Friulian language series: Gjenesi 37, Josef e i siei siums

From the headings of the thirty-seventh chapter of the book of Genesis: la storie di Josef (the story of Joseph); Josef e i siei siums (Joseph and his dreams).

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: stabilîsi (to establish oneself), la tiere (land), stâ (to dwell), il pari (father), la storie (story), la gjernazie (line), disesiet (seventeen), un an (year), passonâ (to pasture), la robe (matter), minût (little), dutun cun (together with), il fradi (brother), ancjemò (yet), zovenut (youthful), vivi (to live), il fi (son), la femine (wife), contâ (to recount), il mâl (ill), (to say), ator di (about), volê ben (to love), plui (more), altri (other), in là (beyond), la tonie (tunic), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), viodi (to see), cjapâ (to take), la asse (hatred), jessi bon di (to be capable of), fevelâ (to speak), cence (without), il rusin (rust).

Verse 1: Jacop si stabilì (Jacob established himself) te tiere che al veve stât so pari (in the land where his father had dwelt), te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan).

Verse 2: Cheste e je la storie de gjernazie di Jacop: this is the story of the line of Jacob. Josef al veve disesiet agns: Joseph was seventeen years old [Joseph had seventeen years]. Al passonave la robe minude (he was pasturing the *little matter*) dutun cui siei fradis (together with his brethren). Al jere ancjemò zovenut (he was yet youthful) e al viveve cui fîs di Bile e cui fîs di Zilpe, feminis di so pari (and would live with the sons of Bilhah and with the sons of Zilpah, wives of his father), e Josef i contà a so pari (and Joseph recounted to his father) dut il mâl che a disevin ator di lôr (all the ill which would be said [which they would say] about them). — *beasts of the flock

Verse 3: Jacop i voleve plui ben a* Josef (Jacob would love Joseph more) che no a ducj chei altris fîs (than all those other sons), parcè che lu veve vût (for he had begotten him) cuant che al jere in là cui agns (when he was beyond with years), e i veve fate une tonie cu lis maniis lungjis (and he had made for him a tunic with long sleeves). — *The preposition a is employed with volê ben; for instance, ti vuei ben means I love you; i vuei ben means I love him; and i vuei ben a Josef means I love Joseph. Using the imperfet indicatîf: ti volevi ben (I used to love you; I would love you); i volevi ben (I used to love him; I would love him); i volevi ben a Josef (I used to love Joseph; I would love Joseph). The use of would in the last three examples is not the would of the conditional; it is that of past habituality. The imperfect indicative of volê is presented below.

Verb: VOLÊ
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o volevi
volevio?
tu
tu volevis
volevistu?
lui
al voleve
volevial?

e voleve
volevie?

o volevin
volevino?
vualtris
o volevis
voleviso?
lôr
a volevin
volevino?

Verse 4: Cuant che i siei fradis a vioderin (when his brethren saw) che so pari i voleve plui ben a lui (that his father would love him more) che no a ducj chei altris fîs (than all those other sons), lu cjaparin in asse (they took him into hatred) e no jerin bogns di fevelâi cence rusin (and were not capable of speaking to him without bitterness [rust*]). — *figurative usage; of rusin, an example of its literal use: il rusin al mangje il fier (rust eats iron).

Versets 5-11

Vocabulary: il sium (dream), contâ (to recount), il fradi (brother), cjapâ (to take), ancjemô plui (yet more), la asse (hatred), (to say), sintî (to hear), parê (to seem), il cjamp (field), leâ (to bind), il balçûl (sheaf), dreçâsi (to stand upright), stâ (to dwell), sù impilât (stacked up), torator di (round about), pleâsi (to bow oneself down), fin par tiere ({down} to the ground), devant di (before), rispuindi (to respond), sicheduncje (therefore), volê dî (to mean), regnâ (to reign), parsore di (over), o ben (or), il paron (ruler), odeâ (to hate), par vie di (on account of), indaûr (again), altri (other), tornâ a fâ (to make again), il soreli (sun), la lune (moon), undis (eleven), la stele (star), il pari (father), cridâ (to reproach), biel (fine), sichè (so), la mari (mother), vê di (to have to), vignî (to come), butâsi in genoglon (to cast oneself on one’s knees), denant di (before), la gjelosie (jealousy), rumiâ (to ruminate), la robe (matter), dentri vie (within).

Verse 5: Josef al fasè un sium (Joseph had [Joseph made] a dream) e *ur al* contà ai siei fradis (and recounted it to his brethren), che lu cjaparin ancjemò plui in asse (who took him yet more into hatred). — *Ur al = ur + lu (unto them + it). Review the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in orange come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verses 6-7: Ur disè (he said to them): sintît ce sium che o ai fat (hear such dream which I have had [have made]): mi pareve (it would seem to me) che nô o jerin tal cjamp a leâ balçûi (that we were in the field binding sheaves) e ve che il gno balçûl si dreçà (and so it was that my sheaf stood upright) e al stave sù impilât (and would dwell stacked up) e i vuestris balçûi a jerin torator di lui (and your sheaves were round about it) e si pleavin fin par tiere (and would bow themselves down to the ground) devant dal gno balçûl (before my sheaf).

Verse 8: I rispuinderin i siei fradis (his brethren responded to him): sicheduncje tu volaressis* dî che tu regnarâs parsore di nô (therefore you would mean that you will reign over us) o ben che tu sarâs il nestri paron? (or that you will be our ruler?); e lu odearin ancjemò di plui (and they hated him yet more) par vie dai siei siums (on account of his dreams) e di ce che al veve contât (and of that which he had recounted). — *Tu volaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of volê. Presented below is the present conditional of volê. Moreover, volê dî takes the sense of to mean.

Verb: VOLÊ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o volarès
volaressio?
tu
tu volaressis
volaressistu?
lui
al volarès
volaressial?

e volarès
volaressie?

o volaressin
volaressino?
vualtris
o volaressis
volaressiso?
lôr
a volaressin
volaressino?

Verse 9: Al fasè indaûr un altri sium (he had [he made] again another dream) e ur al contà ai siei fradis (and recounted it to his brethren): o ai tornât a fâ un sium (I have again had [again made] a dream): mi pareve che il soreli, la lune e undis stelis (it would seem to me that the sun, the moon and eleven stars) si pleassin fin par tiere devant di me (bowed themselves down to the ground before me).

Verse 10: I contà il sium a so pari e ai siei fradis (he recounted the dream to his father and his brethren), ma so pari i cridà e i disè (but his father reproached him and said to him): biei siums che tu fasis (fine dreams which you have [which you make]). Sichè jo, tô mari e i tiei fradis (so I, your mother and your brethren) o varessin di vignî a butâsi in genoglon denant di te? (ought to come to cast ourselves on our knees before you?).

Verse 11: I siei fradis a vevin gjelosie di lui (his brethren had jealousy of him), ma so pari al rumiave la robe dentri vie (but his father would ruminate the matter within).

Versets 12-22

Vocabulary: il fradi (brother), (to go), passonâ (to pasture), la robe (matter), minût (little), il pari (father), (to say, to tell), il passon (pasture), passâ chi (to pass hither), mandâ (to send), rispuindi (to respond), pront (ready), va mo (go then), viodi (to see), cemût (how), il besteam (cattle), tornâ (to return), savêi a dî alc a (to bring word to), la valade (valley), rivâ (to arrive), un om (man), incuintrâ (to meet), lâ ca e là (to go hither and thither), la campagne (open country), domandâ (to ask), cirî (to seek), par plasê (pray), gjavâ (to withdraw), la tende (tent), sintî (to hear), anìn (let us go), partî (to depart), cjatâ (to find), di lontan (from afar), prime che (before), rivâ dongje (to arrive alongside), complotâ (to complot), fâ murî (to make die), dîsi un cul altri (to say to one another), velu (here he is), il sium (dream), dai (come), copâ (to kill), butâ (to cast), cualchi (some), il poç (well), fâ fûr (to do away with), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), zovâ (to be of advantage), volê (to will), salvâ (to save), lis sgrifis (clutches), spandi (to shed), il sanc (blood), il desert (desert), meti (to put), la man (hand), intor (about), cussì (so), tornâ a puartâ (to bear back).

Verse 12: I siei fradis a lerin (his brethren went) a passonâ la robe minude di lôr pari a Sichem (to pasture the little matter of their father at Shechem).

Verse 13: Israel i disè a Josef (Israel said to Joseph): i tiei fradis *no sono lâts* a passon a Sichem? (have your brethren not gone to pasture at Shechem?). Passe chi (pass hither), che ti mandi di lôr (that I may send you to them). I rispuindè (he responded): o soi pront (I am ready). — *For the auxiliary employed is jessi, the past participle is then made to agree in number and gender with its subject (masculine plural). Consider the following: al è lât; isal lât? (he has gone; has he gone?); a son lâts; sono lâts? (they have gone; have they gone?); no son lâts; no sono lâts? (they have not gone; have they not gone?).

Verse 14: I disè (he said to him): va mo viôt cemût che a stan i tiei fradis e il besteam (go then see how your brethren and the cattle are), e torne a savêmi a dî alc (and return to bring word to me). Lu mandà *fûr de* valade di Ebron (he sent him forth from the valley of Hebron) e Josef al rivà a Sichem (and Joseph arrived at Shechem). — *In point of fact, the Friulian text reads te here, not fûr de, as in: lu mandà te valade di Ebron (he sent him into the valley of Hebron), but this cannot be correct, as the valley of Hebron was the residence of Jacob (see Gjenesi 35:27), wherefore Joseph could have only been sent forth therefrom. (For comparison, see the Polish Rdz 37:14, where it is worded correctly.) I have therefore modified the text above, by changing te to fûr de.

Verse 15: Un om lu incuintrà che al leve ca e là pe campagne (a man met him going hither and thither through the open country) e i domandà (and asked him): ce ciristu? (what seek you?).

Verse 16: I rispuindè (he responded to him): o cîr i miei fradis (I seek my brethren). Disimi, par plasê (pray tell me), là che a son lâts a passon (whither they have gone to pasture).

Verb: CIRÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o cîr
cirio?
tu
tu ciris
ciristu?
lui
al cîr
cirial?

e cîr
cirie?

o cirìn
cirìno?
vualtris
o cirîs
cirîso?
lôr
a cirin
cirino?

Verse 17: Dissal l’om (the man said): e àn gjavadis lis tendis di chi (they have withdrawn the tents hence) e ju ai sintûts che a disevin (and I heard them who were saying): anìn a Dotan (let us go to Dothan). Josef al partì a cirî i siei fradis (Joseph departed to seek his brethren) e ju cjatà a Dotan (and found them at Dothan).

Verse 18: Lu vioderin di lontan e (they saw him from afar and), prime che al rivàs dongje (before he arrived alongside), a complotarin di fâlu murî (they complotted to make him die).

Verse 19: Si diserin un cul altri (they said to one another): velu che al rive (here he is who is arriving) chel dai siums (that one of the dreams).

Verse 20: Dai (come), anìn (let us go), copìnlu e butìnlu in cualchi poç (let us kill him and cast him into some well). O disarìn (we will say) che lu à fat fûr une bestie salvadie (that a wild beast has done away with him). Viodìn ce che i zovaran i siei siums: we will see of what advantage will be to him his dreams.

Verse 21: Ma Ruben ju sintì (but Reuben heard them) e al voleve salvâlu des lôr sgrifis (and would save him from their clutches). Dissal (he said): no stin a copâlu (let us not kill him).

Verse 22: Ruben ur disè (Reuben said to them): no stait a spandi il so sanc (shed not his blood). Butaitlu in tun poç dal desert (cast him into a well of the desert) ma no stait a metii lis mans intor (but put not your hands about him). Al diseve cussì (he would say so) par salvâlu des lôr sgrifis (to save him from their clutches) e tornâlu a puartâ a so pari (and to bear him back to his father).

Versets 23-27

Vocabulary: rivâ (to arrive), il fradi (brother), gjavâ (to withdraw), la tonie (tunic), intor (about), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), brincâ (to apprehend), butâ (to cast), il poç (well), vueit (empty), cence (without), la aghe (water), sentâsi (to sit oneself down), mangjâ (to eat), un spêl (a bit), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), la carovane (caravan), un ismaelit (Ishmaelite), il camêl (camel), cjamâ (to charge), la gome adragant (tragacanth gum), il balsim (balsam), il laudìn (laudanum), puartâ (to bear), vendi (to sell), (to say), tornâ cont (to turn to account), copâ (to kill), cuviergi (to cover), il sanc (blood), cussì (so), meti (to put), la man (hand), parmìs (about), simpri (ever), stes (same), la cjar (flesh), scoltâ (to heed).

Verse 23: Cuant che Josef al rivà là che a jerin i siei fradis (when Joseph arrived where his brethren were), lôr i gjavarin la tonie (they withdrew from him the tunic), chê tonie cu lis maniis lungjis che al veve intor (that tunic with the long sleeves which he had on [had about]).

Verse 24: Lu brincarin (they apprehended him) e lu butarin intun poç (and cast him into a well); al jere un poç vueit (it was an empty well), cence aghe (without water).

Verse 25: Po si sentarin a mangjâ un spel: then they sat themselves down to eat a bit. Alçant i vôi (in lifting their eyes), a vioderin une carovane di ismaelits (they saw a caravan of Ishmaelites) che a rivavin di Galaad (which was arriving from Gilead). I lôr camêi a jerin cjamâts (their camels were charged) di gome adragant, di balsim e di laudìn (with tragacanth gum, balsam and laudanum) che a puartavin a vendi in Egjit (which they were bearing to sell in Egypt).

Verse 26: Dissal alore Gjude ai siei fradis (Judah then said to his brethren): *nus tornial cont* (does it turn to our account) a copâ nestri fradi (to kill our brother) e a cuviergi il so sanc? (and to cover his blood?). — *Taken apart: nus (unto us) tornial (does it turn) cont (account), the sense whereof is: is it to our profit.

Verse 27: Fasìn cussì (let us do so): vendìnlu ai ismaelits (let us sell him to the Ishmaelites) ma no stin a metii lis mans parmìs (but let us not put our hands about him); al è simpri nestri fradi (he is ever our brother), de nestre stesse cjar (of our same flesh). E i siei fradis lu scoltarin: and his brethren heeded him.

Versets 28-36

Vocabulary: in chel (just then), passâ (to pass {by}), un om (man), il marcjedant (merchant), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), il poç (well), vincj (twenty), il siclo (shekel), d’arint (of silver), vendi (to sell), un ismaelit (Ishmaelite), menâ (to lead), tornâ (to return), no… altri (no more), sbregâ (to rend), il vistît (garment), il fradi (brother), (to say), il frut (lad), no… plui (no more), là dentri (therein), cumò (now), cjoli (to take), la tonie (tunic), taiâ (to cut), il sgrasalâr (maw), il bec (he-goat), meti in muel (to souse), il sanc (blood), mandâ (to send), il pari (father), la manie (sleeve), lunc (long), la peraule (word), cjalâ (to look {upon}), cjatâ (to find), viodi (to see), se par câs (if by chance), il fi (son), fâ fûr (to do away with), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), propit (squarely), slambrâ (to rend apart), il sac (sack), tor di (round), i ombui (loins), puartâ (to bear), il corot (mourning), une vorone (very much), a lunc (at length), la fie (daughter), vignî (to come), (to give), la fuarce (might), volê (to will), savê (to know), il confuart (comfort), (to go), altri (other), il mont (world), dongje di (alongside), vaî (to weep {for}), intant (meanwhile), il madianit (Midianite), vendi (to send), il cjastrât (eunuch), il faraon (pharaoh), il sorestant (chief), la vuaite (watchman).

Verse 28: In chel a passarin oms di Madian, marcjedants (just then men from Midian, merchants, passed by). A tirarin fûr Josef dal poç (they drew forth Joseph from the well) e par vincj siclos d’arint (and for twenty shekels of silver) a venderin Josef ai ismaelits (did they sell Joseph to the Ishmaelites), che lu menarin in Egjit (who led him into Egypt).

Verses 29-30: Cuant che Ruben al tornà li dal poç (when Reuben returned thither to the well), Josef nol jere altri (Joseph was there no more). Alore al sbregà i siei vistîts (then he rent his garments) e tornant dai fradis (and in returning to his brethren) ur disè (said to them): il frut nol è plui là dentri (the lad is therein no more). Ce fasio jo cumò?: what do I do now?

Verse 31: Alore a cjolerin la tonie di Josef (then they took Joseph’s tunic), i taiarin il sgrasalâr a di un bec (cut the maw of a he-goat) e a meterin la tonie in muel tal sanc (and soused the tunic in the blood).

Verse 32: Po i mandarin a lôr pari la tonie cu lis maniis lungjis (then they sent to their father the tunic with the long sleeves) e i mandarin a dî chestis peraulis (and sent to say to him these words): cjale ce che o vin cjatât (look upon that which we have found). Viôt se par câs no fos la tonie di to fi: see if by chance it were not the tunic of your son.

Verse 33: Lui al cjalà e al disè (he looked and said): e je la tonie di gno fi (it is the tunic of my son). Lu à fat fûr une bestie salvadie: a wild beast has done away with him. Josef al è stât propit slambrât: Joseph has been squarely rent apart.

Verse 34: Jacop al sbregà i siei vistîts (Jacob rent his garments), al metè un sac tor dai ombui (put a sack round his loins) e al puartà corot par so fi une vorone a lunc (and bore mourning for his son very much at length).

Verse 35: Ducj i siei fîs e lis sôs fiis a vignirin a dâi fuarce (all his sons and daughters came to give him might), ma lui nol voleve savênt di nissun confuart (but he would not hear [know] of any comfort) e al diseve (and would say): no, o vuei lâ cul corot in chel altri mont (no, I will go with mourning into that other world) dongje di gno fi (alongside my son). E so pari lu vaì: and his father wept for him.

Verse 36: Intant i madianits lu vevin vendût in Egjit a Putifar (meanwhile the Midianites had sold him in Egypt to Potiphar), un cjastrât dal faraon e sorestant des vuaitis (a eunuch of the pharaoh and chief of the watchmen).