Friulian language series: Gjenesi 42, Josef e i siei fradis

The forty-second chapter of the the book of Genesis tells of Joseph and his brethren: Josef e i siei fradis.

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: sintî (to hear), (to say), il forment (grain), vendi (to sell), stâ (to stand), cjalâ (to look), un cul altri ({to, at, with…} one another), contâ (to recount), lâ jù (to go down), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), volê (to want), restâ (to remain), la vite (life), murî (to die), la fan (hunger; also fam), dîs (ten), (to go), il fradi (brother), lassâ (to let), partî (to depart), altri (other), sucedi (to befall), dutun cun (along with), la int (people), la miserie (famine), regnâ (to reign), la tiere (land).

Verse 1: Jacop, sintint a dî (Jacob, upon hearing it said) che in Egjit a vevin forment di vendi (that grain was being sold in Egypt [that in Egypt they were having grain to sell]), ur disè ai siei fîs (said to his sons): parcè po staiso culì a cjalâsi un cul altri? (why then do you {just} stand there [here] looking at one another?). Staiso is the interrogative form of o stais (second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb stâ).

Verse 2: Mi àn contât, dissal (it has been recounted [they have recounted] to me, he said), che in Egjit al è forment di vendi (that there is grain for sale in Egypt). Lait jù a comprânt un pôc (go down and buy some [go down and buy a little thereof]), se o volês restâ in vite e no murî di fan (if you want to remain in life and not die of hunger). The nt ending of comprânt means thereof, of it.

Verse 3: Alore i dîs fradis di Josef a lerin a forment in Egjit: so Joseph’s ten brethren went to {procure} grain in Egypt.

Verse 4: Beniamin, fradi di Josef, Jacop no lu lassà partî cun chei altris (Jacob did not let Joseph’s brother Benjamin depart with those others): no volarès, dissal (I would not want, he said), che i sucedès alc (that something should befall him).

Verse 5: I fîs di Israel a lerin jù a comprâ forment (the sons of Israel went down to buy grain) dutun cun chê altre int (along with those other people), parcè che la miserie e regnave in dute la tiere di Canaan (for the famine was reigning in all the land of Canaan).

Versets 6-17

Vocabulary: il sorestant (chief), la regjon (region), vendi (to sell), il forment (grain), la int (people), rivâ (to arrive), il fradi (brother), butâsi (to cast oneself), la tiere (ground), la muse (face), devant di (before), a pene che (so soon as), viodi (to see), ricognossi (to recognise), sul at (at once), fâ fente (to pretend), il forest (foreigner), tratâ (to treat), la malegracie (harshness), domandâ (to ask), dontri (whence), vignî (to come), rispuindi (to respond), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), alc (something), mangjâ (to eat), no… gran (not in the least), impensâsi di (to remember), il sium (dream), il cont (account, regard), il spion (spy), chenti (here), dome (only, but), il puest (place), scuviert (uncovered, unprotected), protestâ (to protest), il siôr (lord), il famei (servant), la spese (provisions), il fi (son), stes (same), un om (man), sclet (sincere, frank), lafè no (not in the least), vêr (true), mancul (least), difindût (defended, protected), dodis (twelve), ultin (last, final), restâ (to remain, to stay), il pari (father), no… plui (no more), la prove (trial, test, proof), il faraon (pharaoh), vîf (living), lâ vie (to go away), fintremai che (until), vignî jù (to come down), piçul (little), mandâ (to send), cirî (to seek), il presonîr (prisoner), provâ (to test, to put to trial, to put to the proof), la peraule (word), la veretât (truth), senò (otherwise), la preson (prison), trê dîs (three), il dì (day).

Verse 6: Josef, che al jere sorestant de regjon (Joseph, who was chief of the region), al jere lui che al vendeve il forment a dute la int (it was he who sold [was selling] grain to all the people); for clarity: it was Joseph, chief of the region, who sold grain to all the people. A rivarin i fradis di Josef (Joseph’s brethren arrived) e si butarin cu la muse par tiere devant di lui (and cast themselves with their face to the ground before him).

Verse 7: A pene che Josef al viodè i siei fradis (so soon as Joseph saw his brethren), ju ricognossè sul at (he recognised them at once), ma al fasè fente di jessi un forest par lôr (but pretended to be a foreigner to them) e ju tratà cun malegracie (and treated them with harshness). Joseph asks hs brethren: dontri vignîso vualtris? (whence do you come?). They say: de tiere di Canaan (from the land of Canaan), par comprâ alc di mangjâ (to buy something to eat).

Verse 8: E cussì Josef al ricognossè i siei fradis (and so Joseph recognised his brethren) ma lôr no lu ricognosserin gran (but they did not recognise him in the least; but they did not recognise him at all).

Verse 9: Josef si impensà dai siums che al veve fats (Joseph remembered the dreams that he had had) sul lôr cont (about them; regarding them) e ur disè (and he said to them): vualtris o sês spions (you are spies). O sês vignûts chenti dome par viodi là che a son i puescj plui scuvierts de tiere: you have come here only to see where the most unprotected places of the land are. Scuviert translates literally as uncovered and is the opposite of cuviert, meaning covered; it is to be understood in this context as meaning unprotected, open, weak.

Verse 10: Lôr a protestarin (they protested): siôr no (no, my lord). I tiei fameis a son vignûts a comprâ spese: your servants have come to acquire provisions.

Verse 11: O sin ducj fîs dal stes om e o sin int sclete: we are all sons by the same man (of the same man), and we are sincere people. I tiei fameis no son lafè no spions: your servants are not spies in the least.

Verse 12: Joseph says: no je vere (that is not true). O sês vignûts a viodi là che a son i puescj mancul difindûts de regjon: you have come to see where the least defended places of the region are. No je vere: note the use of the feminine.

Verse 13: The brethren respond: i tiei fameis a jerin dodis fradis (your servants numbered [your servants were] twelve brethren); nô o sin ducj fîs dal stes om, de tiere di Canaan (we are all sons by the same man [of the same man], from the land of Canaan). L’ultin al è restât cun nestri pari e un no lu vin plui: the youngest one (the last one) stayed behind with our father, and one is no more (and one we have no more).

Verse 14: Joseph says: e je come che o dîs jo (it is as I say): o sês spions (you are spies). E je come che []: note the use of the feminine.

Verse 15: Ve la prove che us fasarai fâ (this is the proof to which I will put you [this is the proof which unto you I will make you do]): come che al è vêr che il faraon al è vîf* (as it is true that Pharaoh is living), no larês vie di chi (you shall not go away hence) fintremai che nol sarà vignût jù ancje vuestri fradi il plui piçul (until your youngest [littlest] brother has also come down [will have also come down]). *This is an Egyptian oath by which one swore on the king’s life: as sure as Pharaoh is living (to exact punishment).

Verse 16: Mandait un di vualtris a cirî vuestri fradi (send one of you to seek your brother); chei altris a restaran presonîrs (those others shall remain imprisoned [prisoners]). Cussì si podarà provâ lis vuestris peraulis (thus shall your words be put to the proof) e si viodarà se o vês dite la veretât o no (and it shall be seen whether or not have told the truth). Senò, come che al è vêr che il faraon al è vîf, o sês spions: otherwise, as it is true that Pharaoh is living, you are spies.

Verse 17: E ju metè in preson par trê dîs: and he put them in prison for three days.

Versets 18-28

Vocabulary: il tierç (third), il dì (day), salf (safe, spared), la vite (life), la teme (fear), la teme (fear), la veretât (truth), il fradi (brother), restâ (to remain, to stay), culì (here), la preson (prison), puartâ (to bear), il forment (grain), la famee (family), spietâ (to await), puartâ indaûr (to bear back), piçul (little), la conferme (confirmation), murî (to die), un cul altri (to {at, with…} one another), sigûr (certain), paiâ (to pay), la part (part), viodi (to see), la passion (yearning), preâ (to plead, to entreat), scoltâ (to heed), par chel (therefore), rivâ (to arrive), la volte (time, turn), patî (to suffer), rispuindi (to respond), pûr (even), il frut (lad), volê (to want), il cont (account, reckoning), il sanc (blood), savê (to know), capî (to understand), un interprit (interpreter), slontanâsi (to part), tacâ (to start), vaî (to weep), tornâ (to return, to come/go back), fevelâ (to speak), cjoli (to take), incjadenâ (to chain), sot di (under), il voli (eye), un ordin (order), jemplâ (to fill), il sac (sack), tornâ a meti (to restore), i bêçs (money), la spese (provisions), il viaç (journey), cjamâ (to load), il mus (ass, donkey), lâsint (to leave), campâsi (to encamp), la gnot (night), viergi (to open; also vierzi), la grampe (handful), parsore vie (over above), un ôr (edge), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), sintîsi (to feel), mancjâ (to lack), cjalâ (to look), spaventât (frightened).

Verses 18-19: La tierce dì Josef ur disè (on the third day Joseph said to them): ve ce che o vês di fâ (this is what you are to do) se o volês vê salve la vite (if you want to have your life spared), parcè che jo o ai teme di Diu (for I have the fear of God): se o vês dite la veretât (if you have told the truth), un di vualtris fradis che al resti culì in preson (let one of you brethren remain here in prison) e chei altris o podês lâ a puartâur il forment a lis vuestris fameis (and those others may go and bear grain to your families) che a spietin (who await).

Verse 20: Mi puartarês indaûr il vuestri fradi plui piçul (you shall bear back your youngest [littlest] brother to me); cussì o varai la conferme di ce che o vês dit (thus shall I have the confirmation of that which you have said) e no us fasarai murî (and I will not make you die). E a faserin propit cussì: and they did just so.

Verse 21: Si diserin un cul altri (they said to one another): sigûr che (it is certain that) cumò o paìn la part che i vin fate al nestri fradi (now we are paying for the part which we did to our brother): o vin viodude la sô passion (we saw his yearning) cuant che nus preave di lassâlu lâ (when was pleading with us to let him go) e nô no lu vin scoltât (and we heeded him not). Par chel cumò nus è rivade la volte di patî: therefore our turn to suffer has now arrived. O paìn is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb paiâ.

Verse 22: Reuben says: us vevi pûr dit di no fâ chel tant cuintri dal frut (I had even told you to do not such thing against the lad). Ma no vês volût scoltâmi (but you refused [did not want] to heed me) e cumò viodêso che nus ven domandât cont dal so sanc? (and now do you see that unto us it comes asked to account for his blood?).

Verse 23: Lôr no savevin che Josef al capive dut (they did not know [were not knowing] that Joseph understood [was understanding] all), parcè che fra lui e lôr al jere l’interprit (for the interpreter was between him and them).

Verse 24: Alore si slontanà di lôr e al tacà a vaî: so he parted from them and started to weep. Po al tornà e ur fevelà (then he came back and spoke to them); al cjolè, fra di lôr, Simeon (from amongst them, he took Simeon), e lu fasè incjadenâ sot dai lôr vôi (and had him chained under their eyes).

Verse 25: Josef al dè ordin di jemplâ di forment i lôr sacs (Joseph gave order to fill their sacks with grain) e di tornâi a meti i bêçs a ognidun tal so sac (and restore each one’s money to his sack) e di dâur la spese pal viaç (and give them provisions for the journey). E si fasè cussì: and so it was done.

Verse 26: A cjamarin il forment sui lôr mus e si ’nt lerin: they loaded the grain on their asses and left.

Verse 27: Ma cuant che un di lôr (but when one of them), là che si jerin campâts pe gnot (there where they had encamped for the night), al viergè il sac di forment (opened his sack of grain) par dâi une grampe al mus (to give a handful to his ass), al viodè che i siei bêçs a jerin parsore vie (he saw that his money was over above) sul ôr dal sac (at the mouth [edge] of the sack).

Verse 28: To his brethren he says: mi àn tornât indaûr i bêçs (my money has been turned back [they have turned back my money]); ve chi che a son tal gno sac (here it is* in my sack). *Literally, here they are, given that the Friulian for money is a plural noun: i bêçs. Alore si sintirin a mancjâ la vite (then they felt their hearts sink [then they felt life lacking unto them]); si cjalarin un cul altri ducj spaventâts (looked at one another all frightened) e a diserin (and said): ce nus aial fat mo Diu? (what ever has God done to us?).

Versets 29-34

Vocabulary: tornâ (to return), il pari (father), la tiere (land), contâ (to recount), sucedi (to befall), un om (man), il paron espotic (absolute lord), la regjon (region), fevelâ (to speak), la malegracie (harshness), cjapâ par (to take for, to mistake for), il spion (spy), la int (people), libar (frank, sincere), dodis (twelve), il fradi (brother), il fi (son), stes (same), no… plui (no more), piçul (little), restâ (to remain, to stay), comandâ (to command), rispuindi (to respond), stâ pôc a fâ (to be about to do), sancirâsi (to ascertain), la veretât (truth), lassâ (to leave), chi (here), cjoli (to take), il forment (grain), coventâ (to be necessary), la cjase (house), lâsint (to leave), vê di (must, to have to), menâ jù (to lead down), savê (to know), sclet (frank, sincere), tornâ (to return), podê (may, can, to be able), girâ (to move about), lunc (long), larc (broad).

Verse 29: Tornâts di lôr pari Jacop, te tiere di Canaan (having returned to their father in the land of Canaan), i contarin dut ce che ur jere sucedût (they recounted to him all that which had befallen them).

Verse 30: L’om che al è paron espotic de regjon (the man who is absolute lord of the region), i diserin (they said to him), nus à fevelât cun malegracie e nus à cjapâts par spions (spoke to us with harshness and took us for spies).

Verses 31-32: Nô i vin dit (we said to him): o sin int libare e no spions (we are sincere people, and not spies); o jerin in dodis fradis (we numbered [we were in] twelve brethen), fîs dal stes pari (sons by the same father [of the same father]); un nol è plui (one is no more) e il plui piçul al è restât cun nestri pari in Canaan (and the youngest one [littlest one] stayed behind with our father in Canaan).

Verses 33-34: Ma chel om, che al comande sun dute la regjon (but that man who commands over [upon] all the region), nus à rispuindût (responded to us): o stoi pôc a sancirâmi (I am about to ascertain) se o disês la veretât o no (if you are telling the truth or not): lassait chi cun me un di vualtris fradis (leave one of your brethren here with me [leave here with me one of you brethren]), cjolêt il forment che us covente pes vuestris cjasis (take whatever grain is needed for your households [take the grain that unto you is necessary for your houses]) e laitsint (and leave); però o vês di menâmi jù il vuestri fradi plui piçul (but you are to lead down to me your youngest [littlest] brother) e cussì o savarai che no sês spions ma int sclete (and thus shall I know that you are not spies but sincere people). Alore jo us tornarai vuestri fradi (I will then restore your brother to you) e o podarês girâ la regjon in lunc e in larc (and you shall be able to move about the region in length and breadth [in long and broad]). Three second-person plural imperatives appear: lassait (leave); cjolêt (take); laitsint (leave). With regard to lâsint, consider the following: vatint (second-person singular; = va + ti + int); laitsint (second-person plural; = lait + si + int).

Versets 35-38

Vocabulary: disvuedâ (to empty), il sac (sack), ognidun (each one), la borse (bag), i bêçs (money), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), il pari (father), puartâ vie (to bear away), il frut (lad), no… plui (no more), volê (to want, to mean), cjoli (to take), plombâ (to plummet down), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), (to give), il dirit (right), copâ (to kill), puartâ indaûr (to bear back), rispuidi (to respond), il fradi (brother), muart (dead), restâ (to remain, to be left), dome (only, but), sucedi (to come to pass), il viaç (journey), stâ par fâ (to be about to do), (to go), i cjavei (hair), blanc (white), il mont (world), il mâr (sea), la disperazion (despair, sorrow).

Verse 35: Cuant che a disvueidarin i lôr sacs (when they emptied their sacks), ognidun al veve tal so sac la borse dai bêçs (in each one’s sack was his money-bag [each was having in his sack the bag of money]) e cuant che a vioderin la borse dai bêçs a cjaparin pôre (and when they saw their money-bags [the bag of money], they took fear), lôr e lôr pari (they and their father).

Verse 36: Jacob says to them: mi puartais vie i miei fruts (you are bearing away from me my lads): Josef nol è plui (Joseph is no more), Simeon nol è plui (Simeon is no more) e vualtris o volês cjolimi ancje Beniamin (and you mean to take Benjamin from me also). Dut chest mi plombe intor a mi: all this befalls [plummets down about] me.

Verse 37: Reuben says to his father: se jo no tal torni a menâ dongje (if I do not lead him back alongside you), ti doi dirit di copâ i miei doi fruts (I give you the right to kill my two lads). Damal a mi e jo tal tornarai a puartâ indaûr: give him to me, and I will bear him back to you. Tal = ti + lu. Damal = da + mi + lu.

Verse 38: Ma chel altri i rispuindè (but he [that other] responded): il gno frut nol vignarà cun vualtris (my lad shall not come with you): so fradi al è muart (his brother is dead) e mi è restât dome lui (and he alone is left to me). Se al ves di sucedi alc pal viaç che o stais par fâ (should something come to pass on the journey that you are about to make), o fasaressis lâ i miei cjavei blancs in chel altri mont (you would make my white hair go into that other world) in tun mâr di disperazion (in a sea of despair).