Friulian language series: Gjenesi 38, Gjude e Tamar

The thirty-eighth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: la storie di Gjude e di Tamar (the story of Judah and Tamar).

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Read Gjenesi 38

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Versets 1-11

Vocabulary: tal fratimp (in the meantime), capitâ (to occur, to happen), dividisi di (to separate oneself from), il fradi (brother), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent), ripet di (opposite, across from), un om (man), vê non (to be named), viodi (to see), la fie (daughter), un cananeu (Canaanite), sposâ (to marry), lâ cun (to lie with), cjapâ sù (to take up), parturî (to bear), il frut (boy, child), meti (to put, to place), il non (name), indaûr (again), un altri (another), il canai (boy, child), tornâ a fâ (to do again), ancjemò (yet, again, another), jessi a stâ (to dwell), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), il prin fi (firstborn son), no podê viodi (to be unable to withstand), masse (excessively, too), trist (wicked, wretched), fâ murî (to kill), il dovê (duty, obligation), il cugnât (brother-in-law), la gjernazie (offspring), savê (to know), dispierdi (to waste, to squander), par tiere (on the ground), la robe (thing, matter), displasê un grum (to displease greatly), la brût (daughter-in-law), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la vedue (widow), intant che (whilst), cressi (to grow), pensâ (to think), volê (to want), murî (to die), chi (here), compagn di (just as, like).

Verse 1: Tal fratimp (in the meantime) al capità che Gjude si dividè dai fradis (it came to pass that Judah separated from his brothers) e al plantà la sô tende ripet di un om di Adulam (and pitched his tent across from a man from Adullam), che al veve non Chire (named Hirah [who was having {the} name Hirah]).

Verse 2: Li Gjude al viodè la fie di un cananeu che al veve non Sue (there, Judah saw the daughter of a Canaanite named Shua [who was having {the} name Shua]), le sposà e al lè cun jê (he married her and lay with [went with] her). Sue (Shua) is not the name of Judah’s wife, but of her father; the use of the masculine al in the Friulian makes this apparent: Gjude al viodè la fie di un cananeu che al veve non Sue.

Verse 3: Jê e cjapà sù e e parturì un frut che i metè non Er: she conceived (took up) and bore a son (boy) whom she named Er (to whom she put {the} name Er).

Verse 4: E cjapà sù indaûr e e parturì un altri canai che i metè non Onan: she conceived (took up) again and bore another son (boy) whom she named Onan (to whom she put {the} name Onan).

Verse 5: E tornà a parturî ancjemò un frut che i metè non Sele (she bore yet another son [boy]) whom she named Shelah [to whom she put {the} name Shelah]); cuant che lu parturì e jere a stâ a Chesib (she was dwelling in Chezib when she bore him).

Verse 6: Gjude al cjolè une femine pal so prin fi Er (Judah took a wife for his firstborn son); e veve non Tamar (her name was Tamar [she was having {the} name Tamar]).

Verse 7: Ma il Signôr nol podeve viodi Er (but the Lord could not withstand Er), il prin fi di Gjude (Judah’s firstborn son), parcè che al jere masse trist (for he was much too wicked), e lu fasè murî (and he killed him [made him die]). The Friulian adjective trist means wicked, wretched; it is related to a noun already encountered in your readings: la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity). If you are familiar with other Romance languages, take care not to interpret the Friulian trist as meaning sad. A few Friulian words for sad include: avilît, jù, grot. For instance, al jere grot pe muart di un amì means he was sad over the death of a friend.

Verse 8: Alore Gjude i disè a Onan (Judah then said to Onan): va cu la femine di to fradi (lie with [go with] your brother’s wife), fâs cun jê il to dovê di cugnât (carry out [do] with her your duty as brother-in-law [your duty of brother-in-law]) e dài une gjernazie a to fradi (and give offspring to your brother; and give your brother a lineage).

Verse 9: Onan al saveve che la gjernazie no jere sô (Onan knew that the offspring would not be his [was not his]) e, ogni volte che al leve cu la femine di so fradi (and every time that he lay [was going] with his brother’s wife), al dispierdeve par tiere (he would squander [was squandering] on the ground) par no dâi une gjernazie a so fradi (so as not to give offspring to his brother; so as not to give his brother a lineage).

Verse 10: Cheste robe i displasè un grum al Signôr (the thing [this thing; this matter] greatly displeased the Lord), che lu fasè murî ancje lui (who killed [made die] that one also).

Verse 11: Alore Gjude i disè a sô brût Tamar (Judah then said to his daughter-in-law Tamar): torne a cjase di to pari (go back to your father’s house), vedue come che tu sês (widow as you are), intant che al cres gno fi Sele (whilst my son Shelah grows up). Parcè che al pensave (for he thought [was thinking]): no vuei che mi mueri ancje chel chi (I do not want also this one to die on me [I do not want that also this one here should die on me]) compagn dai siei fradis (like his brothers). E cussì Tamar e tornà in cjase di so pari: and so Tamar returned to her father’s house. Al mueri is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of murî. Consider: al mûr (he dies); no vuei che al mueri (I do not want him to die [I do not want that he should die]); no vuei che mi mueri (I do not want him to die on me [I do not want that he should die on me]).

Versets 12-23

Vocabulary: il pieç (piece, bit), murî (to die), la fie (daughter), la femine (wife, woman), puartâ il corot (to observe mourning), tosâ (to shear), la piore (sheep), la gnove (piece of news), il missêr (father-in-law), butâ di bande (to cast aside), la bande (side), la munture (garments; also monture), la vedue (widow), cuviergisi (to cover oneself; also cuvierzisi), il vêl (veil), invuluçâsi (to wrap oneself up; also involuçâsi), sentâsi (to sit down), la jentrade (entrance, way in), dongje di (by, alongside), la strade (way, road), savê benon che (to know full well that), jessi om fat (to be a fully grown man), cjoli (to take), viodi (to see), cjapâ par (to take for, to consider), la sdrondine (whore), taponâ (to cover), la muse (face), lâ dongje (to draw near), vignî cun (to lie with), la brût (daughter-in-law), domandâ (to ask), trop (how much), (to give), rispuindi (to respond), mandâ (to send), il cjavret (kid, goatling), il trop (flock), vê di (must, to have to), il pen (pledge; also pegn), fin che (until), volê (to want), il sigjil (signet, seal), il cordon (cord), il baston (staff, rod), la man (hand), consegnâ (to consign, to put into one’s care), cjapâ sù (to take up), lâsint (to leave, to head off), gjavâ (to remove), midiant di (by way of, through), un amì (friend), vê indaûr (to get back, to recuperate), cjatâ (to find), la int (people), il paîs (village), culì (here), no jessi siôr di (to be unable to), che anzit (and what is more), la pelande (whore), tignîsi (to keep for oneself), senò (otherwise), ridi (to laugh).

Verse 12: Un biel pieç dopo (a long time afterwards) e murì la fie di Sue, la femine di Gjude (Shua’s daughter, the wife of Judah, died). Finît di puartâ il corot (having finished observing his mourning), Gjude al lè sù a Timne a tosâ lis pioris (Judah went up to Timnah to shear the sheep), lui e Chire, il so amì di Adulam (along with his friend Hirah [he and his friend Hirah] from Adullam).

Verse 13: I puartarin la gnove a Tamar: they brought the news to Tamar. Viôt, i diserin (see, they said), che to missêr al va sù a Timne a tosâ lis pioris (that your father-in-law is coming [going] up to Timnah to shear the sheep).

Verse 14: Alore jê e butà di bande la munture di vedue (so she cast aside her widow’s garments), si cuviergè cuntun vêl (covered herself with a veil), s’invuluçà (wrapped herself up) e si sentà dongje de jentrade di Enaim (and sat down by the entrance to Enaim), che al è su la strade di Timne (which is on the road to Timnah). E saveve benon (she knew [was knowing] full well) che Sele al jere om fat (that Shelah was a fully grown man [mature (made) man]) e no jal vevin fat cjoli (and she had not been made to take him [and they had not made her take him]). Om fat: fat is the past participle of the verb fâ; fat (made, done) can be taken here in the sense of mature. No jal vevin fat cjoli: jal is a contraction of i + lu (unto her + him): no (not) jal (unto her + him) vevin fat (they had made) cjoli (to take): they had not made unto her to take him (that is, she had not been made to take him); this Friulian wording is perhaps somewhat surprising in that one might have instead expected to find: no je vevin fat cjoli (he had not been made to take her), where je is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her).

Verse 15: Gjude le viodè e le cjapà par une sdrondine (Judah saw her and took her for a whore), parcè che e veve taponade la muse (for she had covered her face).

Verse 16: Al lè dongje di jê e i disè (he went up to her and said to her): lassimi vignî cun te (let me lie with you [let me come unto you (with you)]). Nol saveve però ch’e jere sô brût: but he did not know (was not knowing) that she was his daughter-in-law. Jê i domandà (she asked him): trop mi dastu par vignî cun me? (how much will you give me [how much do you give me] to lie with me [to come unto me (with me)]?).

Verse 17: Judah says to her: ti mandarai un cjavret dal gno trop (I will send you a kid from my flock). She responds: tu âs di dâmi un pen (you must give me a pledge) fin che no tu mal âs mandât (until you have sent it to me).

Verse 18: Judah asks: e ce pen vûstu vê? (and what pledge would you have [and what pledge do you want to have]?). She says: il to sigjil, il to cordon e il baston che tu âs te man (your signet, your cord and the staff that you have in your hand). Lui i consegnà dut (he handed over [consigned] to her all these things) e al lè cun jê (and lay [went] with her), che e cjapà sù di lui (and she conceived by him [took up from him]).

Verse 19: Po si ’nt lè (then she left), e gjavà il vêl (took off her veil) e e tornà a meti la munture di vedue (and put her widow’s garments back on).

Verse 20: Gjude al mandà il cjavret midiant dal so ami di Adulam (Judah sent the kid by way of his friend from Adullam), ancje par vê indaûr i pens (that he might also redeem the pledges [have again the pledges]) che la femine e veve tes sôs mans (that the woman had in her possession [was having in her hands]), ma no le cjatà (but he could not find her [but he did not find her]).

Verse 21: Al domandà a la int dal paîs (he asked the villagers [people of the village]): là ese chê sdrondine ch’e jere a Enaim (where is that whore who was at Enaim), su la strade? (by the road [on the road]?). They respond: no vin mai vudis sdrondinis culì di nô (we have never had whores here in our midst).

Verse 22: Alore al tornà di Gjude e i disè (so he returned to Judah and said to him): no soi stât siôr di cjatâle (I was unable to find her), che anzit (and what is more) la int dal paîs (the villagers [the people of the village]) mi àn dit che lôr no àn mai vudis pelandis (told me that they have never had whores {there}).

Verse 23: Judah says: che si tegni dut (let her keep it all for herself), senò nus ridin ancje sore (otherwise we will be ridiculed for it [otherwise they will even laugh at us over it]); jo però il cjavret i al ai mandât (I did, however, send the kid to her), ancje se tu no tu le âs cjatade (even if you could not find her [even if you have not found her]). I al ai mandât: i al is a variant spelling of jal (unto her + it). Consider: e ten; ch’e tegni (she keeps; let her keep); si ten; che si tegni (she keeps for herself; let her keep for herself). Review word order: tu tu âs cjatât; tu âs cjatât (you have found); tu no tu âs cjatât; no tu âs cjatât (you have not found); tu tu le âs cjatade; tu le âs cjatade (you have found her); tu no tu le âs cjatade; no tu le âs cjatade (you have not found her).

Versets 24-30

Vocabulary: trê (three), il mês (month), dopo (afterwards, later), puartâ (to bring, to take), la gnove (piece of news), la brût (daughter-in-law), fâ la sdrondine (to play the whore), jessi in stâts (to be pregnant), lassâsi doprâ (to let oneself be used), menâ fûr (to bring forth), brusâ (to burn), vîf (alive), biel che (as, whilst), menâ (to bring, to conduct), mandâ a dî (to send word), il missêr (father-in-law), cjapâ sù (to take up), un om (man), la robe (thing, matter), viodi (to see), di cui (whose, of whom), il sigjil (signet, seal), il cordon (cord), il baston (staff. rod), ricognossi (to recognise), plui (more), onest (honest), (to give), il fi (son), d’in chê volte (from that time on), lâ cun (to lie with), spirât (ended, expired, run out), il timp (time), sucedi (to happen, to occur), doi (two), il gimul (twin; also zimul), intant di (during), il part (delivery, childbirth), meti fûr (to put out, to stick out), la manute (little hand), la comari (midwife), cjapâ (to take {take hold}), il fîl (thread), ros (red), ros vîf (bright red), saltâ fûr (to come out), par prin (first {of all}), tirâ dentri (to pull in), viergi (to open; also vierzi), il sbrec (breach) meti (to put, to place), il non (name), la man (hand).

Verse 24: Un trê mês dopo (some three months later), i puartarin a Gjude cheste gnove (this news was brought to Judah [they brought this piece of news to Judah]): Tamar, tô brût, e à fat la sdrondine (your daughter-in-law Tamar has played the whore) e cumò e je in stâts (and she is now with child) parcè che si à lassade doprâ (for she allowed herself to be used). Judah says: menaitle fûr e brusaitle vive (bring her forth and burn her alive). Un trê mês dopo: some three months later; about three months later; other examples of this use of un already encountered in previous notes include: un cuindis agns dopo (some fifteen years later); un dîs dîs (some ten days).

Verse 25: Ma biel che le menavin a brusâ (but as she was being led out to be burnt [but as they were bringing her {out} to burn {her}]), jê i mandà a dîi a so missêr (she sent word to her father-in-law): jo o ai cjapât sù di chel om (I have conceived by this man [I have taken up from that man]) che cheste robe e je sô (and these things are his [whose things these are]). Viôt, disè, di cui che al è chest sigjil, chest cordon e chest baston: see, she said, to whom this signet, cord and staff belong (of whom are this signet, this cord and this staff). Disè (she said) is the feminine equivalent of dissal (he said).

Verse 26: Gjude ju ricognossè e al disè (Judah recognised them and said): jê e je plui oneste di me (she is more honest than I am), che no i ai dât gno fi Sele (for I did not give my son Shelah to her). E d’in chê volte nol lè plui cun jê: and he thereafter lay with her (went with her) no more.

Verse 27: Spirât il timp (when the time {of her labour} had come [the time {of her childbearing} having ended]), al sucêt ch’e veve doi gimui (it so happened that [it happens that] she had twins [was having two twins]). Al sucêt is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb sucedi.

Verse 28: Intant dal part (during the delivery), un al metè fûr la manute (one put out his little hand) e la comari le cjapà (and the midwife took hold of it) e i metè un fîl ros vîf (and tied a bright thread to it [and unto it put a bright red thread]), disint (saying): al è saltàt fûr lui par prin (it is he who came out first). The Friulian for hand is the feminine man; when talking about the hand of a baby or child, the feminine manute (little hand) is often used instead.

Verse 29: Ma chel al tirà dentri la manute (but he [that one] pulled in his little hand) e al saltà fûr so fradi (and his brother came out). The midwife says: cemût âstu fat a viergiti un sbrec? (how were you able to open a breach for yourself [how have you done to open yourself a breach]?). E i metè non Perez: and she named him Perez (and unto him she put {the} name Perez).

Verse 30: Po al saltà fûr so fradi (then his brother came out), che al veve il fîl ros te man (upon whose hand was the red thread [who was having the red thread on (in) his hand]), e i meterin non Zerac (and he was named Zerah [and unto him they put {the} name Zerah]).