vocabulary: cumò (now), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il faraon (pharaoh), la robe (possessions, substance), la semence (seed), semenâ (to sow), la tiere (land), la ricolte (harvest; also la racuelte), la part (part, share), la cuinte part (one fifth), cuatri (four), restâ (to remain), mangjâ (to eat), la famee (family), la int (people), la schene (back; of human body), vê su pe schene (to be responsible for), rispuindi (to respond), salvâ la vite (to save one’s life), bastâ (to be sufficient), dome (only), vêi a grât a (to find favour with), il paron (lord), jessi sclâf di (to be a slave to), d’in chê volte (from then on), la leç (law), valê (to be valid), ancjemò (yet, still), in dì di vuê (today, this day), il predi (priest), meti man su (to take possession of).

Verse 23: To the people, Joseph says: cumò us ai comprât pal faraon cun dute la vuestre robe (I have now acquired you, along with all your substance, for Pharaoh). Ve chi la semence par che o podês semenâ la vuestre tiere: here is seed that you may sow your land.

Verse 24: Ma però, su la ricolte, o varês di dâi al faraon la cuinte part (but from the harvest, you must give one fifth [will have to give the fifth part] to Pharaoh) e chês altris cuatri parts (and the other four fifths [and the other four parts]) us restaran a vualtris par semenâ (shall remain yours [shall remain unto you] that you may sow), par mangjâ vualtris, la vuestre famee e dute la int che o vês su pe schene (and that you, your family and all the people for whom you are responsible [whom you have upon your back] may eat).

Verse 25: The people say: tu nus âs salvade la vite (you have saved our lives [life]. Nus baste dome di vêi a grât al nestri paron (we need only find favour with our lord) e o sarìn sclâfs dal faraon (and we will be slaves to Pharaoh).

Verse 26: D’in chê volte (from then on), Josef al fasè une leç (Joseph made a law) ch’e vâl ancjemò in dì di vuê (which is still valid today) pe tiere dal Egjit (in [for] the land of Egypt): si à di dâi la cuinte part al faraon (one must give a fifth [the fifth part] to Pharaoh. Dome su la robe dai predis nol pò meti man il faraon: only of the substance of the priests may Pharaoh not take possession (only upon the substance of the priests may the pharaoh not lay his hand).

Versets 27-31

Vocabulary: sistemâsi (to settle), la tiere (land), la regjon (region), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), une vore di (a great deal of), la robe (possessions, substance), cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi un disordin (to increase [multiply oneself] greatly), vivi (to live), disesiet (seventeen), un an (year), in dut (in all, altogether), cent e corantesiet (one hundred and forty-seven), rivâ (to arrive, to come), sintî (to feel), l’ore di murî (time to die), clamâ (to call, to summon), il fi (son), volê ben (to love), meti (to put, to place), la man (hand), sot di (under), la cuesse (thigh), fâ viodi (to show), il bonvolê (goodwill), la fedeltât (loyalty), soterâ (to bury), indurmidîsi (to fall asleep), i vons (forefathers), puartâ vie (to take away, to carry away), il tombâl (grave), rispuindi (to respond), il pari (father), insisti (to insist), zurâ (to swear), pleâsi jù (to bend down, to bow oneself), il cjaveçâl (head; of bed), il jet (bed).

Verse 27: E cussì Israel si sistemà te tiere dal Egjit, te regjon di Gosen: and so Israel settled in the land of Egypt, in the region of Goshen. A comprarin une vore di robe (they acquired a great deal of substance), a cresserin e si multiplicarin un disordin (grew and increased greatly; increased and multiplied greatly).

Verse 28: Jacop al vivè disesiet agns te tiere dal Egjit (Jacob lived seventeen years in the land of Egypt) e, in dut, Jacop al à vivût cent e corantesiet agns (and, in all, Jacob lived one hundred and forty-seven years).

Verse 29: Cuant che Jacop al sintì che e jere rivade l’ore di murî (when Jacob felt that his time to die had come), al clamà so fi Josef e i disè (he summoned his son Joseph and said to him): se tu mi vuelis ben, met la tô man sot de mê cuesse (if you love me, put your hand under my thigh), fasimi viodi il to bonvolê e la tô fedeltât (show me [make me see] your goodwill and loyalty): no sta soterâmi in Egjit (do not bury me in Egypt).

Verse 30: Cuant che mi sarai indurmidît cui miei vons (when I take my last sleep with my forefathers [when I will have fallen asleep with my forefathers]), tu mi puartarâs vie dal Egjit (you shall carry me away from Egypt) e tu mi soterarâs tal lôr tombâl (and shall bury me in their grave). Joseph responds: o fasarai ce che tu âs dit (I will do as you have said [that which you have said]).

Verse 31: Zurimal: literally, swear it to me: the second-person singular imperative zure becomes zuri before the addition of mal, which is a contraction of mi + lu, where lu refers to what is to be sworn upon (here, that Jacob is not to be buried in Egypt). Ma so pari al insistè: zurimal (but his father insisted: swear to me [swear it to me]) e lui al zurà (and he swore); alore Jacop si pleà jù (Jacob then bowed [bowed himself down]) sul cjaveçâl dal jet (at the head of the bed).