Friulian language series: Gjenesi 31, Jacop al torne in Canaan

The subjects of chapter 31 of the book of Genesis are: Jacop al torne in Canaan (Jacob returns to Canaan), cumbinament di Jacop cun Laban (Jacob’s agreement with Laban). As with the previous chapter, a considerable amount of new Friulian usages appear. You will continue to enrich your range of understanding and expression in Friulian by studying the contents of this chapter.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Read Gjenesi 31

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 31. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-3

From these first three verses, learn or review the following Friulian usages: sintî (to hear), parie (at the same time), cjoli (to take), slargjâsi (to become rich, to increase oneself), il damp (detriment, harm; also written dam), a damp di (to the detriment of; also written a dam di), inacuargisi (to realise, to notice; also written inacuarzisi), a sec (immediately), il plait (statement, speech, address), di prime (as before), tornâ (to return), i vons (forefathers).

The Friulian noun il dam means damage, harm, detriment. Examples of use: la assicurazion e paiarà i dams (the insurance will pay for the damages), patî un dam cerebrâl (to suffer brain damage), i dams dal tristimp (the damage caused by the bad weather). In verse 1, you find dam (expressed as damp) in the expression a dam di, meaning to the detriment of. You read: Jacob […] si è slargjât a damp di nestri pari (Jacob has increased himself to the detriment of our father).

In verse 2, you read that Laban no longer addressed Jacob in the same way; his disposition towards him had changed for the worse. You read: Laban no i faseve il plait di prime (Laban no longer addressed him as before).

Versets 4-7

Learn or review the following Friulian usages from these next four verses: mandâ a clamâ (to send for), il prât (field), la cuarnadure (temperament, constitution), jessi compagn di (to be the same as), dibessôl (on one’s own, by oneself) fâ di famei (to act as servant), miôr che o ai podût (as best I could), a la cuâl che (whereas), imbroiâ (to fool, to dupe, to trick), gambiâ (to change; also expressed as cambiâ), dîs viaçs (ten times), la pae (pay; also written paie), permeti (to permit), puartâ damp (to bring harm, to cause detriment; also written puartâ dam).

In the context of this chapter, i prâts can be understood as meaning fields. In a modern context, il prât can also be understood as meaning lawn. Examples: un prât in citât (a lawn in the city), doman o sei il prât (tomorrow I shall mow the lawn; literally, tomorrow I mow the lawn; seâ, to mow; o sei, I mow). Note that seâ il prât (to mow the lawn) could also be expressed as taiâ la jerbe (to cut the grass).

In verse 5, Jacob says that Laban’s temperament has changed: la robe no je compagn di prime (it is not the same as before).

In verse 6, Jacob says to Rachel and Leah: o savês dibessolis (you yourselves know) che jo o ai fat di famei a vuestri pari (that I have acted as servant to your father; that I have served your father) miôr che o ai podût (as best I could; to the best of my ability). He continues, in verse 7, by saying that Laban has duped him and changed his wages ten times; he also says: ma Diu no i à permetût di puartâmi damp (but God has not permitted him to bring me harm).

Versets 8-13

Friulian vocabulary to learn or review from these six verses includes: moschetât (speckled), il zocul (kid [goat]), riât (streaked), puartâ vie (to take away), sucedi (to happen), tal timp che (at the time when), lâ in amôr (to reproduce), alcâ i vôi (to raise one’s eyes, to look up), il sium (dream), viodi in sium (to see in a dream), il bec ([male] goat, buck), cuviergi (to cover; used here in the sense of to mount, to mate with; also written cuvierzi), tacolât (spotted), verzolât (striped), un agnul (angel), inmascjî (to mate with), comparî (to appear), là che (where), onzi (to anoint), il colonel (pillar), fâ un avôt (to make a vow), cjapâsi sù (to arise, to get up), jessî (to exit). Name: Betel (Bethel).

In verse 8, al è to means it is yours. For example, ce che al è moschetât al è to means that which is speckled is yours and ce che al è riât al è to means that which is streaked is yours. These can also be understood as meaning whatever is speckled is yours and whatever is streaked is yours. I zocui is the plural form of il zocul. You can understand a fasevin zocui moschetâts and a fasevin zocui riâts as meaning they had speckled kids and they had streaked kids.

In verse 9, Jacob says: Diu i à puartât vie il besteam a vuestri pari (God has taken the livestock away from your father) e mal à dât a mi (and he has given it to me). You will have recognised mal as being a contraction of mi + lu, where lu stands in for il besteam. In mal à dât a mi, mi is repeated, which has the effect of emphasising to whom the animals were given: mal (to me-it) à dât (has given) a mi (to me).

In verse 10, you will perhaps remember the expression lâ in amôr from the beginning of your study, in Gjenesi 1:22. You can understand this expression as meaning to reproduce. The masculine noun amôr is the Friulian for love, but it is to be understood here as meaning sexual reproduction: lâ in amôr, to go into sexual reproduction (that is, to reproduce). Also in verse 10, you can understand al è sucedût che as meaning it so happened that, it came to pass that.

In verse 11, o rispuindei is the first-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb rispuindi. You read: e jo i rispuindei (and I responded to him): ben? (yes?).

Onzût, in verse 13, is the past participle of the verb onzi (to anoint). In this same verse, God says to Jacob: cumò cjapiti sù (now arise; now get up), jes di cheste tiere (exit this land; leave this land) e torne te cjase di to pari (and return to your father’s house). Jes is the second-person singular imperative form of the verb jessî, meaning to exit.

Versets 14-16

Learn or review the following Friulian usages from these three verses: forsit (maybe, perhaps), ancjemò (still, yet), la legjitime (the portion to which the children have a right; can be understood simply as portion here, but it translates as legitime in civil and Roman law), une ereditât (inheritance), tratâ (to treat), il forest (stranger; the feminine plural form forestis is used in the text, from the feminine singular foreste), par vie che (given that), vendi (to sell), mangjâ (to eat; used here in the sense of to consume), propit cussì (it is exactly so, that is just how it is).

In verse 14, you will recognise vino as being the interrogative form of o vin (we have), which is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. The daughters say: vino forsit ancjemò (do we maybe still have) une legjitime e une ereditât (a portion and an inheritance) te cjase di nestri pari (in the house of our father)?

You find another interrogative form in verse 15: tratial. Al trate (he treats) is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb tratâ; tratial is its interrogative form. The daughters say: no nus tratial come che o fossin forestis? (does he not treat us as though we were strangers?). O fossin is the first-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. You know that the Friulian for stranger is il forest; you now encounter its feminine form la foreste, used in the plural in the text.

Still in verse 15, the daughters continue: par vie che nus à vendudis (given that he has sold us) e dopo (and afterwards) al à mangjât dut ce che al veve cjapât di nô (he consumed everything that he got for [the price of] us)? The verb mangjâ (to eat) can be understood in the sense of to consume here. Cjapâ di nô translates literally as to take from us, but it is to be understood in the sense of to get from (the price of) us.

Versets 17-21

Learn or review these Friulian expressions and vocabulary: montâ sul camêl (to get on the camel, to climb onto the camel; montâ is cognate with the English to mount), fâ montâ sui camêi (to set upon the camels, to make climb onto the camels), mandâ devant di sè (to send off in front of oneself, to send off before oneself), comprâ (to buy), comprâsi (to buy for oneself), tornâ di so pari (to return to his father’s; could also mean to return to one’s father’s in other contexts), tosâ (to shear), la piore (sheep), strafuî (to steal), i dius de famee (household gods; la famee, family), rivâ a fâ (to manage to do), dâle di intindi (to lead to believe), un arameu (Aramean), cence (without), nancje ([not] even), scrupulâ (to suspect), scjampâ (to flee), lâsint (to leave, to go off), passâ il flum (to pass the river), inviâsi de bande di (to set off towards). Names: Padan-Aram (Padan Aram), Canaan (Canaan).

Jacob puts his wives and children on the camels: al fasè montâ sui camêi i siei fruts e lis sôs feminis. If montâ means to get on, then fâ montâ means to make get on. Fâ montâ sui camêi i siei fruts, then, translates literally as to make his children get on the camels; that is, to set his children upon the camels, to place his children upon the camels.

In verse 19, you read: Laban al jere lât a tosâ lis pioris (Laban had gone to shear the sheep) e Rachêl e strafuì i dius de famee (and Rachel stole the household gods), che a jerin di so pari (which were her father’s). The dius de famee were household gods; they were sometimes small in size, but also sometimes large enough to be shaped like human figures. They were common in the houses of Israelites and appear to have been a source of superstition. In the verses following this one, they are referred to simply as i dius. You will recall that the Friulian for family is la famee. As for the verb strafuî, it means to steal; that said, a more common way to say to steal is robâ.

In verse 20, the expression dâle di intindi means to lead to believe; the verb intindi can be understood as meaning to understand. What Jacob had lead Laban to believe was that he had not fled; in reality, he managed to disappear without being noticed. In the text, you find this usage expressed as dâje d’intindi a Laban (which, in the context of this verse, you can understand as meaning to disappear on Laban), where di has contracted with intindi, and the je in dâje is a contraction of i + le (i is equivalent here to a Laban). You will come across this expression again in verse 26.

Verse 20 continues: cence che nancje no si scrupulàs che lui al scjampave (without one even suspecting that he fled). The verb scrupulâ means to suspect; it is used here impersonally with si, which conveys the sense of without one even suspecting that, without it even being suspected that. Following cence che, the subjunctive is used; al scrupulàs is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. Compare:

no si scrupulave che
cence che nancje no si scrupulàs che
one was not suspecting that
without one even suspecting that

Versets 22-25

Learn or review the following Friulian expressions and vocabulary: trê dîs dopo (three days afterwards), vignî a savê (to come to know, to find out), clamâ dongje (to call together), cori daûr (to pursue, to run after), par siet dîs di viaç (for seven days’ journey), la mont (mount), vignî in sium (to come in a dream), vie pe gnot (during the night), puar mai te (woe to you), alc (something), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent). Name: Galaad (Gilead).

Laban did not realise that Jacob had fled until three days later. He then set out to pursue him: i corè daûrji par siet dîs di viaç (he pursued him for seven days’ journey). You will remember that cori daûr translates literally as to run after. I corè daûrji means he pursued him, he ran after him, where daûrji is a combination of daûr + i, with a j interposed because dâur ends in a consonant. Another example of this inserted j that you have already encountered is in disintji, meaning saying to him.

With the aid of the vocabulary provided above, you should be able to make out the sense of these verses without any further help. I shall nonetheless draw your attention to the expression vie pe gnot, in verse 24. You have seen before that vie par can be used in the sense of during the course of; take a moment to look again at examples of this important usage: vie pe gnot (during the night), vie pal dì (during the day), vie pal mês (during the month), vie par dute la sere (during the entire evening), vie pal istât (during the summer).

Versets 26-30

Friulian expressions and vocabulary to be learned or reviewed from this next set of verses include: menâ vie (to take away), come che (as though), la presonirie ([female] prisoner, captive woman; also expressed as la presonere; masculine form: il presonîr), la vuere (war), fuî (to flee, to escape), di scuindon (secretly), invezit di (instead of), visâ (to advise, to inform), lassâ partî (to allow to leave), la ligrie (joy), partî in ligrie (to leave in joy), il cjant (singing), il tambûr (drum), la citare (kithara; stringed instrument), strengi (to hug; also written strenzi), semeâ (to seem; also expressed as someâ), fâ une biele part (to do a good deed), fâ dal mal (to harm, to hurt), usgnot passade (last night), propit (indeed, really), vêr (true; the feminine form vere is used here), tant (so much, a lot of), vê passion di (to long for).

In verse 26, you read: parcè me âstu dade d’intindi? (literally, why did you lead me to believe [it]?; in the context of this verse, why did you disappear on me?). You will have perhaps understood that me is a contraction of mi + le, where le forms part of the expression dâle di intindi. The past participle dât is made to agree with it as dade.

Something that is done di scuindon is performed secretly, stealthily, furtively. In verse 27, you find fuî di scuindon, meaning to take off in secret, to steal away, etc., where fuî means to flee, to escape. More examples of di scuindon: bussâsi di scuindon (to kiss each other in secret, to steal a kiss from one another), jentrâ di scuindon (to sneak in), acuardâsi di scuindon (to reach an agreement in secret, to collude).

Still in verse 27, Laban says that Jacob did not have to steal away: parcè […] mi âstu imbroiât (why did you fool me) invezit di visâmi (instead of advising me; instead of telling me), che jo ti varès lassât partî in ligrie (for I would have let you leave in joy). O varès lassât (I would have let) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl passât of the verb lassâ. With verbs taking as their auxiliary, you will recall that this tense is composed of the condizionâl presint of the verb followed by the past participle of the verb in question. If you need to review the condizionâl presint of the verb vê, you will find it through the Friulian verb conjugations page. Observe:

o varès
o varès dât
I would have
I would have given

al varès
al varès lassât
he would have
he would have let

a varessin
a varessin fevelât
they would have
they would have spoken

Although the formation of the condizionâl passât is fairly straightforward once you have mastered the condizionâl presint of the verb , I shall nonetheless provide below the conjugation of the verb lassâ in this tense for your review:

Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

o varès lassât
varessio lassât?
tu varessis lassât varessistu lassât?
al varès lassât varessial lassât?

e varès lassât varessie lassât?

o varessin lassât varessino lassât?
o varessis lassât varessiso lassât?
a varessin lassât varessino lassât?

In verse 28, you find: no tu mi âs nancje lassât […]. Review the following so that the word order becomes impressed in your mind:

tu tu âs lassât
tu âs lassât
you have let

tu no tu âs lassât
no tu âs lassât
you have not let

tu tu mi âs lassât
tu mi âs lassât
you have let me

tu no tu mi âs lassât
no tu mi âs lassât
you have not let me

tu no tu mi âs nancje lassât
no tu mi âs nancje lassât
you have not even let me

Still in verse 28, Laban asks Jacob: ti semeial di vê fate une biele part? (do you think that what you did was good?; literally, does it seem to you to have done a good deed?). The verb semeâ (also expressed as someâ) means to seem. Its masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al semee (or al somee). Its interrogative form, then, is semeial (or someial); the question ti semeial (or ti someial) asks does it seem to you (or even do you think). It can also be expressed in the negative as no to semeial di (or no ti someial di), with a different meaning conveyed:

ti someial di vê fate une biele part?
do you think that you have done a good deed?
(the speaker does not believe a good deed was done)

no ti someial di vê fate une biele part?
do you not think that you have done a good deed?
(the speaker believes a good deed was done)

In verse 29, Laban tells Jacob that it is in his power to harm him, but that God had given him a warning. He says: o podarès ancje fâti dal mâl (I could even harm you). O podarès (I would be able to, I could) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê. Below, you will find the present conditional conjugation of podê for your reference.

Whereas the presint indicatîf of podê can be used to express the sense of the English modal verb can, the condizionâl presint can be used to express that of could, might. For example: al pues viodi la strade (he can see the street), al podarès cambiâ idee (he could change his mind; cambiâ idee, to change one’s mind).

Verb: PODÊ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o podarès
tu podaressis
al podarès

e podarès

o podaressin
o podaressis
a podaressin

In verse 30, Laban asks Jacob: ese propit vere (is it indeed true) che tu vevis tante passion de cjase di to pari (that you were very much longing for the house of your father)? Note the use of the feminine ese (variant of ise) to ask this question. He continues: e parcè mi âstu strafuît i miei dius? (and why did you steal from me my [household] gods?).

Versets 31-35

Learn or review the following Friulian usages from these five verses: vê pôre (to be scared, to be afraid), vê cûr (to dare), puartâ vie (to take away), cjatâ (to find), lassâ in vite (to let live), presince di (before, in the presence of), par dî il vêr (in all honesty, in point of fact), lâ a cirî (to go look for), la tende (tent), saltâ fûr (to come out), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), platâ (to hide), sot di (under), la siele (saddle), il camêl (camel), sentâsi (to sit down, to take a seat), parsore (upon, on top), sclusignâ (to search), par dute la tende (throughout the entire tent), no cjatâ redenzie di nuie (to not find anything at all, to find no trace), vêse par mâl (to take offence, to take it the wrong way, to become upset), jevâ in pîts (to get up, to arise), vê lis sôs robis (literally, to have one’s matters; euphemism for to be menstruating), cirî par dut (to search everywhere).

You find another example of the condizionâl passât in verse 31: o ai pensât (I thought) che tu varessis vût cûr (that you would have dared) di puartâmi vie lis tôs fiis (to take away your daughters from me). The expression vê cûr di (literally, to have heart to), can be understood as meaning to dare to, to be so bold as to. Observe:

tu tu varessis
tu varessis
you would have

tu tu varessis cûr di
tu varessis cûr di
you would have heart to
(that is, you would dare to)

tu tu varessis vût
tu varessis vût
you would have had

tu tu varessis vût cûr di
tu varessis vût cûr di
you would have had heart to
(that is, you would have dared to)

For good measure, I shall include below the condizionâl passât conjugation of the verb vê; you will see that it follows the conjugation of lassâ in this same tense presented above, with only the past participle having changed.

Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

o varès vût
varessio vût?
tu varessis vût varessistu vût?
al varès vût varessial vût?

e varès vût varessie vût?

o varessin vût varessino vût?
o varessis vût varessiso vût?
a varessin vût varessino vût?

In verse 32, Jacob says that he will not let live the person found to be in possession of Laban’s household gods: chel che tu i cjatarâs intor i tiei dius (he about whom you will find your gods), no lu lassarai in vite (I shall not let live). You will recall that intor, depending on the context, means about, surrounding. You can understand chel che tu i cjatarâs intor as meaning he about whom you will find, where the sense of about is on (one’s person).

Still in verse 32, Jacob tells Laban to take whatever belongs to him that might be in Jacob’s possession: viôt ce che al è to (see what is yours) e cjoltal (and take it unto yourself). Laban searches everywhere, but he does not find anything. In verse 33, you read: te tende des dôs siervis (in the tent of the two handmaids). Recall that the Friulian for two can be either doi (masculine) or dôs (feminine); because sierve is a feminine noun, two handmaids is expressed as dôs siervis.

When Laban searches in Rachel’s tent, she says to him, in verse 35: che il gno paron no se vedi par mâl (may my lord not take offence) se jo no jevi in pîts denant di lui (if I do not get up on my feet before him), parcè che o ai lis mês robis (because I am having my matters; that is, I am menstruating).

In the expression vêse par mâl (to take offence, to take it the wrong way, to become upset), se attached to the end of is a contraction of si + le. In the text, you find the verb expressed in the subjunctive because it follows che, which is used here to express a desire; you will recall that al vedi is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb vê. Observe:

se à par mâl
no se à par mâl
che no se vedi par mâl
he takes offence
he does not take offence
may he not take offence

This is not the first time that you are encountering the euphemistic vê lis sôs robis (literally, to have one’s matters), which is to be understood as meaning to menstruate. You first came across it in Gjenesi 18:11, when you read of Sarah: dopomai che no veve plui lis sôs robis (it was long ago that she stopped menstruating; literally, it was long ago that she stopped having her matters).

Versets 36-40

Learn or review the following: inrabiâsi (to get angry), tacâ (to oppose), il delit (crime), la colpe (fault), tant (so, very), incjagnît (enraged, infuriated; also expressed as incagnît), i grabatui (stuff, things; from the singular il grabatul), tirâ fûr (to pull out, to bring forth), culì (here), presince di (before, in the presence of), la sentence (judgement, sentence), fâ sentence (to judge), la piore (sheep), la cjavre ([female] goat), dispierdi (to squander, to waste, to disperse; used here in the sense of to abort), il roc (ram), fâ fûr (to destroy, to kill), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), puartâ (to bring), rimeti dal gno (to put back of my own; that is, to pay of my own), puartâ vie (to take away, to steal), di dì (by day), di gnot (by night), sbrovâ (to burn, to scorch), il cjalt (hot[ness]), sbrovâ di cjalt (of a person, to get very hot), vie pal dì (during the day), glacâ (to freeze), il frêt (cold[ness]), glaçâsi di frêt (of a person, to get very cold), no sierâ lûs (to not get any sleep), in dute la mari gnot (during the entire night).

Although these five verses are somewhat heavy on the side of vocabulary to be learned, they will probably not present any great challenge to you on the side of grammar. With the aid of the usages listed above, you should be able to make out the sense of these verses on your own. I shall nonetheless make the following comments:

The plural grabatui, in verse 37, means things, stuff. Another example of its use: cjape sù i tiei grabatui e va (gather your things and go; get your stuff and go).

In verse 38, a son vincj agns che o soi cun te should be understood as meaning I have been with you for twenty years; it is twenty years (now) that I have been with you. Be sure to note the Friulian wording a son vincj agns che (it is twenty years that, it has been twenty years that).

In verse 39, Jacob says that he bore the loss of any animals killed by wild beasts by not bringing them to Laban with the intention of making a claim on their value: i nemâi fats fûr des bestiis salvadiis (the animals killed by wild beasts) no tai ai mai puartâts a ti (I have never brought them to you). You will have understood that tai is a contraction of ti + ju. You may wish to review the following:

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Still in verse 39, you can understand ancje ce che mi puartavin vie di dì e di gnot as meaning even those that were stolen away from me by day and by night, where the stealing away would have been committed by men (during the day) and wild beasts (at night).

The verb sbrovâ means to burn, to scorch; glaçâ means to freeze. Examples: la aghe e sbrove (the water is burning hot), il frêt al à glaçade la aghe (the cold has frozen the water). On a very hot day, you might use sbrovâ di cjalt to talk about being extremely hot yourself; on a very cold day, glaçâsi di frêt could be used to talk about feeling the extreme cold. In verse 40, you read: o sbrovavi di cjalt vie pal dì (I was burning up during the day) e di gnot mi glaçavi di frêt (and by night I was freezing to death).

Versets 41-43

Learn or review the following Friulian usages from these next three verses: cutuardis agns di file (fourteen years in a row, fourteen years straight), il trop (flock), gambiâ pae (to change one’s pay; could also be written cambiâ paie), almancul dîs viaçs (at least ten times), furtune che (it is a good thing that, it is a blessing that; could also be written fortune che), il terôr (terror, fear), senò (otherwise), mandâ indaûr (to send back, to send away), cu lis mans spacant (with empty hands), il sudôr (sweat, toil), la fadie (labour, toil), il braç (arm), usgnot passade (last night), parturî (to give birth, to bear).

Like the previous grouping of verses, you should be able to make out the sense of this next set of verses with nothing more than the aid of the Friulian usages summarised above. Note the following nonetheless:

The verb spacâ means to shake, to move. For example, spacâ lis spalis means to shrug one’s shoulders. In verse 42, you find cu lis mans spacant, which is to be understood as meaning with empty hands, empty-handed; the image created by this expression is one of a person wagging his empty hands back and forth wondering if they will be filled. Spacant (moving, shaking) is the present participle of the verb spacâ.

In verse 43, you will have understood ce varessio di fâ? as meaning what would I have to do?; the expression used here is, of course, vê di, meaning to have to, must.

o varès di fâ
ce varessio di fâ?
I would have to do
what would I have to do?

Versets 44-49

Learn or review the following Friulian usages from these next six verses: poben (now then, well then), metisi d’acuardi (to come to an agreement), servî di (to serve as), il testemoni (testimony, witness), la piere (stone), meti in pîts (to set afoot), a uso (after the manner of), il colonel (pillar), puartâ dongje (to bring back; used here in the sense of to gather), il clap (stone), la maserie (heap), parsore (upon, on top), di chi indenant (from now on, henceforth), fâ la vuaite (to guard, to watch over, to keep watch), viodisi (to be seen), un cu l’altri (with one another). Names: Jegar-Saadute (Jegarsahadutha), Gal-Ed (Galeed), Mizpe (Mizpah).

In verse 44, you find metìnsi, which is the first-person plural imperative form of metisi. Metìnsi d’acuardi can be understood as meaning let us make an agreement, let us come to an agreement; more literally, let us put ourselves in agreement. You have seen metìnsi before; you first saw it Gjenesi 11:3, where you read: metìnsi a fâ modons.

In verse 46, Jacob says to his companions (referred to here as fradis, brothers): puartait dongje claps (gather stones; bring back stones). Puartait is the second-person plural imperative form of the verb puartâ.

Laban, after the covenant between him and Jacob had been ratified, says: che al fasi la vuaite il Signôr fra me e te (may the Lord keep watch between me and you) cuant che no si viodarìn plui un cu l’altri (when we shall no longer see ourselves with one another; that is, when we shall be absent from one another).

Versets 50-54

From these final five verses of chapter 31, learn or review the following: la malegracie (unkindness, discourtesy), in soreplui di (in addition to, in excess of), nissun om (no man), fra di nô (between us), jessi di testemoni (to bear witness), intassâ (to heap, to pile, to stack), passâ de tô bande (to pass on your side), il mal (harm), fâsi dal mal (to do harm to one another), zurâ par (to swear by), fâ un sacrifici (to make a sacrifice), la mont (mount), clamâ a mangjâ (to call together to eat), insiemit (together), passâ la gnot (to spend the night). Name: Nacor (Nahor).

With the aid of the usages listed above, you should be able to make out the sense of all these verses. You may have doubts about the following, however:

In verse 50, nol sarà nissun om fra di nô means there will be no man between us. In verse 52, jo no varai di passâ cheste maserie de tô bande can be understood as meaning I must not pass this heap on your side. O varai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb vê. Jo no varai di passâ translates literally as I shall not have to pass, but the sense of it here is I must not pass.