The subject of this thirtieth chapter of the book of Genesis is: l’imbroi di Jacop (Jacob’s scheme). The masculine imbroi is related to the verb imbroiâ, meaning to trick, to deceive, which you have encountered a number of times in your readings.
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Read Gjenesi 30
Vocabulary: viodi (to see), rivâ a fâ (to be able to do, to succeed in doing), dâ fruts (to bear children), deventâ (to become), gjelôs (jealous, envious; also zelôs, gelôs), la sûr (sister), murî (to die), inrabiâsi cuintri di (to get angry with), rifudâ (to refuse, to prevent; also refudâ), deventâ mari (to become a mother), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), in mût che (so that), parturî (to give birth), il genoli (knee; also zenoli), midiant di (by way of, through), vê fruts (to have children), cjoli par femine (to take as wife), cjapâ sù (to conceive), la justizie (justice), fâ justizie (to render justice, to vindicate), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), par chel (for that reason, hence), meti non (to name), tornâ a cjapâ sù (to conceive again), lotâ cuintri di (to fight with, to struggle against), vinci (to win, to beat, to prevail).
Verse 1: Rachêl, viodint che no rivave a dâi fruts a Jacop: Rachel, (upon) seeing that she was unable to bear children to Jacob. Rachel becomes envious of her sister: e deventà gjelose di sô sûr (she became jealous of her sister). The Friulian for jealous can take the forms gjelôs, gelôs or zelôs; supplementary examples: un morôs zelôs (a jealous boyfriend); la sô femine e je masse zelose (his wife is too jealous); peraulis zelosis (jealous words); e je zelose de sûr plui piçule (she is envious of her little sister); al è zelôs des cualitâts di chei altris (he is jealous of the qualities of others). Rachel says to Jacob: se no tu mi dâs fruts ancje a mi, o mûr: if you do not give children to me as well, I shall die; o mûr (I die) is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb murî, but, in this context, it takes the sense of I shall die when rendered in English. The entire present indicative conjugation of the verb murî is presented below. Review the following: tu tu dâs; tu dâs (you give); tu no tu dâs; no tu dâs (you do not give); tu tu mi dâs; tu mi dâs (you give to me); tu no tu mi dâs; no tu mi dâs (you do not give to me); se no tu mi dâs fruts ancje a mi (if you do not give children to me children as well).
Verse 2: The Fruilian inrabiâsi means to get angry, to lose one’s temper, to become incensed; you find it used in conjunction with cuintri di (against). Jacop si inrabià cuintri di Rachêl: Jacob became incensed with Rachel; Jacob got angry with Rachel. Related to inrabiâsi are the adjectives rabiât and inrabiât, meaning angry, incensed. Jacob says to Rachel: sojo jo il Signôr (am I the Lord), che ti à rifudât di deventâ mari? (who has prevented you from becoming a mother?). The interrogative form of o soi is soio; you find here the spelling variant sojo, which takes the same pronunciation as soio.
Verse 3: Jê i disè: she said to him. Of her maidservant Bilhah, Rachel says to Jacob: ve chi Bile, la mê sierve (here is my maidservant Bilhah); va cun jê (lie [go with] her) in mût che jê e parturissi sui miei genôi (in order that she bear on my knees) e cussì, midiant di jê (and so, through her), o podarai vê fruts ancje jo (I too may have children). Lâ cun (literally, to go with) is to be taken in the context of this verse as meaning to lie with, to go unto in the sense of having sexual relations. The Friulian for knee is the masculine zenoli; its plural form is i zenoi. You find the variant spelling genôi in the text of this verse, from the singular genoli.
Verse 4: I fasè cjoli par femine Bile la sô sierve (she made him take as wife her maidservant Bilhah) e Jacop al lè cun jê (and Jacob lay with her). If cjoli means to take, then fâ cjoli means to make take, to cause to take. I fasè cjoli par femine Bile la sô sierve translates literally as unto him she made take for wife her maidservant Bilhah. Regarding lâ cun, see the notes at the third verse. In the context of this verse, cjoli par femine is better understood as meaning to take as concubine, to take as secondary wife.
Verse 5: Bile e cjapà sù e i parturì a Jacop un frut: Bilhah conceived and bore a son (boy) unto Jacob.
Verse 6: Rachel says: Diu mi à fat justizie (God has vindicated me), mi à scoltade (has heeded me) e mi à dât un frut (and has given me a son [boy]). Par chel i metè non Dan: hence she named him Dan.
Verse 7: Tornâ a cjapâ sù: to conceive again. Parturî un altri frut: to bear another son (boy).
Verse 8: Lotâ cuintri di means to fight against; fâ lotâ cuintri di, found in the text of this verse, means to make fight against, to cause to fight against. Rachel says: Diu mi à fat lotâ cuintri di mê sûr (God has made me fight against my sister) e le ai vinçude jo (and I have prevailed against her). Supplementary examples of the verb lotâ: lotâ cuintri i nemîs (to fight the enemies; il nemì, enemy, foe); lotâ pai dirits des minorancis (to fight for the rights of minorities; la minorance, minority); al lotave cuintri la pôre (he fought [was fighting] against his fear); lotâ cuintri la muart (to fight death). Supplementary examples of the verb vinci: vinci une bataie (to win a battle); vinci une partide di cjartis (to win a game of cards; la partide, game, match; la cjarte, card); vinci un concors leterari (to win a literary contest); vinci il prin premi (to win first prize; il premi, prize); vinci lis sôs pôris (to beat one’s fears); la maiorance e vinç (the majority wins; e vinç is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf). I metè non Neftali: she named him Naphtali.
Vocabulary: viodi (to see), vê fruts (to bear children), cjapâ (to take), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), cjoli par femine (to take as wife), parturî (to bear), il frut (boy, child), la furtune (fortune, luck; also fortune), la femine (woman, wife), furtunât (fortunate, lucky; also fortunât), meti non (to name), il cjamp (field), taiâ (to cut), il forment (wheat), cjatâ (to find), la grampe (handful), la mandragure (mandrake), puartâ (to bring, to take), la mari (mother), cuatri (four), puartâ dongje (to bring back), il fi (son), content (satisfied, content), puartâ vie (to take away), un om (man, husband), volê (to want, to mean), poben (well then), usgnot (tonight), lassâ (to let, to allow), vignî cun (to lie with), a pat che (on the condition that), sore sere (in the evening), rivâ (to arrive, to come), la campagne (field, country), lâ incuintri (to go meet), paiâ (to pay), il dirit (dues), ta chê gnot (on that night), durmî cun (to sleep with), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), cjapâ sù (to conceive), cuint (fifth).
Verse 9: Lie, viodint che no veve plui fruts (Leah, [upon] seeing that she was no longer bearing [having] children), e cjapà la sô sierve Zilpe (she took her maidservant Zilpah) e je fasè cjoli par femine a Jacop (and made Jacob take her as wife). In the context of this verse, cjoli par femine is better understood as meaning to take as concubine, to take as secondary wife. Observe the following: cjoli (to take); fâ cjoli (to make take); fâ cjoli la sô sierve (to make take her maidservant); fâi cjoli la sô sierve a Jacop (to make unto Jacob take her maidservant; that is, to make Jacob take her maidservant); fâje cjoli a Jacop (to make unto Jacob take her; that is, to make Jacob take her); je fasè cjoli a Jacop (she made unto Jacob take her; that is, she made Jacob take her). Je is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her), where le stands in for la sô sierve.
Verse 10: Zilpe, la sierve di Lie, i parturì a Jacop un frut: Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant, bore a son (boy) unto Jacob.
Verse 11: Leah says: furtune di Diu (fortune of God); that is, fortune has come to her from God. I metè non Gad: she named him Gad.
Verse 12: Parturî un altri frut: to bear another son (boy).
Verse 13: Leah says: pe mê furtune (for my fortune; for my luck); that is, the child is an addition to her fortune. Parcè che lis feminis mi disaran furtunade: because the women will deem me fortunate. I metè non Aser: she named him Asher.
Verse 14: Ruben, lant pai cjamps (Reuben, walking [going] through the fields) cuant che si taiave il forment (when the wheat was being harvested [cut]), al cjatà une grampe di mandraguris (found a handful of mandrakes) e jes puartà a sô mari (and brought them to his mother). Jes is a contraction of i + lis (unto her + them), where lis stands in for lis mandraguris. Rachel says to Leah: dami ancje a mi cuatri mandraguris (give four mandrakes to me as well) di chês che (from amongst those that) ti à puartadis dongje to fi (your son has brought back to you).
Verse 15 (first sentence): Leah accuses Rachel: no sêstu nancjemò no contente (are you not even satisfied [content]) di vêmi puartât vie il gno om (to have taken my husband away from me), che cumò tu vûs puartâmi vie (that you now mean to take away from me) ancje lis mandraguris di gno fi? (also the mandrakes of my son?); for clarity: was it not enough for you to take away my husband that you would now also take my son’s mandrakes? Leah accuses Rachel of not only having taken her husband away from her but of also wanting to take her mandrakes, which are supposed to promote fruitfulness of the womb. If puartâ vie means to take away, then vê puartât vie means to have taken away; in the text of this verse, you find vêmi puartât vie, meaning to have taken away from me.
Verse 15 (second sentence): Rachel says: poben (well then), usgnot lu lassi che al vegni cun te (tonight I shall let him lie [come] with you), a pat che tu mi dedis lis mandraguris di to fi (on the condition that you give me your son’s mandrakes). O lassi (I let, I allow) is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb lassâ; it is better rendered here in English as I shall let. Lassâ che (to allow that) is followed by the subjunctive: lu lassi che al vegni cun te (literally, I allow that he come with you); al vegni is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb vignî. Observe: al ven (he comes); o lassi che al vegni (I allow that he come; that is, I allow him to come; I let him come). Vignî cun is to be taken here in the sense of to lie with (to have sexual relations with). Following a pat che, you again find the subjunctive; tu tu dedis is the second-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb dâ. Observe: tu tu dâs; tu dâs (you give); tu tu mi dâs; tu mi dâs (you give me); a pat che tu tu dedis; a pat che tu dedis (on the condition that you give); a pat che tu tu mi dedis; a pat che tu mi dedis (on the condition that you give to me). The present subjunctive and imperfect subjunctive conjugations of the verbs vignî and dâ are presented below. The present indicative of both vignî and dâ has already been presented; you will find it through the Friulian verb conjugations page.
Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive
Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive
Verse 16: Sore sere al rivà Jacop de campagne: in the evening, Jacob came (arrived) from the field. Lâ incuintri is to be understood as to go meet, to go out to meet; incuintri means against, but it is to be taken in the sense of unto in lâ incuntri. Lie i lè incuintri: Leah went out to meet him. She says to him: usgnot tu âs di vignî cun me (tonight you must lie with me), che o ai paiât il gno dirit (for I have paid my dues) cu lis mandraguris di gno fi (with my son’s mandrakes). E ta chê gnot al durmì cun jê: and that night, he lay with her.
Verse 17: Diu al scoltà Lie: God heeded Leah. E cjapà sù e i parturì a Jacop il cuint frut: she conceived and bore unto Jacob a fifth son (the fifth boy).
Vocabulary: la pae (pay, wages; also paie), sore che (given that, inasmuch as), dâ (to give), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), un om (man, husband), meti non (to name), cjapâ sù ancjemò (to conceive again), parturî (to bear), sest (sixth), il frut (boy, child), fâ un regâl (to give a gift), grant (great, large), la volte (time), scugnî (must, to have to), volê ben (to love), dâ un frut (to bear a child), sîs (six), plui indenant (later, afterwards), la frute (girl), visâsi di (to remember), scoltâ (to heed, to listen), gjavâ (to remove, to take away), la vergogne (shame, embarrassment), dâ la gracie di (to make the concession of).
Verse 18: Diu mi à dade la pae sore che i ai dade la sierve al gno om: God has given me my wages inasmuch as I gave my maidservant to my husband. I metè non Issacar: she named him Issachar.
Verse 19: Cjapâ sù ancjemò: to conceive again; you have also encountered in your readings cjapâ sù indaûr, meaning the same. Parturî il sest frut: to bear a sixth son (the sixth boy).
Verse 20: Diu mi à fat un grant regâl: God has given me a great gift. Cheste volte il gno om al scuen volêmi ben, che i ai dât sîs fruts: this time my husband will (must) love me, for I have borne him six sons (boys). Supplementary examples of the verb scugnî: o scugnìn lavorâ (= o vin di lavorâ; we must work); o scuen lâ vie cumò (= o ai di lâ vie cumò; I must leave now). You will find the present indicative conjugation of the verb scugnî below. I metè non Zabulon: she named him Zebulun.
Verse 21: Plui indenant e parturì ancje une frute: she later bore also a daughter (girl). I metè non Dine: she named her Dinah.
Verse 22: Alore Diu si visà di Rachêl (then God remembered Rachel), le scoltà (he heeded her) e i fasè cjapâ sù (and made her conceive). Observe: cjapâ sù (to conceive); fâ cjapâ sù (to make conceive); fâi cjapâ sù a (to make conceive unto); i fasè cjapâ sù (unto her he made conceive).
Verse 23: Rachel gives birth to a son and says: Diu mi à gjavade la mê vergogne (God has taken away my shame; literally, God has taken away [from] unto me my shame).
Verse 24: I metè non Josef: she named him Joseph. Disint (saying) is the present participle of the verb dî (to say). Rachel says: che Diu mi dedi la gracie di vê ancjemò un frut (may God make me the concession of having another son [boy]).
Vocabulary: parturî (to bear), lassâ (to let, to allow), tornâ cjase mê (to go [back to my] home), il paîs (land, country), la femine (wife), fâ di famei (to act as servant), i fruts (children), lâsint (to go, to depart, to leave), savê (to know), trop (how much), servî (to serve), vê par bon agrât (to have in one’s favour, to look favourably upon), un grum di (many, a lot of, a good many), il spieli (sign), benedî (to bless), in gracie tô (on your account), poben (well then), cetant (how much), paiâ (to pay).
Verse 25: Jacob says to Laban: lassimi partî (let me go; allow me to depart), che o ai di tornâ cjase mê (for I must return home), tal gno paîs (to [in] my land).
Verse 26: Dami lis mês feminis (give me my wives), che ti ai fat di famei par vêlis (for whom I have been a servant to you [for whom I have acted as servant unto you so as to have them]), e i miei fruts (and my children) e mi’nt voi (and I shall go; literally, and I go; and I leave; and I depart). Vêlis, meaning to have them (feminine plural) is a compound of of vê + lis. Tu sâs ancje tu trop che ti ai servît: you yourself know to what extent (how much that) I have served you. Tu sâs ancje tu can be taken more literally as you know even you; that is, even you know.
Verse 27: Se tu mi âs par bon agrât: if you look favourably upon me; if you have me in your favour. O ai vût un grum di spiei che il Signôr mi à benedît in gracie tô: I have received a good many signs that the Lord has blessed me on account of you.
Verse 28: Poben, dissal: well then, he said. Disimi tu cetant che tu vûs vê e jo ti paiarai: tell me what your wages are (tell me how much that you want to have), and I shall pay you.
Vocabulary: savê benon che (to know full well), la maniere (way, manner), in ce maniere (how, in what way, to what extent), servî (to serve), cetant (how much), slargjâsi (to increase [broaden] oneself, to become wealthy), pôc (little), prime (before[hand]), cressi (to grow, to increase), un disordin (greatly, very much), benedî (to bless), il pas ([foot]step, pace), sui miei pas (upon my footsteps), lavorâ (to work), trop (how much), volê (to want), la pae (pay, wages; also paie), passonâ (to pasture), la mandrie (flock), passâ (to pass), il trop (flock), in zornade (today, during the course of this day), meti di bande (to set [put] aside, to separate), il roc (ram), neri (black, dark), la cjavre ([female] goat), tacolât (spotted), moschetât (speckled).
Verse 29: Tu sâs benon in ce maniere che ti ai servît (you know full well to what extent I have served you) e cetant che tu ti sês slargjât cun me (and how wealthy you have become by me; literally, and how much that you have broadened yourself with me).
Verse 30: Chel pôc che tu vevis prime (what little you had [were having; used to have] before) al è cressût un disordin (has increased greatly) e il Signôr ti à benedît (and the Lord has blessed you) sui miei pas (upon my footsteps). The sense of sui miei pas in the context of this verse is wherever I have gone (amongst your flocks). Ma cumò, cuant lavorio jo par me?: but now, when shall I work (when do I work) for me? O lavori is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb lavorâ; its interrogative form is lavorio.
Verse 31: Trop vûstu vê?: what are your wages?; literally, how much do you want to have? Jacob responds to the question: no vuei vê nissune pae (I want no wages [I do not want to have any pay]): se tu fasis come che ti dîs jo (if you do what I tell you), o tornarai a passonâ lis tôs mandriis (I shall again pasture your flocks).
Verse 32: Jo o passarai in zornade tal to trop: I shall pass through your flock today. Met di bande ducj i rocs neris e dutis lis cjavris tacoladis o moschetadis: separate (put aside) all dark(-coloured) rams and all spotted or speckled goats. Cheste e je la mê pae: these shall be my wages (this is my pay).
Vocabulary: rispuindi (to answer), la cussience (conscience, integrity), fin che (for as long as), vivi (to live), vignî (to come), controlâ (to inspect, to check), la pae (pay, wages; also paie), la cjavre ([female] goat), tacolât (spotted), moschetât (speckled), il roc (ram), neri (dark, black), fâ cont (to consider), robâ (to steal), va ben (very well, fine), ta chê stesse dì (on that same day), meti di bande (to set [put] aside, to separate), il bec ([male] goat, buck), riât (streaked), maglât (spotted, stained), un tic di blanc (a bit of white), framieç di (amongst), consegnâ (to deliver, to put into one’s charge), il fi (son), trê dîs di viaç (three days’ distance [journey]), fra (between), passonâ (to pasture), vansâ (to remain; also vanzâ), il besteam (livestock).
Verse 33: A number of futûr sempliç forms appear: o rispuindarai (I shall answer); o vivarai (I shall live); tu vignarâs (you will come); no saran (they will not be). Rispuindi de mê cussience (literally, to answer by [of] my conscience) can be taken as meaning to testify by my integrity. E o rispuindarai de mê cussience fin che o vivarai: and I shall testify by my integrity (answer by my conscience) for as long as I shall live. Jacob continues: cuant che tu vignarâs a controlâ la mê pae (when you come [will come] to inspect my wages), dutis lis cjavris (all the goats) che no saran tacoladis o moschetadis (that are not [will not be] spotted or speckled) e ducj i rocs neris (and all the rams [that are not] dark) fâs cont che tai vedi robâts (consider that I have stolen them from you). Tai is a contraction of ti + ju (from [unto] you + them). O vedi is the first-person singular of the coniuntîf passât of the verb vê; it is used as an auxiliary in o vedi robât.
Verse 34: Va ben: very well. Fasìn come che tu âs dit tu: let us do as you have said. Fasìn is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ.
Verse 35: Ta chê stesse dì (on that same day) al metè di bande (he separated [put aside]) ducj i becs riâts o maglâts (all streaked or spotted male goats), dutis lis cjavris moschetadis o tacoladis (all speckled or spotted female goats), dut ce che al veve un tic di blanc (all that had a bit of white [on it]) e dut ce che al jere neri framieç dai rocs (and all that was dark amongst the rams). Al consegnà dut ai siei fîs: he left the whole in the charge of his sons (he consigned all to his sons). Related to the adjective maglât (spotted, stained) is the verb maglâ (to spot, to stain); supplementary examples: al à maglade la taule di vin (he splashed wine on the table; literally, he spotted the table with wine); maglâ il cafè cul lat cjalt (to add a splash of hot milk to the coffee; literally, to spot the coffee with hot milk).
Verse 36: Al metè trê dîs di viaç fra lui e Jacop: he put three days’ distance [journey] between himself and Jacob. The verb vanzâ (found in the text as vansâ) means to remain, to be left over: e Jacop al passonave (and Jacob pastured [was pasturing]) ce che al jere vansât dal besteam di Laban (the remainder of Laban’s livestock [that which had remained of the livestock of Laban).
Vocabulary: cjoli (to take), la ramace (shoot), fresc (fresh), il trimul (poplar tree), il mandolâr (almond tree), il platin (plane tree), il curtìs (knife), taiâ (to cut), la scuarce (skin, bark), la strissule (strip, shaving, groove), blanc (white), meti a nût (to lay bare, to expose), il blanc (white, whiteness), la bachete (stick, rod), scussâ (to strip, to peel), il laip (trough), il beveradôr (water receptacle, trough), devant di (in front of, before), la bestie (beast), bevi (to drink), inmascjîsi (to mate), duncje (therefore, so, then), il cjavret (kid goat), riât (streaked), moschetât (speckled), tacolât (spotted), separâ (to separate), il roc (ram), fâ in mût che (to do in such a way that), il nemâl (animal), neri (dark, black), il trop (flock), par cont so (for oneself), insiemit cun (together with, along with).
Verse 37: By placing streaked shoots before the animals, Jacob hopes to have them produce streaked offspring: alore Jacop al cjolè ramacis frescjis (Jacob then took fresh shoots) di trimul, di mandolâr e di platin (of poplar, almond and plane) e cul curtìs (and with a knife) al taià la scuarce a strissulis blancjis (he cut white grooves into the skin) metint a nût il blanc de bachete (laying bare the white of the rod).
Verse 38: Al metè lis bachetis (he put the rods) che al veve scussadis (that he had peeled) tai laips e tai beveradôrs (in the troughs and water receptacles) devant des bestiis (before the beasts), là che a levin a bevi (where they would go to drink), e lis bestiis che a vignivin a bevi s’inmascjirin (and the beasts mated when they came to drink [and the beasts that would come to drink mated]).
Verse 39: Si inmascjirin duncje devant des bachetis (and so they mated before the rods) e a faserin cjavrets riâts, moschetâts e tacolâts (and they produced streaked, speckled and spotted kids).
Verse 40: Jacop al separà i rocs (Jacob separated the rams) e al fasè in mût che lis bestiis a vessin devant di sè (and made these beasts face [and did so that the beasts had [were having; would have] before themselves]) i nemâi riâts (the streaked animals) e ducj chei neris (and all those [that were] dark) che a jerin tal trop di Laban (that were in Laban’s flock). A vessin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb vê; observe: a vevin devant di sè (they had [were having] before themselves); in mût che a vessin devant di sè (so that they had [were having] before themselves). Cussì si fasè un trop par cont so, che nol metè insiemit cun chei di Laban: and so he made for himself a flock of his own, which he did not put alongside those of Laban.
Vocabulary: sore sere (in the evening), ogni viaç che (every time that), la bestie (beast), fuart (strong, sturdy), inmascjîsi (to mate), la bachete (stick, rod), il laip (trough), devant di (before, in front of), il voli (eye), invezit (on the other hand, whereas, as for), intivâsi (to come across, to come up against), il nemâl (animal), flap (feeble, weak), il scart (undesirable one[s]), tocjâi a (to fall upon, to go to), il bon (good one[s]), un om (man), deventâ sioron (to become wealthy, to become prosperous), un disordin di (a lot of, many), il famei (male servant), la sierve (female servant), il camêl (camel), il mus (donkey).
Verse 41: Jacob ensures that his breed is robust by placing the streaked rods before only the sturdy animals during their mating. He does not place the rods before the feeble during their mating so as to avoid having them produce streaked offspring; as such, their normally coloured offspring would belong to Laban. You read: sore sere (in the evening), ogni viaç che lis bestiis plui fuartis si inmascjivin (whenever [every time that] the sturdier animals would mate [were mating]), Jacop al meteve lis bachetis (Jacob would put [was putting] the rods) tai laips (in the troughs) devant dai vôi des bestiis (before the eyes of the beasts) par che si inmascjissin devant des bachetis (so that they would mate [were mating] before the rods).
Verse 42: Cuant che invezit s’intivave in nemâi flaps (as for when he would come [was coming] across feeble animals), no lis meteve (he did not place [was not placing] them), e cussì il scart i tocjà a Laban (and so the undesirable ones went to Laban) e il bon a Jacop (and the good ones [went] to Jacob).
Verse 43: Fameis is very often used in the sense of servants in general, without regard to gender; however, used alongside the feminine sierve (maidservant), it is to be taken as referring specifically to male servants: l’om al deventà sioron (the man became prosperous) e al veve un disordin di nemâi (and he had a great deal of animals), di fameis e di siervis (male and female servants), di camêi e di mus (camels and donkeys).