Friulian language series: Gjenesi 32, lote di Jacop

The thirty-second chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: la vision di Macanaim (vision at Mahanaim); la pôre di Esaù ({Jacob’s} fear of Esau); la lote di Jacop (Jacob’s wrestling).

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Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: jevât (arisen), prin di (before), il dì (day), cjapâ a bracecuel (to fall on one’s neck), i nevôts (grandchildren), la fie (daughter), benedî (to bless), po (then), partî (to depart), tornâ a cjase sô (to return home), intant (whilst), lâ indenant (to go forwards), la strade (way, road), presentâsi (to present oneself), un agnul (angel), co (when), (to say), il campament (camp), meti (to name), il non (name), il lûc (place).

Verse 1: Jevât prin dal dì (having before the day), Laban al cjapà a bracecuel i siei nevôts e lis sôs fiis e ju benedì (Laban fell on the neck of his grandchildren and daughters and blessed them). Po Laban al partì e al tornà a cjase sô: then Laban departed and returned home.

Verse 2: Intant che Jacop al leve indenant pe sô strade (whilst Jacob was going forwards on his way), si presentarin i agnui di Diu (the angels of God presented themselves to him).

Verse 3: Co ju viodè, Jacop al disè (when he saw them, Jacob said): chest al è il campament di Diu (this is the camp of God) e i metè non al lûc Macanaim (and unto the place he put {the} name Mahanaim).

Versets 4-9

Vocabulary: mandâ indenant (to send forwards), il mes (messenger), il fradi (brother), la tiere (land), la campagne (country), un ordin (order), (to say), cussì (thus, so), il paron (lord), ve ce che (this is what), mandâ (to send), il famei (servant), forest (away), intardâsi (to stay, to remain), fin cumò (until now), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il bo (ox; plural bûs), il mus (ass, donkey), il besteam (livestock), minût (little), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), volê (to want), fâ rivâ (to make arrive), la gnove (news), viodi (to see), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), tornâ di (to return to), anzit (rather), vignî incuintri (to come unto), cuatricent (four hundred), un om (man), cjapâ (to take), grant (great), il spavent (fright), sintîsi (to feel), glaçâ (to freeze), il sanc (blood), dividi (to divide), doi (two), il campament (camp), la int (people), la robe (matter), grant (great), (to say), dentri di sè (within oneself), lâ cuintri di (to go up against), tacâ (to attack), salvâsi (to save oneself).

Verse 4: Jacop al mandà indenant i mes (Jacob sent messengers forwards) par so fradi Esaù (to [for] his brother Esau), te tiere di Seir (in the land of Seir), la campagne di Edom (the country of Edom).

Verse 5: Ur dè chest ordin: he gave to them this order. O disarês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb dî; Jacob says: i disarês cussì al gno paron, Esaù (thus shall you say to my lord Esau): ve ce che ti mande a dî il to famei Jacop (this is what your servant Jacob says to you [this is what your servant Jacob sends unto you to be said (sends unto you to say)]): jo o ai stât forest (I was away) in cjase di Laban (at the house of Laban) e mi soi intardât fin cumò (and remained until now).

Verse 6: Jacob says: o ai comprâts bûs e mus (I have acquired oxen and asses), besteam minût (little livestock), fameis e siervis (male and female servants). He continues: o vuei fâi rivâ la gnove al gno paron (I will [want to] make the news arrive unto my lord) par viodi se mi à a grât (to see if he has me in his favour). Bûs is the plural of the masculine bo (ox); supplementary examples: i bûs ju dopravin par arâ i cjamps (the oxen were used [they used the oxen] to plough the fields); ignorant come un bo (literally, ignorant as an ox).

Verse 7: I mes a tornarin di Jacop disint: the messengers returned to Jacob, saying. They say: o vin stât di to fradi Esaù (we were to your brother Esau). Note the difference between o sin stâts and o vin stât; although both can potentially be rendered we were, the second (taking as its auxiliary) conveys the sense of we went. They continue: anzit al ven lui incuintri a ti e al à cuatricent oms cun sè: it is rather he who is coming unto you and he has four hundred men with him.

Verse 8: Jacop al cjapà un grant spavent (Jacob took a great fright) e si sintì a glaçâ il sanc (and felt his blood freeze over). Alore al dividè in doi campaments la int ch’e jere cun lui, la robe minude e grande: so he divided the people who were with him into two camps, {as well as} the little and great livestock [matter].

Verse 9: Dissal dentri di sè (he said within himself): se Esaù al va cuintri di un campament e lu tache, o podarai simpri salvâmi in chel altri (if Esau goes up against the one camp and attacks it, I will ever be able to save myself in that other).

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: dissal (he said), il pari (father), ordenâ (to order), tornâ (to return), la tiere (land), la patrie (fatherland, native land), dâ une man (to help, to assist), mertâ (to deserve; also meretâ), il plasê (favour), il bonvolê (goodwill), il famei (servant), dome (only, but), il baston (staff), passâ (to pass {over}), chi (here), cumò (now), in grât (able), il campament (camp), salvâ (to save), la man (hand), il fradi (brother), la pôre (fear), vignî (to come), fruçâ (to smite), la mari (mother), dutun cun (along with), i fruts (children), colmâ di (to fill with), il benefizi (benefit, advantage; also benefici), deventâ (to become), la gjernazie (line), il savalon (sand), il mâr (sea), rivâ a (to be able to), contâ (to count).

Verses 10-11: Jacob says: Diu di gno pari Abram (O God of my father Abraham) e Diu di gno pari Isac (and God of my father Isaac), Signôr (O Lord), che tu mi âs ordenât (who ordered me): torne te tô tiere e te tô patrie (return to your home and native land [return to your land and fatherland]) and e jo ti darai une man (and I will assist you [lend (give) you a hand]), no mi merti ducj i plasês (I do not deserve all the favours) e dut il bonvolê (and all the goodwill) che tu âs vût pal to famei (that you have had for your servant). He continues: o vevi dome il gno baston par passâ il Gjordan (I had but my staff to pass over the Jordan), che al è chi (which is here), e cumò o soi in grât di fâ doi campaments (and now I am able to make two camps). Mertâ (or meretâ) means to deserve; it can also be used reflexively as in the text of this verse: no mi merti (I do not deserve). Supplementary examples of meretâ: meretâ la promozion (to deserve the promotion); al à dimostrât di meretâ fiducie (he has proven to be trustworthy [to deserve trust]), nol meretave di lâ a finîle cussì (he did not deserve to end up like that).

Verse 12: Salvimi des mans di gno fradi Esaù parcè che o ai pôre di lui: save me from the hands of my brother Esau, for I have fear of him. Che nol vegni e che nus fruci, la mari dutun cui fruts: may he not come and smite us, the mother along with the children. Consider: al ven; che al vegni; che nol vegni (he comes; may he come; may he not come); al fruce; che al fruci; che nol fruci (he smites; may he smite; may he not smite).

Verse 13: Tu âs pûr dit (you have even said): ti colmarai di benefizis (I will fill you with benefits) un sore chel altri (the one after the other [the one over that other]) e o fasarai deventâ la tô gjernazie (and I will make your line become) come il savalon dal mâr (as the sand of the sea), che no si rive nancje a contâlu (which cannot even be counted) cun tant che and è (with how much of it there is).

Versets 14-22

Vocabulary: passâ (to pass), la gnot (night), il lûc (place), po (then), cjoli (to take), fâ un regâl (to offer a gift), il fradi (brother), dusinte (two hundred), la cjavre (she-goat), vincj (twenty), il bec (he-goat), la piore (ewe), il roc (ram), trente (thirty), la camele (she-camel), il lat (milk), il piçul (young, newborn), corante (forty; also cuarante), la vacje (cow), dîs (ten), il taur (bull), la musse (she-ass), il mussut (donkey foal), consegnâ (to consign), il famei (servant), ognidun (each one), il rodul (drove, herd), il nemâl (animal), a part (apart, for oneself), lâ denant di (to go before), un pôc (a little, a bit), lontan di (away from), un dal altri (from one another), prin (first), un ordin (order), incuintrâ (to meet), domandâ (to ask), rispuindi (to respond), volê (to want), il paron (lord), vignî daûr di (to follow [come] behind), stes (same), secont (second), tierç (third), cjaminâ daûr di (to follow [walk] behind), la mandrie (herd, flock), fevelâ (to speak), cjatâ (to meet), rivâ (to arrive), di fat (in fact), bonâ (to propitiate, to appease), mandâ (to send), podopo (thereupon), presentâsi (to present oneself), salacôr (perhaps), fâ biel plait (to address well), indenant (forwards), fermâsi (to halt oneself), il campament (camp).

Verse 14: E Jacop al passà la gnot in chel lûc: and Jacob passed the night in that place. Po al cjolè di ce che al veve par fâi un regâl a so fradi Esaù: then he took from what he had to offer a gift to his brother.

Verses 15-16: The Friulian for she-camel is la camele (this is the feminine form of camêl, which refers to the male of the animal); camele di lat is to be taken as milch camel. Jacob’s gift consisted of: dusinte cjavris e vincj becs (two hundred she-goats and twenty he-goats), dusinte pioris e vincj rocs (two hundred ewes and twenty rams), trente camelis di lat cui lôr piçui (thirty milch camels with their young), corante vacjis e dîs taurs (forty cows and ten bulls), vincj mussis e dîs mussuts (twenty she-asses and ten donkey foals). Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 17: Ju consegnà ai siei fameis, ognidun il so rodul di nemâi a part: he consigned them to his servants, each with his own drove of animals. Jacob says to his servants: lait denant di me (go before me) e stait un pôc lontans un dal altri (and keep a certain distance between one another [and stay a little away from one another]).

Verses 18-19: Al prin i dè chest ordin: to the first he gave this order. Cuant che gno fradi Esaù ti incuintrarà e ti domandarà: when my brother Esau meets you (will meet you) and asks you (will ask you). Di cui sêstu?: who is your master (of whom are you; whose are you)? Note the construction of this question: di cui / sêstu (of whom / are you); consider another example (from Gjenesi 24:23): fie di cui sêstu tu? (whose daughter are you [daughter of whom are you]?). Là vâstu?: where are you going? Di cui sono chescj nemâi devant di te?: to whom do these animals before you belong [of whom are these animals before you]?. Tu i rispuindarâs: you shall respond to him. The servant is to say: a son dal to famei Jacop (they are your servant Jacob’s), che al vûl fâi un regâl a Esaù, il so paron (who wishes to offer a gift to his lord Esau), e ancje lui al ven daûr di nô (and he himself is following [coming] behind us).

Verse 20: Al dè il stes ordin al secont e al tierç e a ducj chei che a cjaminavin daûr des mandriis: he gave the same order to the second and third and to all those who followed (were walking) behind the herds. Ve — dissal — cemût che o vês di fevelâi a Esaù cuant che lu cjatais: this is, he said, what you are to say (how you are to speak) to Esau when you meet him.

Verse 21: O vês di dîi (you are to say to him): ancje il to famei Jacop al sta rivant daûr di nô (your servant Jacob himself is arriving right behind us). E di fat al diseve dentri di sè (and, in fact, he said [was saying] within himself): lu bonarai cul regâl che o ai mandât denant di me (I will propitiate him with the gift that I have sent before me); podopo mi presentarai ancje jo denant di lui (thereupon I myself will come before him) e salacôr mi fasarà biel plait (and perhaps he will address me well). The sense of biel plait is fine words.

Verse 22: Il regâl al passà indenant (the gift passed forwards) e lui si fermà dute la gnot tal campament (and he halted himself the entire night in the camp).

Versets 23-28

Vocabulary: stes (same), la gnot (night), jevâ (to arise, to get up), cjapâ sù (to take up), la femine (wife), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), undis (eleven), il fi (son), passâ (to pass {over}), il flum (river), la aghe (water), restâ dibessôl (to remain on one’s own), lotâ (to wrestle), fin che; fin cuant che (until), cricâ dì (to break day), no rivâ adore di (to be unable to), vinci (to prevail {against}), molâ (to relinquish), il colp (blow), la cidule (joint), un ombul (hip), dissipâsi (to injure oneself), intant che (whilst), vignî dì (to break day), rispuindi (to respond), benedî (to bless), domandâ (to ask), vê non (to be named).

Verse 23: In chê stesse gnot (that same night [in that same night]), al jevà (he arose), al cjapà sù lis sôs dôs feminis (took up his two wives), lis sôs dôs siervis (his two maidservants), i siei undis fîs (his eleven sons) e al passà il flum a Jabok (and passed over the river at Jabbok).

Verse 24: Ju cjapà sù (he took them up) e ju fasè passâ l’aghe (and made them pass over the water) e al fasè passâ ancje (and also made pass over) dut ce che al veve cun sè (all that which he had with him).

Verse 25: Dopo, Jacop al restà dibessôl: thereupon Jacob remained on his own. E un al lotà cun lui fin cuant che al cricà dì: and another (and one) wrestled with him until day broke.

Verse 26: Viodint che (in seeing that) nol rivave adore di vincilu (he was unable to prevail against him), i molà un colp (he relinquished a blow) te cidule dal ombul (in the joint of his hip). E a Jacop si dissipà l’ombul (and Jacob’s hip was injured [and unto Jacob was the hip injured]) intant che al lotave cun lui (whilst he wrestled with him).

Verse 27: Dissal chel altri (that other said): molimi (relinquish me), che al ven dì (for it is breaking [coming] day). Ma Jacop i rispuindè (but Jacob responded to him): no ti moli (I will not relinquish you) fin che no tu mi âs benedît (until you have blessed me).

Verse 28: I domandà: ce non âstu?: he asked him: what is your name (what name have you?).

Versets 29-33

Vocabulary: no… plui (no longer, no more), clamâ (to call), parcè che (because, for), tignî dûr (to keep perseverant), cuintri (against), un om (man), vincile (to prevail), fâ une domande (to ask a question), par plasê (please), (to say, to tell), il non (name), rispuindi (to respond), in chel (at that moment), benedî (to bless), il lûc (place), dissal (he said), viodi (to see), muse a muse (face to face), instès (nonetheless, yet; also istès, distès), salf (safe, spared), la vite (life), cuant che (when), jevâ (to rise), il soreli (sun), za (already), passâ (to pass), çueteâ (to limp), par vie di (on account of), un ombul (hip), par chel (therefore), ancjemò in dì di vuê (yet today), il fi (son), mangjâ (to eat), no… mai (never), il gnerf (nerve), siatic (sciatic), il zûc (joint), la gjambe (leg), ufindi (to injure, to hurt; also ofindi), propit (right, squarely), la cidule (joint).

Verse 29: E lui (and him): no ti clamaran plui Jacop (you shall be called [they shall call you] Jacob no more) ma Israel (but Israel), parcè che tu âs tignût dûr cuintri Diu (for you have kept perseverant against God) e cuintri i oms (and against men) e tu le âs vinçude (and have prevailed).

Verse 30: Jacop i fasè cheste domande: Jacob asked him this question; note that Friulian takes the verb (to make, to do) in its equivalent of to ask a question: fâ une domande. Par plasê, disimi il to non: please tell me your name. Ma chel altri i rispuindè: but that other responded to him. Parcè mi domandistu il gno non?: why do you ask me my name? E, in chel, lu benedì: and that is when (and in that moment) he blessed him.

Verse 31: Jacop al clamà chel lûc Penuel: Jacob called that place Penuel. The reason for the name is given: parcè che (for)dissal (he said)o ai viodût Diu muse a muse (I have seen God face to face) e instès o ai vude salve la vite (and yet my life has been spared [I got saved my life]).

Verse 32: Cuant che al jevà il soreli (when the sun rose), al veve za passât Penuel (he had already passed Penuel) e al çueteave par vie dal ombul (and he limped [was limping] on account of his hip).

Verse 33: Par chel (therefore), ancjemò in dì di vuê (yet today) i fîs di Israel no màngjin mai il gnerf siatic (the sons of Israel never eat the sciatic nerve) che al è tal zûc de gjambe (which is in the hip joint [in the joint of the leg]), parcè che chel (because that other [that one]) al veve ufindût Jacop (had injured Jacob) propit te cidule dal ombul (right in the hip joint), tal gnerf siatic (in the sciatic nerve).