Friulian language series: Gjenesi 32, lote di Jacop

The thirty-second chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: la vision di Macanaim (vision at Mahanaim); la pôre di Esaù ([Jacob’s] fear of Esau); la lote di Jacop (Jacob’s wrestling).

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Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: jevât (arisen), prin dal dì (in the early morning), cjapâ a bracecuel (to throw one’s arms around one’s neck, to embrace), i nevôts (grandchildren), la fie (daughter), benedî (to bless), po (then), partî (to depart, to leave), tornâ a cjase sô (to return home), intant (whilst), lâ indenant pe sô strade (to go on one’s way), presentâsi (to present oneself), un agnul (angel), co (when), (to say), il campament (camp), meti non (to name), il lûc (place, site).

Verse 1: Jevât prin dal dì (having arisen in the early morning [before the day]), Laban al cjapà a bracecuel i siei nevôts e lis sôs fiis e ju benedì (Laban embraced his grandchildren and daughters and blessed them). Po Laban al partì e al tornà a cjase sô: then Laban left and returned home.

Verse 2: Intant che Jacop al leve indenant pe sô strade (whilst Jacob went on his way [was going forwards on his way]), si presentarin i agnui di Diu (the angels of God presented themselves to him).

Verse 3: Co ju viodè, Jacop al disè (when he saw them, Jacob said): chest al è il campament di Diu (this is the camp of God) e i metè non al lûc Macanaim (and he named the place Mahanaim [and unto the place he put [the] name Mahanaim]).

Versets 4-9

Vocabulary: mandâ indenant (to send ahead), il mes (messenger), il fradi (brother), la tiere (land), la campagne (country), un ordin (instruction), (to say), cussì (thus, so), il paron (lord), ve ce che (this is what), mandâ (to send), il famei (servant), forest (away), intardâsi (to stay, to remain), fin cumò (until now), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il bo (ox; plural bûs), il mus (ass, donkey), il besteam minût (sheep, flocks, small livestock), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), volê (to want, to wish), fâ rivâ la gnove (to send news), viodi (to see), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), tornâ di (to return to), anzit (rather), vignî incuintri (to come to meet), cuatricent (four hundred), un om (man), cjapâ un grant spavent (to take a great fright), sintîsi (to feel), glaçâ (to freeze), il sanc (blood), dividi (to separate, to divide), doi (two), il campament (camp), la int (people), la robe minude (sheep, flocks, small livestock), la robe grande (oxen, herds, large livestock), dî dentri di sè (to say to oneself), lâ cuintri di (to go up against), tacâ (to attack), salvâsi (to escape, to save oneself).

Verse 4: Jacop al mandà indenant i mes (Jacob sent messengers ahead) par so fradi Esaù (to [for] his brother Esau), te tiere di Seir (in the land of Seir), la campagne di Edom (the country of Edom).

Verse 5: Ur dè chest ordin: he gave them this instruction. O disarês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb dî; Jacob says: i disarês cussì al gno paron, Esaù (thus shall you say to my lord Esau): ve ce che ti mande a dî il to famei Jacop (this is what your servant Jacob says to you [this is what your servant Jacob sends unto you to be said (sends unto you to say)]): jo o ai stât forest (I was away) in cjase di Laban (at the house of Laban) e mi soi intardât fin cumò (and remained until now).

Verse 6: Jacob says: o ai comprâts bûs e mus (I have acquired oxen and asses), besteam minût (sheep), fameis e siervis (male and female servants). He continues: o vuei fâi rivâ la gnove al gno paron (I wish to send the news to my lord [make the news arrive unto my lord]) par viodi se mi à a grât (to see if he has me in his favour). Bûs is the plural of the masculine bo (ox); supplementary examples: i bûs ju dopravin par arâ i cjamps (the oxen were used [they used the oxen] to plough the fields); ignorant come un bo (literally, ignorant as an ox).

Verse 7: I mes a tornarin di Jacop disint: the messengers returned to Jacob, saying. They say: o vin stât di to fradi Esaù (we were to your brother Esau). Note the difference between o sin stâts and o vin stât; although both can potentially be rendered we were, the second (taking as its auxiliary) conveys the sense of we went. They continue: anzit al ven lui incuintri a ti e al à cuatricent oms cun sè: it is rather he who is coming to meet you and he has four hundred men with him.

Verse 8: Jacop al cjapà un grant spavent (Jacob took a great fright) e si sintì a glaçâ il sanc (and felt his blood freeze over). Alore al dividè in doi campaments la int ch’e jere cun lui, la robe minude e grande: so he divided the people who were with him into two camps, (as well as) the flocks and herds.

Verse 9: Dissal dentri di sè (he said to himself [within himself]): se Esaù al va cuintri di un campament e lu tache, o podarai simpri salvâmi in chel altri (if Esau goes up against the one camp and attacks it, I shall yet be able to escape [save myself] in the other).

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: dissal (he said), il pari (father), ordenâ (to command), tornâ (to return), la tiere (land), la patrie (fatherland, native land), dâ une man (to help, to assist), mertâ (to deserve; also meretâ), il plasê (favour), il bonvolê (goodwill), il famei (servant), dome (only, but), il baston (staff, rod), passâ (to pass, to cross), chi (here), cumò (now), in grât (able), il campament (camp), salvâ (to save), la man (hand), il fradi (brother), vê pôre di (to fear), vignî (to come), fruçâ (to strike down), la mari (mother), dutun cun (along with), i fruts (children), colmâ di (to fill with), il benefizi (benefit, advantage; also benefici), un sore chel altri (one after another), deventâ (to become), la gjernazie (offspring), il savalon (sand), il mâr (sea), rivâ a contâ (to be able to count, to manage to count).

Verses 10-11: Jacob says: Diu di gno pari Abram (O God of my father Abraham) e Diu di gno pari Isac (and God of my father Isaac), Signôr (O Lord), che tu mi âs ordenât (who commanded me): torne te tô tiere e te tô patrie (return to your home and native land [return to your land and fatherland]) and e jo ti darai une man (and I shall assist you [lend (give) you a hand]), no mi merti ducj i plasês (I do not deserve all the favours) e dut il bonvolê (and all the goodwill) che tu âs vût pal to famei (that you have had for your servant). He continues: o vevi dome il gno baston par passâ il Gjordan (I had [was having] but my staff to cross the Jordan), che al è chi (which is here), e cumò o soi in grât di fâ doi campaments (and now I am able to make two camps). Mertâ (or meretâ) means to deserve; it can also be used reflexively as in the text of this verse: no mi merti (I do not deserve). Supplementary examples of meretâ: meretâ la promozion (to deserve the promotion); al à dimostrât di meretâ fiducie (he has proven to be trustworthy [to deserve trust]), nol meretave di lâ a finîle cussì (he did not deserve to end up like that).

Verse 12: Salvimi des mans di gno fradi Esaù parcè che o ai pôre di lui: save me from the hands of my brother Esau, for I fear him (have fear of him). Che nol vegni e che nus fruci, la mari dutun cui fruts: may he not come and strike us down, the mother along with the children. Consider: al ven; che al vegni; che nol vegni (he comes; may he come; may he not come); al fruce; che al fruci; che nol fruci (he strikes down; may he strike down; may he not strike down).

Verse 13: Tu âs pûr dit (you have even said): ti colmarai di benefizis (I shall fill you with benefits) un sore chel altri (one after the other [one upon the other]) e o fasarai deventâ la tô gjernazie (and I shall make your offspring become) come il savalon dal mâr (as the sand of the sea), che no si rive nancje a contâlu (which cannot even be counted) cun tant che and è (with how much of it there is). A ’nd è (found in the text as and è), meaning there is of it, there is thereof, is a contraction of al + indi è. Indi (of it, thereof) is a formal written form; a contracted form has been preferred in the text. To contract: if the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i of indi drops and the d changes to t; if the verb begins with a vowel, the d is maintained. The initial i of indi drops when it is preceded by a vowel. Note that al changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i. The same applies to nol; it first changes to no, meaning it now ends in a vowel, causing the loss of the initial i. Consider: a ’nd è (there is [some] of it); a ’nt sarà (there will be [some] of it); lui a ’nd à (he has [some] of it); lui no ’nd à (he has not [any] of it); o ’nd ai (I have [some] of it); no tu ’nd âs (you do not have [any] of it); ind âstu? (have you [any] of it?); int vuelistu? (do you want [some] of it?); o ’nt viôt (I see [some] of it); o ’nt vuei trê (I want three of them); us int doi cuatri (I give you four of them).

Versets 14-22

Vocabulary: passâ la gnot (to spend the night), il lûc (place, site), po (then), cjoli (to take), fâ un regâl (to offer a gift), il fradi (brother), dusinte (two hundred), la cjavre (she-goat), vincj (twenty), il bec (he-goat), la piore (ewe), il roc (ram), trente (thirty), la camele (she-camel), il lat (milk), il piçul (young, newborn), corante (forty; also cuarante), la vacje (cow), dîs (ten), il taur (bull), la musse (she-ass), il mussut (donkey foal), consegnâ (to give, to hand over), il famei (servant), ognidun (each one), il rodul (drove, herd), il nemâl (animal), a part (apart, for oneself), lâ denant di (to go before), un pôc (a little, a bit), lontan di (away from, far from), un dal altri (from one another), prin (first), un ordin (instruction), incuintrâ (to meet), domandâ (to ask), rispuindi (to respond), volê (to want, to wish), il paron (lord), vignî daûr di (to follow [come] behind), stes (same), secont (second), tierç (third), cjaminâ daûr di (to follow [walk] behind), la mandrie (herd), fevelâ (to speak), cjatâ (to meet), rivâ (to arrive, to come), e di fat (and indeed), bonâ (to propitiate, to appease), mandâ (to send), podopo (then), presentâsi (to present oneself), salacôr (perhaps), fâ biel plait (to address well), passâ indenant (to go forwards), fermâsi (to stop over), il campament (camp).

Verse 14: E Jacop al passà la gnot in chel lûc: and Jacob spent the night in that place. Po al cjolè di ce che al veve par fâi un regâl a so fradi Esaù: then he took from what he had (was having) so as to offer a gift to his brother.

Verses 15-16: The Friulian for she-camel is la camele (this is the feminine form of camêl, which refers to the male of the animal); camele di lat is to be taken as milch camel. Jacob’s gift consisted of: dusinte cjavris e vincj becs (two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats), dusinte pioris e vincj rocs (two hundred ewes and twenty rams), trente camelis di lat cui lôr piçui (thirty milch camels with their young), corante vacjis e dîs taurs (forty cows and ten bulls), vincj mussis e dîs mussuts (twenty she-asses and ten donkey foals). Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 17: Ju consegnà ai siei fameis, ognidun il so rodul di nemâi a part: he put them into his servants’ charge, each with a drove unto himself. Jacob says to his servants: lait denant di me (go before me) e stait un pôc lontans un dal altri (and keep a certain distance between one another [and stay a little away from one another]).

Verses 18-19: Al prin i dè chest ordin: to the first he gave this instruction. Cuant che gno fradi Esaù ti incuintrarà e ti domandarà: when my brother Esau meets you (will meet you) and asks you (will ask you). Di cui sêstu?: who is your master (of whom are you; whose are you)? Note the construction of this question: di cui / sêstu (of whom / are you); consider another example (from Gjenesi 24:23): fie di cui sêstu tu? (whose daughter are you [daughter of whom are you]?). Là vâstu?: where are you going? Di cui sono chescj nemâi devant di te?: to whom do these animals before you belong (whose [of whom] are these animals before you?). Tu i rispuindarâs: you shall respond to him. The servant is to say: a son dal to famei Jacop (they are your servant Jacob’s), che al vûl fâi un regâl a Esaù (who wishes to offer a gift to Esau), il so paron (his lord), e ancje lui al ven daûr di nô (and he himself is following [coming] behind us).

Verse 20: Al dè il stes ordin al secont e al tierç e a ducj chei che a cjaminavin daûr des mandriis: he gave the same instruction to the second and third and to all those who followed (were walking) behind the herds. Ve — dissal — cemût che o vês di fevelâi a Esaù cuant che lu cjatais: this is, he said, what you are to say (how you are to speak) to Esau when you meet him.

Verse 21: O vês di dîi (you are to say to him): ancje il to famei Jacop al sta rivant daûr di nô (your servant Jacob himself is coming right behind us). E di fat al diseve dentri di sè (and indeed he thought to himself [was saying within himself]): lu bonarai cul regâl che o ai mandât denant di me (I shall propitiate him with the gift that I have sent before me); podopo mi presentarai ancje jo denant di lui (I myself shall then come before him (then I shall present myself [I myself] before him) e salacôr mi fasarà biel plait (and perhaps he will receive me well [address me well]). The sense of biel plait is kind words.

Verse 22: Il regâl al passà indenant (the gift went ahead) e lui si fermà dute la gnot tal campament (and he spent [stopped over (stopped himself)] the entire night in the camp).

Versets 23-28

Vocabulary: stes (same), la gnot (night), jevâ (to arise, to get up), cjapâ sù (to gather), la femine (wife), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), undis (eleven), il fi (son), passâ (to pass, to cross), il flum (river), la aghe (water), restâ dibessôl (to remain on one’s own), lotâ (to wrestle), fin che; fin cuant che (until), cricâ dì (to break day), no rivâ adore di (to be unable to), vinci (to prevail, to win), molâ un colp (to inflict a blow), la cidule (joint), un ombul (hip), dissipâsi (to injure oneself), intant che (whilst), molâ (to let go, to release), vignî dì (to break day), rispuindi (to respond), benedî (to bless), domandâ (to ask), vê non (to be named).

Verse 23: In chê stesse gnot (that same night [in that same night]), al jevà (he arose), al cjapà sù lis sôs dôs feminis (took [took up; gathered] his two wives), lis sôs dôs siervis (his two maidservants), i siei undis fîs (his eleven sons) e al passà il flum a Jabok (and crossed the river at Jabbok).

Verse 24: Ju cjapà sù (he took them [took them up; gathered them]) e ju fasè passâ l’aghe (and made them cross the water) e al fasè passâ ancje (and also made cross) dut ce che al veve cun sè (all that he had [was having] with him). For clarity: he took them and all his possessions across the river.

Verse 25: Dopo, Jacop al restà dibessôl: Jacob later remained on his own. E un al lotà cun lui fin cuant che al cricà dì: and another (and one) wrestled with him until day broke.

Verse 26: Viodint che nol rivave adore di vincilu, i molà un colp te cidule dal ombul: upon seeing that he was unable to prevail against him, he inflicted a blow in his hip joint; taken literally: viodint che (seeing that) nol rivave adore (he was not managing) di vincilu (to overcome him), i molà un colp (unto him he released a blow) te cidule (in the joint) dal ombul (of the hip). E a Jacop si dissipà l’ombul intant che al lotave cun lui: and Jacob’s hip was injured whilst he wrestled with him; taken literally: e a Jacop (and unto Jacob) si dissipà l’ombul (the hip was injured) intant che al lotave cun lui (whilst he was wrestling with him).

Verse 27: Dissal chel altri (the other said): molimi (let me go [release me]), che al ven dì (for it is breaking day [coming day]). The sense of molâ as used here is that of releasing one’s hold over another. Ma Jacop i rispuindè (but Jacob responded to him): no ti moli (I shall not let you go [I release you not]) fin che no tu mi âs benedît (until you have blessed me).

Verse 28: I domandà: ce non âstu?: he asked him: what is your name (what name have you?).

Versets 29-33

Vocabulary: no… plui (no longer, no more), clamâ (to call), parcè che (because, for), tignî dûr (to hold steadfast), cuintri (against), un om (man), vinci (to prevail, to win), fâ une domande (to ask a question), par plasê (please), (to say, to tell), il non (name), rispuindi (to respond), in chel (at that moment), benedî (to bless), il lûc (place, site), dissal (he said), viodi (to see), muse a muse (face to face), instès (nonetheless, yet; also istès, distès), salf (safe, spared), la vite (life), cuant che (when), jevâ (to rise), il soreli (sun), za (already), passâ (to pass), çueteâ (to limp), par vie di (because of, on account of), un ombul (hip), par chel (therefore, for this reason), ancjemò in dì di vuê (yet today), il fi (son), mangjâ (to eat), no… mai (never), il gnerf (nerve), siatic (sciatic), il zûc (joint), la gjambe (leg), ufindi (to injure, to hurt; also ofindi), propit (right, squarely), la cidule (joint).

Verse 29: E lui (and he said [and him]): no ti clamaran plui Jacop (you shall no longer be called Jacob [they shall no longer call you Jacob]) ma Israel (but Israel), parcè che tu âs tignût dûr cuintri Diu (for you have held steadfast against God) e cuintri i oms (and against men) e tu le âs vinçude (and have prevailed).

Verse 30: Jacop i fasè cheste domande: Jacob asked him this question; note that Friulian takes the verb (to make, to do) in its equivalent of to ask a question: fâ une domande. Par plasê, disimi il to non: please tell me your name. Ma chel altri i rispuindè: but the other responded to him. Parcè mi domandistu il gno non?: why do you ask me my name? E, in chel, lu benedì: and that is when (and in that moment) he blessed him.

Verse 31: Jacop al clamà chel lûc Penuel: Jacob named the place Penuel (called that place Penuel). The reason for the name is given: parcè che (for)dissal (he said)o ai viodût Diu muse a muse (I have seen God face to face) e instès o ai vude salve la vite (and yet my life has been spared [I got saved my life]).

Verse 32: Cuant che al jevà il soreli (when the sun rose), al veve za passât Penuel (he had already passed Penuel) e al çueteave par vie dal ombul (and he limped [was limping] on account of his hip).

Verse 33: Par chel (for this reason), ancjemò in dì di vuê (yet today) i fîs di Israel no màngjin mai il gnerf siatic (the sons of Israel never eat the sciatic nerve) che al è tal zûc de gjambe (which is in the hip joint [in the joint of the leg]), parcè che chel (because that other [that one]) al veve ufindût Jacop (had injured Jacob) propit te cidule dal ombul (right in the hip joint), tal gnerf siatic (in the sciatic nerve).