Friulian language series: Gjenesi 37, Josef e i siei siums

From the headings of the thirty-seventh chapter of the book of Genesis: la storie di Josef (the story of Joseph); Josef e i siei siums (Joseph and his dreams).

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: stabilîsi (to settle), la tiere (land), il pari (father), la storie (story), la gjernazie (line), disesiet (seventeen), un an (year), passonâ (to pasture), la robe (matter), minût (little), il fradi (brother), dutun cun (along with), ancjemò (yet), il zovenut (lad), il fi (son), vivi (to live), la femine (wife), contâ (to recount), il mâl (ill), ator di (about, round), volê ben (to love), altri (other), in là (beyond), la tonie (tunic), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), viodi (to see), cjapâ (to take), la asse (hatred), jessi bon di (to be capable of), il rusin (rust).

Verse 1: Jacop si stabilì te tiere che al veve stât so pari (Jacob settled in the land where his father had dwelt), te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan).

Verse 2: Cheste e je la storie de gjernazie di Jacop: this is the story of the line of Jacob. Josef al veve disesiet agns: Joseph was seventeen years old (had seventeen years). Al passonave la robe minude dutun cui siei fradis: he used to pasture the little livestock [matter] along with his brethren. Al jere ancjemò zovenut (he was yet a lad) e al viveve cui fîs di Bile e cui fis di Zilpe (and was living with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah), feminis di so pari (his father’s wives), e Josef i contà a so pari (and Joseph recounted to his father) dut il mâl che a disevin ator di lôr (all the ill which was said [which they would say] about them).

Verse 3: Jacop i voleve plui ben a Josef (Jacob loved [was loving] Joseph more) che no a ducj chei altris fîs (than all those other sons), parcè che lu veve vût (for he had begotten him) cuant che al jere in là cui agns (when he was advanced in years), e i veve fate une tonie cu lis maniis lungjis (and he made a tunic for him with long sleeves). The preposition a is used with volê ben; for instance, ti vuei ben means I love you; i vuei ben means I love him; and i vuei ben a Josef means I love Joseph. Using the imperfet indicatîf: ti volevi ben (I loved [was loving] you; I used to love you); i volevi ben (I loved [was loving] him; I used to love him); i volevi ben a Josef (I loved [was loving] Joseph; I used to love Joseph). The imperfect indicative of volê is presented below.

Verb: VOLÊ
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o volevi
volevio?
tu
tu volevis
volevistu?
lui
al voleve
volevial?

e voleve
volevie?

o volevin
volevino?
vualtris
o volevis
voleviso?
lôr
a volevin
volevino?

Verse 4: Cuant che i siei fradis a vioderin (when his brethren saw) che so pari i voleve plui ben a lui (that his father loved [was loving] him more) che no a ducj chei altris fîs (than all those other sons), lu cjaparin in asse (they took him into hatred) e no jerin bogns di fevelâi cence rusin (and were unable to speak to him without rancour [without rust]). The masculine rusin (rust) is used here in the figurative sense of rancour, vitriol.

Versets 5-11

Vocabulary: fâ un sium (to have a dream), contâ (to recount), il fradi (brother), cjapâ (to take), la asse (hatred), ancjemò plui (yet more), sintî (to hear), parê (to appear), il cjamp (field), leâ (to tie, to bind), il balçûl (sheaf, bundle), dreçâsi (to stand upright), sù impilât (stacked up, heaped up), torator di (round about), pleâsi (to bow down, to bend over), fin par tiere (down to the ground), devant di; denant di (before), rispuindi (to respond), sicheduncje (therefore, so), volê dî (to will say), regnâ (to rule), parsore di (over), o ben (or), il paron (master), odeâ (to hate), par vie di (on account of), indaûr (again), un altri (another), tornâ a fâ (to do again, to make again), il soreli (sun), la lune (moon), undis (eleven), la stele (star), il pari (father), cridâ (to reprimand, to scold), biel (fine), sichè (therefore, so), la mari (mother), vignî (to come), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), la gjelosie (jealousy, envy; also zelosie), rumiâ (to ruminate), la robe (matter), dentrivie (within oneself; also dentri vie).

Verse 5: Josef al fasè un sium (Joseph had a dream) e ur al contà ai siei fradis (and recounted it to his brethren), che lu cjaparin ancjemò plui in asse (who took him into hatred yet more). Ur alur + lu (unto them + it). Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verses 6-7: Joseph says to his brethren: sintît ce sium che o ai fat (hear this dream [what dream] that I have had): mi pareve che (I dreamt that [it was appearing to me that]) nô o jerin tal cjamp (we were in the field) a leâ balçûi (binding sheaves) e ve che il gno balçûl si dreçà (and so it was that my sheaf stood upright) e al stave sù impilât (and remained stacked up) e i vuestris balçûi a jerin torator di lui (and your sheaves stood round about [were round about it]) e si pleavin fin par tiere devant dal gno balçûl (and were bowing down to the ground before my sheaf).

Verse 8: His brethren say: sicheduncje tu volaressis dî (therefore you would say) che tu regnarâs parsore di nô (that you will rule over us) o ben che tu sarâs il nestri paron? (or that you will be our master?), e lu odearin ancjemò di plui (and they hated him yet more) par vie dai siei siums (on account of his dreams) e di ce che al veve contât (and that which he had recounted). Tu volaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of volê. The present conditional of volê is presented below:

Verb: VOLÊ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o volarès
volaressio?
tu
tu volaressis
volaressistu?
lui
al volarès
volaressial?

e volarès
volaressie?

o volaressin
volaressino?
vualtris
o volaressis
volaressiso?
lôr
a volaressin
volaressino?

Verse 9: Al fasè indaûr un altri sium (he had yet another dream) e ur al contà ai siei fradis (and recounted it to his brethren): o ai tornât a fâ un sium (I have had another dream): mi pareve che (I dreamt that [it was appearing to me that]) il soreli, la lune e undis stelis (the sun, the moon and eleven stars) si pleassin fin par tiere devant di me (were bowing down to the ground before me). Si pleassin: third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet.

Verse 10: I contà il sium a so pari e ai siei fradis (he recounted the dream to his father and brethren), ma so pari i cridà e i disè (but his father reprimanded him and said): biei siums che tu fasis (what fine dreams you have). Sichè jo, tô mari e i tiei fradis (so I, your mother and your brethren) o varessin di vignî a butâsi in genoglon denant di te? (ought to come before you and cast ourselves on our knees?).

Verse 11: I siei fradis a vevin gjelosie di lui (his brethren envied him [were having jealousy of him]), ma so pari al rumiave la robe dentrivie (but his father revolved the matter in his mind [was ruminating on the matter within himself]).

Versets 12-22

Vocabulary: il fradi (brother), lâ a passonâ (to go out to pasture), la robe (matter), minût (little), il pari (father), il passon (pasture), passâ chi (to pass hither), mandâ (to send), rispuindi (to respond), pront (ready), va mo (go then, off you go), viodi (to see), cemût (how), il besteam (livestock), tornâ (to return, to come/go back), savê a dî (to bring word, to let know), alc (something), la valade (valley), rivâ (to arrive), un om (man), incuintrâ (to meet, to come across), lâ ca e là (to wander), la campagne (open country), domandâ (to ask), cirî (to seek), par plasê (please), là che (where), gjavâ (to withdraw), la tende (tent), sintî (to hear), anìn (let us go), partî (to depart), cjatâ (to find), di lontan (from afar), prime che (before, prior to), rivâ dongje (to arrive alongside), complotâ (to plot, to conspire), fâ murî (to kill), dîsi un cul altri (to say to one another), velu (here he is), il sium (dream), dai, anìn (come on then, off we go), copâ (to kill), butâ (to cast), cualchi (some, any), il poç (well), fâ fûr (to kill), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), zovâ (to be of benefit), volê (to want), salvâ (to save), la sgrife (claw, clutch), spandi (to shed), il sanc (blood), il desert (desert), meti (to put), la man (hand), intor (round, about), cussì (thus, so), tornâ a puartâ (to bear back).

Verse 12: I siei fradis a lerin a passonâ la robe minude di lôr pari a Sichem: his brethren went to pasture their father’s little livestock [matter] at Shechem.

Verse 13: Israel says to Joseph: i tiei fradis no sono lâts a passon a Sichem? (have your brethren not gone to pasture at Shechem?); passe chi, che ti mandi di lôr (pass hither, and I will send you to them [I send you to them]). Joseph says: o soi pront (I am ready). No sono lâts?: because the auxiliary used is jessi, the past participle is made to agree in number and gender (here, masculine plural) with its subject. Study the following: a son lâts; sono lâts? (they have gone; have they gone?); no son lâts; no sono lâts? (they have not gone; have they not gone?).

Verse 14: Israel: va mo viôt cemût che a stan i tiei fradis e il besteam (go then to see how your brethren and the livestock are), e torne a savêmi a dî alc (and come back and bring me word). Lu mandà te* valade di Ebron e Josef al rivà a Sichem: he sent him into the valley of Hebron, and Joseph arrived at Shechem. *It seems to me that this should instead read fûr de, as in lu mandà fûr de valade di Ebron (he sent him forth from the valley of Hebron).

Verse 15: Un om lu incuintrà che al leve ca e là pe campagne (a man came across him wandering in the open country) e i domandà (and asked him): ce ciristu? (what seek you?). In un om lu incuintrà che al leve ca e là, both lu and che refer back to Joseph; it was Joseph whom the man had come across, and it was Joseph who was wandering.

Verse 16: Joseph says: o cîr i miei fradis (I seek my brethren); disimi, par plasê, là che a son lâts a passon (tell me, please, where they have gone to pasture). The present indicative of cirî is presented below.

Verb: CIRÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o cîr
cirio?
tu
tu ciris
ciristu?
lui
al cîr
cirial?

e cîr
cirie?

o cirìn
cirìno?
vualtris
o cirîs
cirîso?
lôr
a cirin
cirino?

Verse 17: The man says: e àn gjavadis lis tendis di chi (they withdrew their tents from here) e ju ai sintûts che a disevin (and I heard them saying): anìn a Dotan (let us go to Dothan). Josef al partì a cirî i siei fradis e ju cjatà a Dotan: Joseph departed to seek his brethren and found them at Dothan. E àn gjavadis lis tendis: in standardised Friulian, this is expressed as a àn gjavadis lis tendis. Ju ai sintûts che a disevin: the past participle has been made to agree in gender and number with the direct object preceding it, which is the masculine plural ju; the structure of this sentence, in its use of che, is similar to the one found in verse 15: un om lu incuintrà che al leve ca e là.

Verse 18: Lu vioderin di lontan e, prime che al rivàs dongje (they saw him from afar, and before he arrived alongside), a complotarin di fâlu murî (they conspired to kill him).

Verse 19: Si diserin un cul altri (they said to one another): velu che al rive chel dai siums (here arrives the one with the dreams [the one of the dreams]).

Verse 20: Dai, anin (come on then), copìnlu e butìnlu in cualchi poç (let us kill him and cast him in a well). O disarìn che lu à fat fûr une bestie salvadie: we will say that a wild beast has killed him. Viodìn ce che i zovaran i siei siums: let us see of what benefit to him are his dreams.

Verse 21: Ma Ruben ju sintì (but Reuben heard them) e al voleve salvâlu des lôr sgrifis (and tried [was trying (wanting)] to save him from their clutches). Dissal (he said): no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him).

Verse 22: Reuben continues: no stait a spandi il so sanc (do not shed his blood). Butaitlu in tun poç dal desert ma no stait a metii lis mans intor: cast him in a well in [of] the desert, but put not your hands about him. Al diseve cussì par salvâlu des lôr sgrifis (thus said he [thus was he saying], that he might save him from their clutches) e tornâlu a puartâ a so pari (and bear him back to his father). Observe the following: meti lis mans intor (to put one’s hands about); metii lis mans intor (to put one’s hands about him).

Versets 23-27

Vocabulary: rivâ (to arrive), là che (where), il fradi (brother), gjavâ (to withdraw), la tonie (tunic), vê intor (to have about one, to be wearing), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), brincâ (to apprehend), butâ (to cast), il poç (well), vueit (empty), cence (without), la aghe (water), sentâsi (to sit down), mangjâ un spêl (to eat a little, to have something to eat), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), la carovane (caravan), un ismaelit (Ishmaelite), il camêl (camel), cjamâ (to load), la gome adragant (tragacanth gum), il balsim (balsam), il laudìn (laudanum), puartâ (to bear), vendi (to sell), (to say), tornâ cont (to be worthwhile), copâ (to kill), cuviergi (to cover {up}; also cuvierzi), cussì (thus, so), il sanc (blood), meti (to put), la man (hand), parmìs (about), simpri (ever), stes (same), la cjar (flesh), scoltâ (to heed).

Verse 23: Cuant che Josef al rivà là che a jerin i siei fradis (when Joseph arrived where his brethren were), lôr i gjavarin la tonie (they withdrew his tunic from him), chê tonie cu lis maniis lungjis che al veve intor (that tunic with the long sleeves which he had on [which he had about]).

Verse 24: Lu brincarin (they apprehended him) e lu butarin intun poç (and cast him in the well); al jere un poç vueit, cence aghe (it was an empty well, without water).

Verse 25: Po si sentarin a mangjâ un spel: then they sat down to have something to eat. Alçant i vôi (lifting their eyes), a vioderin une carovane di ismaelits (they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites) che a rivavin di Galaad (which was arriving from Gilead). I lôr camêi a jerin cjamâts di gome adragant, di balsim e di laudìn (their camels were loaded with tragacanth gum, balsam and laudanum) che a puartavin a vendi in Egjit (which they were bearing to sell in Egypt).

Verse 26: Dissal alore Gjude ai siei fradis (Judah then said to his brethren): nus tornial cont (is it worthwhile to us) a copâ nestri fradi (to kill our brother) e a cuviergi il so sanc? (and to cover up his blood?).

Verse 27: Fasìn cussì (let us do thus): vendìnlu ai ismaelits (let us sell him to the Ishmaelites) ma no stin a metii lis mans parmìs (but let us not put our hands about him); al è simpri nestri fradi (he is ever our brother), de nestre stesse cjar (of our same flesh). E i siei fradis lu scoltarin: and his brethren heeded him.

Versets 28-36

Vocabulary: in chel (meanwhile), passâ (to pass {by}), un om (man), il marcjedant (merchant), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), il poç (well), vincj (twenty), il siclo (shekel), d’arint (of silver), vendi (to sell), un ismaelit (Ishmaelite), menâ (to lead), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), no… altri (no more), sbregâ (to tear, to rend), i vistîts (clothes), il fradi (brother), il frut (lad), no… plui (no more), là dentri (inside, within), cumò (now), cjoli (to take), la tonie (tunic), taiâ (to cut), il sgrasalâr (throat, gullet), il bec (he-goat), meti in muel (to souse), il sanc (blood), mandâ (to send), il pari (father), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), mandâ a dî (to send word), la peraule (word), cjalâ (to look), cjatâ (to find), viodi (to see), se par câs (if by chance), il fi (son), fâ fûr (to kill), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), propit (without doubt, assuredly), slambrâ (to rip apart, to rend to pieces), il sac (sack), tor di (round about), i ombui (loins), puartâ corot (to bear mourning), une vorone (very much, a great deal), a lunc (at length), la fie (daughter), vignî (to come), la fuarce (might), no volê savênt di (to want no part of, to refuse), il confuart (comfort), lâ cul corot (to go in mourning), altri (other), il mont (world), dongje di (alongside), vaî (to bewail), intant (meanwhile), il madianit (Midianite), vendi (to send), il cjastrât (eunuch), il faraon (pharaoh), il sorestant (chief), la vuaite (watchman).

Verse 28: In chel a passarin oms di Madian, marcjedants (meanwhile men from Midian passed by; they were merchants). A tirarin fûr Josef dal poç (they drew forth Joseph from the well) e par vincj siclos d’arint (and for twenty shekels of silver) a venderin Josef ai ismaelits (sold Joseph to the Ishmaelites), che lu menarin in Egjit (who led him into Egypt).

Verses 29-30: Cuant che Ruben al tornà li dal poç (when Reuben went back to the well), Josef nol jere altri (Joseph was there no more). Alore al sbregà i siei vistîts (so he rent his clothes) e tornant dai fradis (and returning to his brethren) ur disè (said to them): il frut nol è plui là dentri (the lad is not there anymore [the lad is within {the well} no more]). Ce fasio jo cumò?: what am I to do now (what do I do now)?

Verse 31: Alore a cjolerin la tonie di Josef (they then took Joseph’s tunic), i taiarin il sgrasalâr a di un bec (cut the throat of a he-goat) e a meterin la tonie in muel tal sanc (and soused the tunic in its blood).

Verse 32: Po i mandarin a lôr pari la tonie cu lis maniis lungjis (then they had the long-sleeved tunic brought to their father [then they sent to their father the tunic with the long sleeves]) e i mandarin a dî chestis peraulis (and sent word to him [sent to say these words to him]): cjale ce che o vin cjatât (look what we have found); viôt se par câs no fos la tonie di to fi (see whether or not it is your son’s tunic [see if by chance it were not your son’s tunic]).

Verse 33: Jacob examines the tunic and says: e je la tonie di gno fi (it is my son’s tunic); lu à fat fûr une bestie salvadie (a wild beast has killed him). Josef al è stât propit slambrât: Joseph has been doubtless rent to pieces.

Verse 34: Jacop al sbregà i siei vistîts (Jacob rent his clothes), al metè un sac tor dai ombui (put a sackcloth [sack] round his loins) e al puartà corot par so fi (and bore mourning for his son) une vorone a lunc (a long time indeed [very much at length]).

Verse 35: Ducj i siei fîs e lis sôs fiis a vignirin a dâi fuarce (all his sons and daughters came to console him [give might to him]), ma lui nol voleve savênt di nissun confuart (but he refused to be comforted [but he refused (was not wanting) to know of any comfort]) e al diseve (and said [was saying]): no, o vuei lâ cul corot (no, I will [want to] go in mourning) in chel altri mont (to that other world) dongje di gno fi (alongside my son). E so pari lu vaì: and his father bewailed him.

Verse 36: Intant i madianits lu vevin vendût in Egjit a Putifar (meanwhile the Midianites had sold him in Egypt to Potiphar), un cjastrât dal faraon (a eunuch of Pharaoh) e sorestant des vuaitis (and chief of the watchmen).