Friulian language series: Gjenesi 31, Jacop al torne in Canaan

The subjects of the thirty-first chapter of the book of Genesis are: Jacop al torne in Canaan (Jacob returns to Canaan); cumbinament di Jacop cun Laban (Jacob’s agreement with Laban).

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Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: sintî (to hear), (to say), cjoli (to take), il pari (father), parie (likewise), slargjâsi (to become wealthy, to become prosperous), il damp (detriment, harm; also dam), a damp di (to the detriment of; also a dam di), inacuargisi (to notice, to realise; also inacuarzisi), a sec (at once), fâ plait (to speak fair words), di prime (as before), tornâ (to return), la tiere (land, earth), i vons (forefathers), la cjase (house, home).

Verse 1: Jacop al sintì che i fîs di Laban a disevin (Jacob heard that sons of Laban were saying): Jacop al à cjolt (Jacob has taken) dut ce che al jere di nestri pari (everything that was our father’s) e parie si è slargjât (and has likewise become prosperous) a damp di nestri pari (to the detriment of our father). The masculine noun dam (variant damp) means damage, harm, detriment; supplementary examples of use: la assicurazion e paiarà i dams (the insurance will pay for the damages); patî un dam cerebrâl (to suffer brain damage); i dams dal tristimp (the damage caused by the bad weather). Damp is a variant of the standardised dam; similar to this is omp (man), a  variant of the standardised om — following the final m of these words, a p sound can be realised, which is not shown in the standardised spellings.

Verse 2: Jacop si inacuargè a sec (Jacob noticed at once) che Laban no i faseve il plait (that Laban was not addressing him with the fair manner [of speech]) di prime (as before).

Verse 3: The Lord says to Jacob: torne te tiere dai tiei vons (return to the land of your forefathers), a cjase tô (to your home), e jo o sarai cun te (and I shall be with you).

Versets 4-7

Vocabulary: mandâ a clamâ (to send for), il prât (field), la mandrie (flock), la cuarnadure (temperament, disposition), la robe (matter, thing), jessi compagn di (to be the same as, to be identical to), il pari (father), fâ di famei (to act as servant), miôr che o ai podût (as best I could), a la cuâl che (whereas), imbroiâ (to deceive, to trick), gambiâ (to change; also cambiâ), dîs viaçs (ten times), la pae (pay; also paie), permeti (to permit, to allow), puartâ damp (to do harm; also puartâ dam).

Verse 4: Jacop al mandà a clamâ Rachêl e Lie (Jacob sent for Rachel and Leah) che a jerin tai prâts cu lis mandriis (who were in the fields with the flocks). In other contexts, il prât could be taken as meaning lawn; for example: un prât in citât (a lawn in the city); doman o sei il prât (tomorrow I shall mow [I mow] the lawn; seâ, to mow; o sei, I mow). Also: taiâ la jerbe (to cut the grass).

Verse 5: Jacob says to Rachel and Leah: o viôt (I see) de cuarnadure che mi fâs vuestri pari (from the disposition that your father shows me) che la robe no je compagn di prime (that the situation [matter] is not the same as before), ma il Diu di gno pari al à stât cun me (but the God of my father has been with me).

Verse 6: O savês dibessolis (your yourselves know) che jo o ai fat di famei (that I have been a servant [acted as servant]) a vuestri pari (to your father) miôr che o ai podût (as best I could).

Verse 7: Jacob continues: a la cuâl che vuestri pari mi à imbroiât (whereas your father deceived me), al à gambiade dîs viaçs la mê pae (he changed my wages ten times); ma Diu no i à permetût di puartâmi damp (but God has not allowed him to do me harm [has not permitted unto him to bring harm unto me]).

Versets 8-13

Vocabulary: ogni volte che (every time that, whenever), (to say), moschetât (speckled), la bestie (beast), il zocul (kid [goat]), riât (streaked), puartâ vie (to take away), il besteam (livestock), sucedi (to happen), tal timp che (at the time when), lâ in amôr (to mate, to reproduce), alcâ i vôi (to raise one’s eyes, to look up), il sium (dream), viodi in sium (to see in a dream), il bec (he-goat), cuviergi (to mount, to mate with; also cuvierzi), tacolât (spotted), verzolât (striped), un agnul (angel), inmascjî (to mate with), comparî (to appear), là che (where), onzi (to anoint), il colonel (pillar), fâ un avôt (to make a vow), cjapâsi sù (to arise, to get up), jessî (to go out), tornâ (to return), la cjase (house), il pari (father).

Verses 8-9: Fâ zocui is to be understood as to produce kids; zocui is the plural of the masculine zocul. You read: ogni volte che al diseve (whenever he would say [was saying]): ce che al è moschetât al è to (that which is speckled is yours), dutis lis bestiis a fasevin zocui moschetâts (all the flocks [beasts] produced [were producing] speckled kids); ogni volte che al diseve (whenever he would say [was saying]): ce che al è riât al è to (that which is streaked is yours), dutis lis bestiis a fasevin zocui riâts (all the flocks [beasts] produced [were producing] streaked kids) e Diu i à puartât vie il besteam a vuestri pari (and God has taken away your father’s livestock [has taken the livestock away from your father]) e mal à dât a mi (and has given it to me). Mal is the contraction of mi + lu (unto me + it), where lu stands in for the masculine besteam.

Verse 10: You first encountered lâ in amôr at the beginning of your study, in Gjenesi 1:22; it can be taken as meaning to mate, to reproduce. The masculine noun amôr is the Friulian for love but refers here to sexual reproduction: lâ in amôr, to go into sexual reproduction (that is, to mate, to reproduce). Al è sucedût che is to be understood as it so happened that, it came to pass that. You read: al è sucedût (it so happened), tal timp che lis bestiis a van in amôr (at the mating time of the flock [at the time when the beasts mate]), che jo o ai alçâts i vôi (that I raised my eyes) e o ai viodût in sium (and I saw in a dream) che i becs (that the he-goats) che a stavin par cuviergi lis bestiis (that were about to mount the flock [beasts]) a jerin riâts, tacolâts e verzolâts (were streaked, spotted and striped). The verb cuvierzi (found in the text as cuviergi) is the Friulian for to cover; it is used here in the sense of to mount.

Verse 11: L’agnul di Diu mi disè in sium (the angel of God said to me in the dream): Jacop (Jacob); e jo i rispuindei: ben? (and I responded to him: yes?). O rispuindei (I responded) is the first-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb rispuindi. Ben is used in response to having been summoned.

Verse 12: The angel said: alce i vôi e cjale (raise your eyes and look): ducj i becs che a inmascjissin lis bestiis a son riâts, tacolâts e verzolâts (all the he-goats that are mating with the flock [beasts] are streaked, spotted and striped), parcè che o ai viodût dut ce che ti à fat Laban (for I have seen all that Laban has done to you).

Verse 13: Onzût is the past participle of the verb onzi (to anoint). The angel of God says: jo o soi il Diu (I am the God) che ti à comparît a Betel (who appeared to you in Bethel), là che tu âs onzût il colonel (where you anointed the pillar) e che tu mi âs fat un avôt (and where you made a vow to me). Note the repetition of che: che tu âs onzût […] e che tu mi âs fat […]; the second che keeps tu mi âs fat […] joined to là che (where). The angel of God continues: cumò cjapiti sù (now arise), jes di cheste tiere (leave this land) e torne te cjase di to pari (and return to your father’s house). Jes is the second-person singular imperative of the verb jessî, meaning to go out, to exit.

Versets 14-16

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), forsit (maybe, perhaps), ancjemò (still, yet), la legjitime (share, portion), une ereditât (inheritance), la cjase (house), il pari (father), tratâ (to treat), la foreste ([female] outsider), par vie che (given that), vendi (to sell), mangjâ (to consume, to use up), cjapâ (to take, to get), propit cussì (just so), la robe (substance, possessions), puartâ vie (to take away), i fruts (children), cumò (now), (to say, to tell).

Verse 14: Vino is the interrogative form of o vin (we have), which is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. Rachel and Leah say: vino forsit ancjemò une legjitime (have we perhaps yet a share) e une ereditât (and an inheritance) te cjase di nestri pari? (in the house of our father?). La legjitime is the portion to which the children have a right.

Verse 15: Another interrogative form appears: tratial, from the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb tratâ, which is al trate (he treats). The daughters say: no nus tratial come che o fossin forestis? (does he not treat us as though we were outsiders?). O fossin is the first-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. The Friulian for outsider is il forest; its feminine form is la foreste. In the text of this verse, you find forestis, which is the feminine plural form. Par vie che nus à vendudis e dopo al à mangjât dut ce che al veve cjapât di nô: given that he sold us and then used up (ate) all that he got in exchange for us.

Verse 16: Propit cussì: {it is} just so. Dute la robe che Diu i à puartade vie a nestri pari e je nestre e dai nestris fruts: all the substance that God has taken away from our father is ours and our children’s. Alore cumò fâs ce che Diu ti à dit: now then, do as God has told you.

Versets 17-21

Vocabulary: cjapâsi sù (to pick oneself up, to arise), montâ (to get on, to mount), il camêl (camel), i fruts (children), la femine (wife), mandâ devant di sè (to send ahead), la mandrie (herd), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), il besteam (livestock), tornâ di (to return to), il pari (father), la tiere (land, earth), tosâ (to shear), la piore (sheep), strafuî (to steal), il diu (god), la famee (family), i dius de famee (household gods), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do, to succeed in doing), dâle d’intindi (to mislead, to keep in the dark), un arameu (Aramean), cence (without), nancje (not even), scrupulâ (to suspect), scjampâ (to flee), lâsint (to leave, to go, to take off), la robe (substance, possessions), partî (to leave, to depart), passâ (to pass, to cross), il flum (river), inviâsi de bande di (to head towards), la mont (mount, mountain).

Verse 17: Jacop si cjapà sù (Jacob arose), al fasè montâ sui camêi i siei fruts e lis sôs feminis ({and} had his children and his wives mount the camels). If montâ means to mount, then fâ montâ means to make mount, to cause to mount.

Verse 18: Al mandà devant di sè (he drove [sent] ahead of himself) dute la sô mandrie (his entire herd) cun dut ce che si veve comprât (along with everything that he had acquired for himself), il besteam che al jere so (the livestock that was in his possession [that was his]) e che al veve comprât a Padan-Aram (and that he had acquired in Paddan-Aram), par tornâ di so pari Isac (so as to return to his father Isaac), te tiere di Canaan (in the land of Canaan).

Verse 19: Laban al jere lât a tosâ lis pioris (Laban had gone to shear the sheep) e Rachêl e strafuì i dius de famee (and Rachel stole the household gods), che a jerin di so pari (which were her father’s). The dius de famee were household gods; they were small in size, but also sometimes large enough to be shaped like human figures. They were common in the houses of Israelites and appear to have been a source of superstition. In the verses following this one, they are referred to simply as i dius.

Verse 20: One of the ways that dâle d’intindi can be taken is as to lead to believe; for example: al è un grum brâf a dâ d’intindi cualsisei robe (he is very good at leading you to believe anything). In the context of this verse, it can be understood as meaning to mislead, to keep in the dark. You read: Jacop al rivà a dâje d’intindi a Laban l’arameu (Jacob managed to keep Laban the Aramean in the dark; Jacob succeeded in misleading Laban the Aramean) cence che nancje no si scrupulàs che lui al scjampave (without one’s even suspecting that he was fleeing). The je of dâje is a contraction of i + le (unto him + it), where the i stands in for a Laban. You will come across dâle d’intindi again in the twenty-sixth verse. As for the verb scrupulâ, it means to suspect; it is used here impersonally with si. Following cence che, the subjunctive is used; al scrupulàs is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. Observe: no si scrupulave che (one was not suspecting that); cence che nancje no si scrupulàs che (without one’s even suspecting that).

Verse 21: E cussì si ’nt lè cun dute la sô robe (and so he made off with all his substance), al partì (departed), al passà il flum (crossed the river) e s’invià de bande de mont di Gaalad (and headed towards mount Gilead).

Versets 22-25

Vocabulary: trê dîs dopo (three days later), vignî a savê (to come to know, to find out), scjampâ (to flee), clamâ dongje (to call together), il fradi (brother), cori daûr (to pursue), siet dîs di viaç (seven days’ distance), cjapâ (to catch up), la mont (mount, mountain), vignî in sium (to come in a dream), vie pe gnot (during the night), un arameu (Aramean), puar mai te (woe to you), alc (something), rivâ (to arrive, to come), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent).

Verse 22: Trê dîs dopo (three days later), Laban al vignì a savê (Laban came to know) che Jacop al jere scjampât (that Jacob had fled).

Verse 23: Al clamà dongje ducj i siei fradis: he called together all his brethren (brothers). Cori daûr, meaning to pursue, translates literally as to run after: i corè daûrji par siet dîs di viaç (he pursued him a seven days’ distance [for seven days of journey]) e lu cjapà su la mont di Gaalad (and caught up with him at mount Gilead). Daûrji (after him) is a contraction of daûr + i, with a j interposed because dâur ends in a consonant. Another example of this inserted j already encountered is in disintji, meaning saying to him.

Verse 24: Ma Diu i vignì in sium vie pe gnot a Laban l’arameu: but God came to Laban the Aramean in a dream during the night. Puar mai te se tu i disis alc a Jacop: woe to you if you say anything to Jacob.

Verse 25: Laban al rivà su la mont là che Jacop al veve plantade la sô tende: Laban came to the mountain where Jacob had pitched his tent. E Laban al plantà ancje lui la sô tende su la mont di Galaad: and Laban pitched his tent on mount Gilead also.

Versets 26-30

Vocabulary: dâle d’intindi (to mislead, to keep in the dark), menâ vie (to take away), la fie (daughter), come che (as though), la presonirie (female prisoner, captive woman; also presonere), la vuere (war), fuî (to flee), di scuindon (secretly, in secrecy), invezit di (instead of), visâ (to inform), lassâ partî (to allow to leave), la ligrie (mirth, cheer), il cjant (song), il tambûr (drum), la citare (kithara), strengi (to embrace, to hug; also strenzi), il fi (son), semeâ (to seem; also someâ), fâ une biele part (to act a wise part), fâ dal mal (to harm), il pari (father), usgnot passade (last night), puar mai te (woe to you), dî alc (to say something), propit (indeed, really), vêr (true), tant (so much), vê passion di (to long for), la cjase (house), strafuî (to steal), i dius (gods).

Verse 26: Parcè me âstu dade d’intindi: why did you mislead me?; me is a contraction of mi + le, where le forms part of the expression dâle d’intindi and also causes the past participle to be accorded in the feminine singular as dade. [Parcè] âstu menât vie mês fiis come che a fossin presoniriis di vuere?: why did you take my daughters away as though they were prisoners of war? A male prisoner is un presonîr; a female prisoner is une presonirie (or presonere).

Verse 27: Parcè sêstu fuît di scuindon di me?: why did you flee from me in secrecy? Supplementary examples of di scuindon: bussâsi di scuindon (to steal a kiss from one another); jentrâ di scuindon (to sneak in); acuardâsi di scuindon (to reach an agreement in secrecy, to collude). [Parcè] mi âstu imbroiât invezit di visâmi, che jo ti varès lassât partî in ligrie e cui cjants, cui tambûrs e lis citaris: why did you deceive me rather than inform me, for I would have let you leave in mirth and with songs, drums and kitharas. O varès lassât (I would have let) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl passât of the verb lassâ. With verbs taking as their auxiliary, this tense is composed of the condizionâl presint of the verb followed by the past participle of the verb in question. If you wish to review the condizionâl presint of the verb vê, you will find it through the Friulian verb conjugations page. Observe: o varès; o varès dât (I would have; I would have given); al varès; al varès lassât (he would have; he would have let); a varessin; a varessin fevelât (they would have; they would have spoken). Although the formation of the condizionâl passât is fairly straightforward once you have mastered the condizionâl presint of the verb , the complete conjugation of the verb lassâ in this tense is presented below.

Verb: LASSÂ
Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varès lassât
varessio lassât?
tu
tu varessis lassât varessistu lassât?
lui
al varès lassât varessial lassât?

e varès lassât varessie lassât?

o varessin lassât varessino lassât?
vualtris
o varessis lassât varessiso lassât?
lôr
a varessin lassât varessino lassât?

Verse 28: No tu mi âs nancje lassât strengi i miei fîs e lis mês fiis: you did not even let me embrace my sons and daughters. Review word order with the following: tu tu âs lassât; tu âs lassât (you let); tu no tu âs lassât; no tu âs lassât (you did not let); tu tu mi âs lassât; tu mi âs lassât (you let me); tu no tu mi âs lassât; no tu mi âs lassât (you did not let me); tu no tu mi âs nancje lassât; no tu mi âs nancje lassât (you did not even let me). Ti semeial di vê fate une biele part?: do you believe that you have acted wisely (does it seem to you to have acted a wise part)? The verb semeâ (or someâ) means to seem. Its masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al semee (or al somee); its interrogative form, then, is semeial (or someial). Ti semeial (or ti someial) translates as does it seem to you.

Verse 29: O podarès ancje fâti dal mâl: I could even harm you. O podarès (I would be able to, I could) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê. The present conditional conjugation of podê is presented below. Whereas the presint indicatîf of podê can be used to express the sense of can, the condizionâl presint can be used to express that of could, might. Examples: al pues viodi la strade (he can see the street); al podarès cambiâ idee (he could change his mind). Ma il Diu di to pari, usgnot passade, mi à dit cussì: but thus said the God of your father to me last night. Puar mai te se tu i disis alc a Jacop: woe to you if you say anything to Jacob.

Verb: PODÊ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o podarès
podaressio?
tu
tu podaressis
podaressistu?
lui
al podarès
podaressial?

e podarès
podaressie?

o podaressin
podaressino?
vualtris
o podaressis
podaressiso?
lôr
a podaressin
podaressino?

Verse 30: Laban asks Jacob: ese propit vere (is it indeed true) che tu vevis tante passion de cjase di to pari? (that you were very much longing [were having so much longing] for the house of your father?); note the use of the feminine ese (variant of ise) to ask this question. He continues: e parcè mi âstu strafuît i miei dius? (and why did you steal my gods from me?); these are the dius de famee (household gods) mentioned at the nineteenth verse.

Versets 31-35

Vocabulary: vê pôre (to be afraid), pensâ (to think), vê cûr (to dare), puartâ vie (to take away), la fie (daughter), cjatâ (to find), i dius (gods), lassâ in vite (to let live), presince di (before, in the presence of), il fradi (brother), par dî il vêr (in all honesty, truly, in point of fact), lâ a cirî (to go look for), la tende (tent), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), saltâ fûr (to go/come out), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), i dius de famee (household gods), platâ (to hide), sot di (under), la siele (saddle), il camêl (camel), sentâsi (to sit down), parsore (atop, upon), sclusignâ (to rummage), par dute la tende (through the entire tent), no cjatâ redenzie di nuie (to find no trace thereof), il pari (father), il paron (lord), vêse par mâl (to take it amiss, to take offence), jevâ in pîts (to get up, to arise), vê lis sôs robis (to be menstruating), cirî par dut (to search everywhere).

Verse 31: O ai vude pôre (I was afraid), o ai pensât che (I thought that) tu varessis vût cûr (you would have dared) di puartâmi vie lis tôs fiis (to take your daughters away from me). You find the condizionâl passât in tu varessis vût (you would have had). Observe: tu tu varessis; tu varessis (you would have); tu tu varessis cûr di; tu varessis cûr di (you would have heart to; that is, you would dare to); tu tu varessis vût; tu varessis vût (you would have had); tu tu varessis vût cûr di; tu varessis vût cûr di (you would have had heart to; that is, you would have dared to). The condizionâl passât of the verb is presented below; it follows the conjugation of lassâ in this same tense presented at verse 27 with the only difference of the past participle.

Verb:
Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varès vût
varessio vût?
tu
tu varessis vût varessistu vût?
lui
al varès vût varessial vût?

e varès vût varessie vût?

o varessin vût varessino vût?
vualtris
o varessis vût varessiso vût?
lôr
a varessin vût varessino vût?

Verse 32: The meaning of intor in the following is about in the sense of on one’s person: ma chel che tu i cjatarâs intor i tiei dius (but he about whom you will find your gods; that is, but whomever you find in possession of your gods). No lu lassarai in vite: I shall not let him live. Presince dai nestris fradis: in the presence of our brethren (brothers). Viôt ce che al è to e cjoltal: see what is yours and take it (take it unto yourself). Jacop, par dî il vêr, nol saveve che ju veve puartâts vie Rachêl: Jacob, in all honesty, did not know (was not knowing) that Rachel had carried them away.

Verse 33: The Friulian for two is either doi (masculine) or dôs (feminine); because sierve is a feminine noun, two maidservants is expressed as dôs siervis. You read: Laban al lè a cirî te tende di Jacop (Laban went to search in Jacob’s tent), po te tende di Lie e ancje te tende des dôs siervis (then in Leah’s tent and also in the tent of the two maidservants), ma nol cjatà nuie (but he did not find anything; but he found nothing). The text continues: al saltà fûr de tende di Lie (he came out of Leah’s tent) e al jentrà in chê di Rachêl (and went into Rachel’s [and went into that of Rachel]).

Verse 34: Rachêl e veve cjolts i dius de famee (Rachel had taken the household gods), ju veve platâts sot de siele dal camêl (had hidden them under the saddle of the camel) e si jere sentade parsore (and had sat down upon them [had sat down atop]). No cjatâ redenzie di nuie can be taken as meaning to find no trace thereof, to find nothing whatsoever, to find nothing at all: Laban al sclusignà par dute la tende (Laban rummaged through the entire tent) ma nol cjatà redenzie di nuie (but found nothing whatsoever).

Verse 35: Vê lis sôs robis is used here in the sense of to be menstruating; it translates literally as to have one’s matters. Rachel says to her father: che il gno paron no se vedi par mâl (let my lord not take it amiss) se jo no jevi in pîts denant di lui (if I do not rise upon my feet before him), parcè che o ai lis mês robis (because I have my matters). In vêse par mâl (to take it amiss, to take offence), se attached to the end of is a contraction of si + le. In the text of this verse, you find the verb expressed in the subjunctive because it follows che used here to express a desire (may, let); al vedi is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb vê. Observe: se à par mâl (he takes it amiss); no se à par mâl (he does not take it amiss); che no se vedi par mâl (let him not take it amiss). This is not the first time that you are meeting with vê lis sôs robis; you first came across it in Gjenesi 18:11, when you read of Sarah: dopomai che no veve plui lis sôs robis. Laban al cirì par dut ma nol cjatà i dius: Laban searched everywhere but he did not find the gods.

Versets 36-40

Vocabulary: inrabiâsi (to get angry), tacâ (to take on), il delit (crime), la colpe (fault, guilt), tant (so, very), incjagnît (enraged, infuriated; also incagnît), cirî (to search), i grabatui (things), tirâ fûr (to bring forth), culì (here), presince di (before, in the presence of), il fradi (brother), la sentence (judgement, sentence), fâ sentence (to judge), vincj (twenty), un an (year), la piore (ewe), la cjavre (she-goat), dispierdi (to miscarry), mangjâ (to eat), il roc (ram), il nemâl (animal), fâ fûr (to kill), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), puartâ (to bring), rimeti (to repay [put back]), volê (to want), puartâ vie (to carry off), di dì (by day), di gnot (by night), sbrovâ (to burn, to scorch), il cjalt (heat), vie pal dì (by day), glacâ (to freeze), il frêt (cold), no sierâ lûs (to not get any sleep), in dute la mari gnot (during the entire night).

Verse 36: Alore Jacop s’inrabià e al tacà Laban: then Jacob got angry and took Laban on. Jacob says: ce delit ti àio fat (what crime have I comitted against you [what crime have I done to you]), ce colpe àio jo (what is my guilt [what guilt have I]), che tu sês tant incjagnît cuintri di me? (that you should be so infuriated with me [that you are so infuriated against me]?).

Verse 37: Tu âs cirût in dute la mê robe: you have gone through (have searched in) all my things. Âstu cjatât alc in ducj i miei grabatui?: have you found anything {of yours} amongst all my things? Tirilu fûr culì, presince dai miei fradis e dai tiei fradis: produce it (bring it forth) here, before my brethren and yours (my brothers and your brothers). Nô doi: the two of us; both of us. Che a fasin lôr sentence di nô doi: let them judge the two of us; let them decide between the two of us.

Verse 38: A son vincj agns che o soi cun te: I have been with you for twenty years (it is twenty years that I am with you). Lis tôs pioris e lis tôs cjavris no àn mai dispierdût: your ewes and she-goats have never miscarried. No ai mai mangjât un roc dai tiei: I have never eaten a ram of yours.

Verse 39: Tai is a contraction of ti + ju (unto you + them); see the chart below. You read: i nemâi fats fûr des bestiis salvadiis (the animals killed by wild beasts) no tai ai mai puartâts a ti (I never brought them to you). Rimeti dal gno can be taken as meaning to repay of my own, to make good: o ai rimetût simpri dal gno (I always repaid of my own; I always made good {the loss}) parcè che tu tu volevis vê dut (because you wanted [were wanting to have] everything; that is, Laban was strict in the requirement that any loss be made good), ancje ce che mi puartavin vie di dì e di gnot (even that which was carried off [that which they were carrying off from me] by day and by night; that is, whether it be an animal stolen by man during the day or snatched by beast at night).

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Verse 40: The verb sbrovâ means to burn, to scorch; glaçâ means to freeze; supplementary examples: la aghe e sbrove (the water is burning hot); il frêt al à glaçade la aghe (the cold has frozen the water). On a very hot day, you might use sbrovâ di cjalt to talk about being extremely hot yourself; on a very cold day, glaçâsi di frêt could be used to talk about feeling the extreme cold. In the text of this verse, you read: o sbrovavi di cjalt vie pal dì (I was burning by day) e di gnot mi glaçavi di frêt (and freezing by night). No sieravi lûs in dute la mari gnot: during the entire night I closed not my eyes (I was not closing light); that is, I was entirely unable to sleep at night.

Versets 41-43

Vocabulary: vincj (twenty), un an (year), fâ di famei (to act as servant), cutuardis agns di file (fourteen years in a row), la fie (daughter), sîs (six), il trop (flock), gambiâ pae (to change one’s wages; also cambiâ paie), almancul dîs viaçs (at least ten times), furtune che (it is a blessing [fortune] that; also fortune che), il terôr (terror, fear), senò (otherwise), mandâ indaûr (to send off), cu lis mans spacant (with empty hands, empty-handed), il sudôr (sweat), la fadie (toil, labour), il braç (arm), usgnot passade (last night), fâ sentence (to judge), rispuindi (to respond), i fruts (children), la mandrie (flock), viodi (to see), cumò (now), parturî (to bear).

Verse 41: Ti ai fat di famei cutuardis agns di file pes tôs dôs fiis: I have been a servant (acted as servant) to you fourteen years in a row for your two daughters. Sîs agns pal to trop: six years for your flock. Tu tu mi âs gambiade pae almancul dîs viaçs: you have changed my wages (changed wages unto me) at least ten times.

Verse 42: Furtune che il Diu di gno pari, il Diu di Abram, il Terôr di Isac, al à stât simpri cun me: it is a blessing ({it is a} fortune) that the God of my father, the God of Abraham, the Fear of Isaac, has always been with me. The verb spacâ means to shake; for example, spacâ lis spalis means to shrug one’s shoulders. In the text of this verse, you find cu lis mans spacant, which is to be taken as meaning with empty hands, empty-handed; the image created by this expression is one of a person wagging his empty hands back and forth. Spacant (shaking) is the present participle of the verb spacâ; cu lis mans spacant can be understood more literally as with hands ashake. You read: che senò tu mi varessis mandât indaûr cu lis mans spacant (for otherwise you would have sent me off empty-handed [with hands ashake]). The masculine sudôr is the Friulian for sweat: ma Diu al à viodûts i miei sudôrs e la fadie dai miei braçs (but God saw my plight [my sweats] and the toil of my arms). Usgnot passade, al à fate sentence: last night, he passed judgement.

Verse 43: Chest is the Friulian for this; review the following: chest (masculine singular); chescj (masculine plural); cheste (feminine singular); chestis (feminine plural). Chestis a son lis mês fiis: these are my daughters. Chescj fruts a son i miei fruts: these children are my children. Cheste mandrie e je la mê mandrie: this flock is my flock. Dut ce che tu viodis al è gno: all that you see is mine; everything that you see is mine. Varessio (would I have) is the interrogative form of the first-person singular o varès (I would have) of the condizionâl presint. You read: ma cumò (but now) ce varessio di fâ (what am I to do [what would I have to do]) pes mês fiis e pai fruts che lôr a àn parturît? (about [for] my daughters and about [for] the children whom they have borne?).

Versets 44-49

Vocabulary: poben (now then, well then), metisi d’acuardi (to make an agreement), servî di (to serve as), il testemoni (testimony, witness), cjoli (to take), la piere (stone), meti in pîts (to set afoot), a uso (after the manner of), il colonel (pillar), il fradi (brother), puartâ dongje (to gather), il clap (stone), la maserie (mound, heap), mangjâ (to eat), parsore (atop, upon), meti non (to name), di chi indenant (from now on, henceforth), fâ la vuaite (to keep watch), viodisi un cu l’altri (to see one another).

Verse 44: Poben, metinsi d’acuardi: well then, let us make an agreement. Che chest al servissi di testemoni fra me e te: may it (may this) serve as witness between me and you. The masculine acuardi is the Friulian for agreement. Metìnsi is the first-person plural imperative of metisi. Metìnsi d’acuardi can be taken literally as let us put ourselves in agreement. You first encountered metìnsi in Gjenesi 11:3, where you read: metìnsi a fâ modons.

Verse 45: Alore Jacop al cjolè une piere e le metè in pîts a uso colonel: Jacob then took a stone and set it afoot as (after the manner of) a pillar.

Verse 46: Dissal Jacop ai siei fradis: Jacob said to his brethren (brothers). Puartait dongje claps: gather stones. A puartarin dongje claps e a faserin une maserie: they gathered stones and made a mound. A mangjarin parsore de maserie: they ate upon the mound.

Verse 47: Laban i metè non Jegar-Saadute: Laban named it Jegarsahadutha. Jacop i metè non Gal-Ed: Jacob named it Galeed.

Verses 48-49: Laban says: cheste maserie (this mound) di chi indenant (henceforth) e sarà un testemoni (shall be a witness) fra me e te (between me and you). The mound is then named: par chel i metè non Gal-Ed e ancje Mizpe (for this reason he named it Galed and also Mizpah) parcè che, dissal (for he said): che al fasi la vuaite il Signôr fra me e te (may the Lord keep watch between me and you) cuant che no si viodarin plui un cu l’altri (when we are out of one another’s sight [when we shall no longer see one another]).

Versets 50-54

Vocabulary: la malegracie (unkindness, discourtesy), fâ malegraciis (to mistreat), la fie (daughter), cjoli (to take), altri (other), la femine (wife), in soreplui di (in addition to), nissun om (no man), fra di nô (between us), jessi di testemoni (to bear witness), la maserie (mound, heap), intassâ (to pile, to heap, to stack), il colonel (pillar), passâ (to pass, to cross), la bande (side), fâsi dal mâl (to harm one another), fâ sentence (to judge), zurâ par (to swear by), il terôr (terror, fear), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), la mont (mount, mountain), clamâ a mangjâ (to call together to eat), il fradi (brother), insiemit (together), passâ la gnot (to spend the night).

Verse 50: Se tu ur fasis malegraciis a lis mês fiis: if you mistreat my daughters. Se tu cjolis altris feminis in soreplui des mês fiis: if you take other wives in addition to my daughters. Nol sarà nissun om fra di nô, ma al sarà Diu di testemoni fra me e te: there will be no man between us, but God will bear witness (but it will be God as witness) between me and you; for clarity: though there be no man amongst us, God will bear witness between me and you.

Verse 51: Ve cheste maserie che o ai intassade fra me e te: here is this mound that I have piled up between me and you. Ve ancje il colonel: here too is the pillar.

Verse 52: Cheste maserie e chest colonel a saran di testemoni (this mound and this pillar shall be witness) che jo no varai di passâ (that I am not to pass) cheste maserie (this mound) de tô bande (on your side) e che tu no tu varâs di passâ (and that you are not to pass) cheste maserie e chest colonel (this mound and this pillar) de mê bande (on my side) par fâsi dal mâl (so as to harm one another).

Verse 53: E che il Diu di Abram e il Diu di Nacor, a fasin sentence fra di nô: and may the God of Abraham and the God of Nahor judge between us; note that the verb is in the plural: a fasin (they judge), which suggests that he viewed the God of Abraham (that is, of the Hebrews in Canaan) and the God of Nahor (that is, of the Hebrews in Haran) as separate deities. Jacop al zurà pal Terôr di Isac, so pari: Jacob swore by the Fear of his father Isaac.

Verse 54: Jacop al fasè un sacrifici su la mont: Jacob made a sacrifice on the mount. Al clamà a mangjâ ancje i siei fradis: he also called his brethren (brothers) together to eat. A mangjarin insiemit: they ate together. A passarin la gnot su la mont: they spent the night on the mount.