Friulian language series: Gjenesi 30, imbroi di Jacop

The subject of this thirtieth chapter of the book of Genesis is: l’imbroi di Jacop (Jacob’s deception). The masculine imbroi is related to the verb imbroiâ, meaning to deceive, already encountered a number of times in the readings.

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Versets 1-8

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), no rivâ a (to be unable to), dâ fruts (to bear children), deventâ (to become), gjelôs (jealous, envious; also zelôs, gelôs), la sûr (sister), murî (to die), inrabiâsi cuintri di (to get angry with), rifudâ (to refuse, to prevent; also refudâ), deventâ mari (to become a mother), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), in mût che ({in order} that), parturî (to give birth), il genoli (knee; also zenoli), midiant di (by way of), vê fruts (to have children), cjoli par femine (to take for wife), cjapâ sù (to take up), la justizie (justice), fâ justizie (to render justice, to vindicate), scoltâ (to heed), par chel (wherefore), meti (to put), il non (name), tornâ a cjapâ sù (to take up again), lotâ (to fight, to struggle), cuintri di (against), vincile (to prevail).

Verse 1: Rachêl, viodint che no rivave a dâi fruts a Jacop (Rachel, in seeing that she was unable to bear children to Jacob) e deventà gjelose di sô sûr (became jealous of her sister). The Friulian for jealous can take the forms gjelôs, gelôs or zelôs; supplementary examples: un morôs zelôs (a jealous boyfriend); la sô femine e je masse zelose (his wife is very jealous); peraulis zelosis (jealous words); e je zelose de sûr plui piçule (she is envious of her little sister); al è zelôs des cualitâts di chei altris (he is jealous of the qualities of those others). Rachel says to Jacob: se no tu mi dâs fruts ancje a mi, o mûr: if you do not give children to me also, I will die; o mûr (I die) is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb murî, but, in this context, it takes the sense of I will die when rendered in English. The entire present indicative conjugation of the verb murî is presented below. Review the following: tu tu dâs; tu dâs (you give); tu no tu dâs; no tu dâs (you do not give); tu tu mi dâs; tu mi dâs (you give to me); tu no tu mi dâs; no tu mi dâs (you do not give to me); se no tu mi dâs fruts ancje a mi (if you do not give children to me also).

Verb: MURÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o mûr
tu mueris
al mûr

e mûr

o murìn
o murîs
a muerin

Verse 2: The Fruilian inrabiâsi means to get angry, to become incensed; you find it used in conjunction with cuintri di (against). Jacop si inrabià cuintri di Rachêl: Jacob became incensed with Rachel. Related to inrabiâsi are the adjectives rabiât and inrabiât, meaning angry, incensed. Jacob says to Rachel: sojo jo il Signôr (am I the Lord), che ti à rifudât di deventâ mari? (who has prevented you from becoming a mother?). The interrogative form of o soi is soio; you find here the spelling variant sojo, which takes the same pronunciation as soio.

Verse 3: Jê i disè: she said to him. Of her maidservant Bilhah, Rachel says to Jacob: ve chi Bile, la mê sierve (here is my maidservant Bilhah); va cun jê (lie [go] with her) in mût che jê e parturissi sui miei genôi (that she may bear on my knees) e cussì, midiant di jê (and so, by way of her), o podarai vê fruts ancje jo (I too may have children). Lâ cun (literally, to go with) is to be taken in the context of this verse as meaning to lie with, to go unto in the sense of having sexual relations. The Friulian for knee is the masculine zenoli; its plural form is i zenoi. You find the variant spelling genôi in the text of this verse, from the singular genoli.

Verse 4: I fasè cjoli par femine Bile la sô sierve (she made him take for wife her maidservant Bilhah) e Jacop al lè cun jê (and Jacob lay with her). If cjoli means to take, then fâ cjoli means to make take, to cause to take. I fasè cjoli par femine Bile la sô sierve translates literally as unto him she made take for wife her maidservant Bilhah. Regarding lâ cun, see the notes at the third verse.

Verse 5: Bile e cjapà sù e i parturì a Jacop un frut: Bilhah conceived (took up) and bore a male child to Jacob.

Verse 6: Rachel says: Diu mi à fat justizie (God has vindicated me), mi à scoltade (has heeded me) e mi à dât un frut (and has given me a male child). Par chel i metè non Dan: wherefore she put unto him {the} name Dan.

Verse 7: Bile, la sierve di Rachêl, e tornà a cjapâ sù (Rachel’s maidservant Bilhah conceived [took up] again) e i parturì a Jacop un altri frut (and bore another male child to Jacob).

Verse 8: Lotâ cuintri di means to fight against, to struggle against. Rachel says: Diu mi à fat lotâ cuintri di mê sûr (God has made me struggle against my sister) e le ai vinçude jo (and it is I who have prevailed). I metè non Neftali: she put unto him {the} name Naphtali.

Versets 9-17

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), vê fruts (to bear children), cjapâ (to take), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), cjoli par femine (to take for wife), parturî (to bear), il frut (male child), la furtune (fortune, luck; also fortune), la femine (woman, wife), furtunât (fortunate, lucky; also fortunât), meti (to put), il non (name), il cjamp (field), taiâ (to cut), il forment (wheat), cjatâ (to find), la grampe (handful), la mandragure (mandrake), puartâ (to bear), la mari (mother), cuatri (four), puartâ dongje (to bear alongside), il fi (son), content (content), puartâ vie (to bear away), un om (man, husband), volê (to want, to mean), poben (well then), usgnot (tonight), lassâ (to let), vignî cun (to lie with), a pat che (on the condition that), sore sere (towards evening), rivâ (to arrive), la campagne (open country), lâ incuintri (to go unto), paiâ (to pay), il dirit (dues), ta chê gnot (on that night), durmî cun (to sleep with), scoltâ (to heed), cjapâ sù (to take up), cuint (fifth).

Verse 9: Lie, viodint che no veve plui fruts (Leah, in seeing that she was no longer bearing [having] children), e cjapà la sô sierve Zilpe (took her maidservant Zilpah) e je fasè cjoli par femine a Jacop (and made Jacob take her for wife). Observe the following: cjoli (to take); fâ cjoli (to make take); fâ cjoli la sô sierve (to make take her maidservant); fâi cjoli la sô sierve a Jacop (to make unto Jacob take her maidservant; that is, to make Jacob take her maidservant); fâje cjoli a Jacop (to make unto Jacob take her; that is, to make Jacob take her); je fasè cjoli a Jacop (she made unto Jacob take her; that is, she made Jacob take her). Je is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her), where le stands in for la sô sierve.

Verse 10: Zilpe, la sierve di Lie, i parturì a Jacop un frut: Zilpah, Leah’s maidservant, bore a male child to Jacob.

Verse 11: Leah says: furtune di Diu (fortune of God); that is, fortune has come to her from God. I metè non Gad: she put unto him {the} name Gad.

Verse 12: Zilpe, la sierve di Lie, i parturì a Jacop un altri frut: Leah’s maidservant Zilpah bore another male child to Jacob.

Verse 13: Leah says: pe mê furtune (for my fortune; for my luck); that is, the child is an addition to her fortune. Parcè che lis feminis mi disaran furtunade: for the women will deem me fortunate. I metè non Aser: she put unto him {the} Asher.

Verse 14: Ruben, lant pai cjamps (Reuben, walking [going] through the fields) cuant che si taiave il forment (when the wheat was being cut), al cjatà une grampe di mandraguris (found a handful of mandrakes) e jes puartà a sô mari (and bore them to his mother). Jes is a contraction of i + lis (unto her + them), where lis stands in for lis mandraguris. Rachel says to Leah: dami ancje a mi cuatri mandraguris (give four mandrakes to me also) di chês che (from those which) ti à puartadis dongje to fi (your son has borne alongside you).

Verse 15 (first sentence): Leah accuses Rachel: no sêstu nancjemò no contente (are you not yet even content) di vêmi puartât vie il gno om (to have borne away from me my husband), che cumò tu vûs puartâmi vie (that you now mean to bear away from me) ancje lis mandraguris di gno fi? (also the mandrakes of my son?). Leah accuses Rachel of not only having taken her husband away from her but of also wanting to take her mandrakes, which are supposed to promote fruitfulness of the womb. If puartâ vie means to bear away, then vê puartât vie means to have borne away; in the text of this verse, you find vêmi puartât vie, meaning to have borne away from me.

Verse 15 (second sentence): Rachel says: poben (well then), usgnot lu lassi che al vegni cun te (tonight I {will} let that he should lie [come] with you), a pat che tu mi dedis lis mandraguris di to fi (on the condition that you give me your son’s mandrakes). O lassi (I let) is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb lassâ. Lassâ che (to let that) is followed by the subjunctive: al vegni is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb vignî. Vignî cun is to be taken here in the sense of to lie with (to have sexual relations with). Following a pat che, you again find the subjunctive; tu tu dedis is the second-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb dâ. Observe: tu tu dâs; tu dâs (you give); tu tu mi dâs; tu mi dâs (you give me); a pat che tu tu dedis; a pat che tu dedis (on the condition that you give); a pat che tu tu mi dedis; a pat che tu mi dedis (on the condition that you give me). The present subjunctive and imperfect subjunctive conjugations of the verbs vignî and are presented below. The present indicative of both vignî and has already been presented; you will find it through the Friulian verb conjugations page.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o vegni
o vignìs
tu vegnis
tu vignissis
al vegni
al vignìs

e vegni
e vignìs

o vignìn
o vignissin
o vignîs
o vignissis
a vegnin
a vignissin

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o dedi
o des
tu dedis
tu dessis
al dedi
al des

e dedi
e des

o dedin
o dessin
o dedis
o dessis
a dedin
a dessin

Verse 16: Sore sere al rivà Jacop de campagne: towards evening, Jacob arrived from the open country. Lie i lè incuintri: Leah went unto him. She says to him: usgnot tu âs di vignî cun me (tonight you must lie with me), che o ai paiât il gno dirit (for I have paid my dues) cu lis mandraguris di gno fi (with my son’s mandrakes). E ta chê gnot al durmì cun jê: and that night, he lay with her.

Verse 17: Diu al scoltà Lie (God heeded Leah); e cjapà sù e i parturì a Jacop il cuint frut (she conceived [took up] and bore to Jacob a fifth male child).

Versets 18-24

Vocabulary: la pae (pay, wages; also paie), sore che (inasmuch as), (to give), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), un om (man, husband), meti (to put), il non (name), cjapâ sù ancjemò (to take up yet), parturî (to bear), sest (sixth), il frut (male child), fâ un regâl (to give a gift), grant (great), la volte (time), scugnî (to have to), volê ben (to love), dâ un frut (to bear a male child), sîs (six), plui indenant (later), la frute (female child), visâsi di (to remember), scoltâ (to heed), gjavâ (to withdraw), la vergogne (shame, embarrassment), la gracie (grace).

Verse 18: Diu mi à dade la pae sore che i ai dade la sierve al gno om: God has given me my wages inasmuch as I gave my maidservant to my husband. I metè non Issacar: she put unto him {the} name Issachar.

Verse 19: Lie e cjapà sù ancjemò: Leah conceived (took up) yet. I parturì a Jacop il sest frut: she bore to Jacob a sixth male child.

Verse 20: Diu mi à fat un grant regâl: God has given me a great gift. Cheste volte il gno om al scuen volêmi ben, che i ai dât sîs fruts: this time my husband will have to love me, for I have borne him six male children. Supplementary examples of the verb scugnî: o scugnìn lavorâ (= o vin di lavorâ; we have to work); o scuen partî cumò (= o ai di lâ vie cumò; I have to depart now). You will find the present indicative conjugation of the verb scugnî below. I metè non Zabulon: she put unto him {the} name Zebulun.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o scuen
tu scuegnis
al scuen

e scuen

o scugnìn
o scugnîs
a scuegnin

Verse 21: Plui indenant e parturì ancje une frute: she later bore a female child also. I metè non Dine: she put unto her {the} name Dinah.

Verse 22: Alore Diu si visà di Rachêl (then God remembered Rachel), le scoltà (heeded her) e i fasè cjapâ sù (and made her conceive [take up]). Observe: cjapâ sù (to take up); fâ cjapâ sù (to make take up); fâi cjapâ sù a (to make take up unto); i fasè cjapâ sù (unto her he made take up).

Verse 23: E cjapà sù e e parturì un frut: she conceived (took up) and bore a male child. Rachel says: Diu mi à gjavade la mê vergogne (God has withdrawn my shame from me).

Verse 24: I metè non Josef: she put unto him {the} name Joseph. Disint (saying) is the present participle of the verb (to say). Rachel says: che Diu mi dedi la gracie di vê ancjemò un frut (may God give me the grace of having yet one male child).

Versets 25-28

Vocabulary: parturî (to bear), lassâ (to let), tornâ cjase mê (to go {back to my} home), il paîs (land), la femine (wife), fâ di famei (to act as servant), i fruts (children), lâsint (to leave), savê (to know), trop (how much), servî (to serve), vê par bon agrât (to have in one’s favour, to look favourably upon), un grum di (many), il spieli (sign), benedî (to bless), in gracie tô (on your account), poben (well then), cetant che (how much), paiâ (to pay).

Verse 25: Cuant che Rachêl e parturì Josef (after Rachel had borne Joseph [when Rachel bore Joseph]), Jacop i disè a Laban (Jacob said to Laban): lassimi partî (let me depart), che o ai di tornâ cjase mê (for I must return home), tal gno paîs (to my land).

Verse 26: Dami lis mês feminis (give me my wives), che ti ai fat di famei par vêlis (for whom I have acted as servant to you), e i miei fruts (and my children) e mi’nt voi (and I {will} leave). Vêlis, meaning to have them (feminine plural) is a compound of of + lis. Tu sâs ancje tu trop che ti ai servît: you yourself know to what extent (how much that) I have served you.

Verse 27: Se tu mi âs par bon agrât: if you look favourably upon me; if you have me in your favour. O ai vût un grum di spiei che il Signôr mi à benedît in gracie tô: I have received many signs that the Lord has blessed me on account of you.

Verse 28: Poben, dissal (well then, he said), disimi tu cetant che tu vûs vê (tell me how much you would have) e jo ti paiarai (and I will pay you).

Versets 29-32

Vocabulary: savê (to know), benon (full well), la maniere (manner), servî (to serve), cetant che (how much), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), pôc (little), prime (before, beforehand), cressi (to increase), un disordin (greatly, very much), benedî (to bless), il pas (pace), lavorâ (to work), trop (how much), volê (to want), la pae (pay, wages; also paie), passonâ (to pasture), la mandrie (herd, flock), passâ (to pass), il trop (flock), in zornade (today, during the course of this day), meti di bande (to put aside), il roc (ram), neri (black, dark), la cjavre (she-goat), tacolât (spotted), moschetât (speckled).

Verse 29: Tu sâs benon in ce maniere che ti ai servît (you know full well in what manner I have served you) e cetant che tu ti sês slargjât cun me (and how much you have broadened yourself by [with] me).

Verse 30: Chel pôc che tu vevis prime (what little you had [were having; used to have] before) al è cressût un disordin (has increased greatly) e il Signôr ti à benedît (and the Lord has blessed you) sui miei pas (upon my paces). Ma cumò, cuant lavorio jo par me?: but now, when shall I work (when do I work) for me? O lavori is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb lavorâ; its interrogative form is lavorio.

Verse 31: Trop vûstu vê?: what are your wages (how much will you take [how much do you want to have])? Jacob responds to the question: no vuei vê nissune pae (I will take no pay [I do not want to have any pay]): se tu fasis come che ti dîs jo (if you do what I tell you), o tornarai a passonâ lis tôs mandriis (I will again pasture your flocks).

Verse 32: Jo o passarai in zornade tal to trop: I will pass through your flock today. Met di bande ducj i rocs neris e dutis lis cjavris tacoladis o moschetadis: put aside all dark{-coloured} rams and all spotted or speckled goats. Cheste e je la mê pae: these shall be my wages (this is my pay).

Versets 33-36

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), la cussience (conscience), fin che (so long as), vivi (to live), vignî (to come), controlâ (to inspect, to check), la pae (pay, wages; also paie), la cjavre (she-goat), tacolât (spotted), moschetât (speckled), il roc (ram), neri (dark, black), fâ cont (to make account), robâ (to steal), va ben (very well, fine), ta chê stesse dì (on that same day), meti di bande (to put aside), il bec (he-goat), riât (streaked), maglât (spotted, stained), un tic di blanc (a bit of white), framieç di (amongst), consegnâ (to consign), il fi (son), trê dîs di viaç (three days’ distance), fra (between), passonâ (to pasture), vansâ (to remain; also vanzâ), il besteam (livestock).

Verse 33: A number of futûr sempliç forms appear: o rispuindarai (I will respond); o vivarai (I will live); tu vignarâs (you will come); no saran (they will not be). E o rispuindarai de mê cussience fin che o vivarai: and I will respond by my conscience so long as I shall live. Jacob continues: cuant che tu vignarâs a controlâ la mê pae (when you come [will come] to inspect my wages), dutis lis cjavris (all the goats) che no saran tacoladis o moschetadis (that are not [will not be] spotted or speckled) e ducj i rocs neris (and all the rams [that are not] dark) fâs cont che tai vedi robâts (make account that I have stolen them from you). Tai is a contraction of ti + ju. O vedi is the first-person singular of the coniuntîf passât of the verb ; it is used as an auxiliary in o vedi robât.

Verse 34: Va ben: very well. Fasìn come che tu âs dit tu: let us do as you have said. Fasìn is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ.

Verse 35: Ta chê stesse dì (on that same day) al metè di bande (he put aside) ducj i becs riâts o maglâts (all streaked or spotted he-goats), dutis lis cjavris moschetadis o tacoladis (all speckled or spotted she-goats), dut ce che al veve un tic di blanc (all that had a bit of white {on it}) e dut ce che al jere neri framieç dai rocs (and all that was dark amongst the rams). Al consegnà dut ai siei fîs: he consigned the whole to his sons. Related to the adjective maglât (spotted, stained) is the verb maglâ (to spot, to stain); supplementary examples: al à maglade la taule di vin (he splashed wine on the table [he spotted the table with wine]); maglâ il cafè cul lat cjalt (to add a splash of hot milk to the coffee [to spot the coffee with hot milk]).

Verse 36: Al metè trê dîs di viaç fra lui e Jacop: he put three days’ distance between himself and Jacob. The verb vanzâ (found in the text as vansâ) means to remain, to be left over: e Jacop al passonave (and Jacob pastured [was pasturing]) ce che al jere vansât dal besteam di Laban (the remainder of Laban’s livestock [that which had remained of the livestock of Laban]).

Versets 37-40

Vocabulary: cjoli (to take), la ramace (shoot), fresc (fresh), il trimul (poplar tree), il mandolâr (almond tree), il platin (plane tree), il curtìs (knife), taiâ (to cut), la scuarce (skin, bark), la strissule (strip, shaving, groove), blanc (white), meti a nût (to put bare), il blanc (white, whiteness), la bachete (stick, rod), scussâ (to strip, to peel), il laip (trough), il beveradôr (water receptacle, trough), devant di (before), la bestie (beast), bevi (to drink), inmascjîsi (to mate), duncje (therefore, so, then), il cjavret (kid goat), riât (streaked), moschetât (speckled), tacolât (spotted), separâ (to separate), il roc (ram), fâ in mût che ({in order} that), il nemâl (animal), neri (dark, black), il trop (flock), par cont so (for oneself), insiemit cun (together with, along with).

Verse 37: By placing streaked shoots before the animals, Jacob hopes to have them produce streaked offspring: alore Jacop al cjolè ramacis frescjis (Jacob then took fresh shoots) di trimul, di mandolâr e di platin (of poplar, almond and plane) e cul curtìs (and with a knife) al taià la scuarce a strissulis blancjis (he cut white grooves into the skin) metint a nût il blanc de bachete (putting bare the white of the rod).

Verse 38: Al metè lis bachetis (he put the rods) che al veve scussadis (that he had peeled) tai laips e tai beveradôrs (in the troughs and water receptacles) devant des bestiis (before the beasts), là che a levin a bevi (where they would go to drink), e lis bestiis che a vignivin a bevi s’inmascjirin (and the beasts mated when they came to drink [and the beasts that would come to drink mated]).

Verse 39: Si inmascjirin duncje devant des bachetis (and so they mated before the rods) e a faserin cjavrets riâts, moschetâts e tacolâts (and they produced streaked, speckled and spotted kids).

Verse 40: Jacop al separà i rocs (Jacob separated the rams) e al fasè in mût che lis bestiis a vessin devant di sè (and so did that the beasts should have before themselves) i nemâi riâts (the streaked animals) e ducj chei neris (and all those {which were} dark) che a jerin tal trop di Laban (which were in Laban’s flock). A vessin is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb vê; observe: a vevin devant di sè (they had before themselves); in mût che a vessin devant di sè (so did that they should have before themselves). Cussì si fasè un trop par cont so, che nol metè insiemit cun chei di Laban: so he made for himself a flock of his own, which he did not put alongside those of Laban.

Versets 41-43

Vocabulary: sore sere (towards evening), ogni viaç che (every time that), la bestie (beast), fuart (mighty), inmascjîsi (to mate), la bachete (stick, rod), il laip (trough), devant di (before), il voli (eye), invezit (on the other hand, whereas, as for), intivâsi (to come across, to come up against), il nemâl (animal), flap (feeble, weak), il scart (undesirable ones), tocjâi a (to be reserved for one, to fall to the lot of), il bon (good ones), un om (man), deventâ sioron (to become wealthy, to become prosperous), un disordin di (a lot of, many), il famei (male servant), la sierve (female servant), il camêl (camel), il mus (ass, donkey).

Verse 41: Jacob ensures that his breed is robust by placing the streaked rods before only the sturdy animals during their mating. He does not place the rods before the feeble during their mating to avoid having them produce streaked offspring; as such, their normally coloured offspring would belong to Laban. You read: sore sere (towards evening), ogni viaç che lis bestiis plui fuartis si inmascjivin (whenever the mightier beasts would mate), Jacop al meteve lis bachetis (Jacob would put the rods) tai laips (in the troughs) devant dai vôi des bestiis (before the eyes of the beasts) par che si inmascjissin devant des bachetis (that they should mate before the rods).

Verse 42: Cuant che invezit s’intivave in nemâi flaps (as for when he would come across feeble animals), no lis meteve (he would not put them), e cussì il scart i tocjà a Laban (and so the undesirable ones fell to the lot of Laban) e il bon a Jacop (and the good ones to that of Jacob).

Verse 43: Fameis is very often used in the sense of servants in general, without regard to gender; however, used alongside the feminine sierve (maidservant), it is to be taken as referring specifically to male servants: l’om al deventà sioron (the man became prosperous) e al veve un disordin di nemâi (and had [was having] a great deal of animals), di fameis e di siervis (male and female servants), di camêi e di mus (camels and asses).