Friulian language series: Gjenesi 29, Lie e Rachêl

In the twenty-ninth chapter of the book of Genesis, the subjects are: Lie e Rachêl (Leah and Rachel); a nassin i fîs di Jacop (Jacob’s sons are born). The Friulian verb nassi means to be born; a nassin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf.

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Read Gjenesi 29

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: metisi in viaç (to set off), partî de bande di (to head for, to set out for), il fi (son), la jevade (east), il poç (well), la campagne (field, country), dongje (alongside, by), scrufuiât (huddled, crouched), la mandrie (flock), la robe minude (small livestock, sheep), imbeverâ (to give water to, to water; of animals), imbeverâsi (to drink; of animals), il nemâl (animal), la piere (stone), sierâ (to close, to seal), grant (large), dâsi dongje (to come together, to gather), il pastôr (shepherd), rodolâ (to roll [off]), tornâ a fâ (to do anew), taponâ (to cover), domandâ (to ask), il fradi (brother), dontri (from where), rispuindi (to respond).

Verse 1: Jacop si metè in viaç e al partì de bande dai fîs de jevade: Jacob set off (put himself in journey) and headed for (departed in the direction [side] of) the sons of the east.

Verse 2: Al viodè un poç te campagne: he saw a well in the field. Dongje a jerin scrufuiadis trê mandriis di robe minude: alongside were huddled three flocks of sheep; minude is the feminine form of minût, meaning small. Robe minude refers to small livestock (sheep, goats; flocks), whereas robe grande refers to large livestock (oxen; herds). Al jere in chel poç che a levin a imbeverâsi i nemâi: it was at that well that the animals would go to drink. La piere ch’e sierave il poç e jere grande: the stone that closed (was closing) the well was large.

Verse 3: Cuant che ducj i nemâi si vevin dâts dongje: when all the animals had gathered. I pastôrs a rodolavin la piere ch’e taponave il poç: the shepherds would roll off (were rolling off) the stone that covered (was covering) the well. A imbeveravin i nemâi e po a tornavin a taponâ il poç: they would water (were watering) the animals and then cover (were covering) anew the well.

Verse 4: Jacob asks the shepherds: fradis miei, dontri sêso po? (my brothers, where then are you from?). Dontri means from where; sêso is the interrogative form of o sês (you are; second-person plural). You also encountered dontri in Gjenesi 16:8, when you read dontri venstu? (where are you from?), asked of Hagar by the angel. Dontri can also be expressed as di dulà: di dulà vegnistu? (where are you arriving from?); di dulà sêstu? (where are you from?). The shepherds respond: o sin di Caran (we are from Haran). Review the following: dulà sêstu? (where are you?); di dulà sêstu? (where are you from?); di dulà vegnistu?, dontri vegnistu? (where are you coming from?, from where are you arriving?); dulà vivistu?, indulà vivistu?, dulà che tu vivis? (where do you live?).

Versets 5-8

Vocabulary: dissal (he said), cognossi (to know, to be acquainted with), il fi (son), rispuindi (to respond), stâ ben (to be well), (yes), ve chi ([t]here is), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il trop (flock), ancjemò (still), il dì (day), la ore (hour), no je ore (it is not time), menâ dentri (to bring in), il nemâl (animal), imbeverâ (to water, to give water to; of animals), la bestie (beast), tornâ (to return, to go back), il passon (pasture, grazing), podê (can, to be able), fin che (until), dâsi dongje (to be rounded up), rodolâ (to roll off), la piere (stone), il poç (well), dome (only), in chê volte (at that time, then).

Verse 5: Jacob asks the shepherds if they know Laban: cognossêso Laban, il fi di Nacor? (do you know Laban, the son of Nahor?). They answer: lu cognossìn (we know him). Note that Friulian does not use the verb savê (to know) to talk about being acquainted with a person: it uses instead the verb cognossi (to know, to be acquainted with). Below, you will find the entire present indicative conjugation of the verb cognossi, for your reference.

Verb: COGNOSSI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o cognòs
cognossio?
tu
tu cognossis
cognossistu?
lui
al cognòs
cognossial?

e cognòs
cognossie?

o cognossìn
cognossìno?
vualtris
o cognossês
cognossêso?
lôr
a cognossin
cognossino?

Verse 6: Jacob asks the shepherds if Laban is well: staial ben? (is he well?). They respond: sì; ve chi sô fie Rachêl ch’e rive cul trop (yes, there is his daughter Rachel who is coming with the flock). In staial ben?, the expression used is stâ ben, meaning to be well. Supplementary examples of the verb stâ: parcè stâstu li in pîts? (why are you standing there?); cîr di stâ fer cinc minûts (try to be still for five minutes); stâ in diete (to be on a diet); il miedi al à dite che tu âs di stâ tal jet par trê dîs (the doctor has said that you must remain in bed for three days); cemût stâstu? (how are you?). When used in the sense of to be, stâ expresses a temporary physical or psychological condition, whereas a permanent quality is expressed with jessi. The verb stâ has come up many times in your readings, but you have not yet seen its full present indicative conjugation; it is now presented below.

Verb: STÂ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o stoi
stoio?
tu
tu stâs
stâstu?
lui
al sta
staial?

e sta
staie?

o stin
stino?
vualtris
o stais
staiso?
lôr
a stan
stano?

Verse 7: Jacob says: al è ancjemò dì (it is still day) e no je ore di menâ dentri i nemâi (and it is not time to bring in the animals). He continues: imbeverait lis bestiis (water the beasts) e tornait a passon (and return to pasture). Both imbeverait and tornait are second-person plural imperative forms.

Verse 8: No podìn (we cannot) fin che no si àn dâts dongje ducj i nemâi (until all the animals have been rounded up) e che no vin rodolade la piere (and we have rolled off the stone) ch’e tapone il poç (that covers the well). O imbeverarìn is the first-person plural of the futûr sempliç: dome in chê volte (only then) o imbeverarìn lis bestiis (shall we water the beasts).

Versets 9-13

Vocabulary: ancjemò (yet, still), resonâ (to talk, to speak), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il trop (flock), il pari (father), la pastore (shepherdess), a pene che (as soon as), viodi (to see), la fie (daughter), il barbe (uncle), lâ dongje (to go unto, to approach), rodolâ (to roll [off]), la piere (stone), taponâ (to cover), il poç (well), imbeverâ (to water, to give water to; of animals), il besteam (livestock), bussâ (to kiss), tacâ a vaî (to start to cry), contâ (to tell, to relate), la parintât (kinship), vê parintât cun (to be related to), cori (to run), sintî (to hear), tratâsi di (to be question of), il nevôt (nephew), la sûr (sister), vignî incuintri (to come up to), di dute corse (very quickly, in a rush, hurriedly), cjapâ a bracecuel (to embrace), colmâ (to fill), la bussade (kiss), menâ dentri (to bring in), la cjase (house), sucedi (to happen).

Verse 9: Al stave ancjemò resonant cun lôr che e rivà Rachêl cul trop di so pari: he was still speaking with them when Rachel came with her father’s flock. Resonant is the present participle of the verb resonâ; al stave resonant expresses the ongoing nature of the speaking in the past, as in he was speaking. Al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ. Rachel was a shepherdess: e faseve la pastore. Two things of note: pastore is the feminine form of pastôr; and fâ la pastore means to be a shepherdess. Another example of to talk about one’s trade: so pari al faseve il marangon (his father was a carpenter).

Verse 10: A pene che Jacop al viodè Rachêl: as soon as Jacob saw Rachel. Fie di so barbe: the daughter of his uncle. Al lè dongje, al rodolà la piere ch’e taponave il poç: he went up (and) rolled off the stone that was covering the well.

Verse 11: Jacop al bussà Rachêl: Jacob kissed Rachel. Po al tacà a vaî: then he started to cry; then he began to weep.

Verse 12: Note how Jacob tells Rachel that they are related: i contà a Rachêl che al veve parintât cun so pari (he told Rachel that he was related to [had kinship with] her father). After Rachel hears of this, she rushes to tell her father: jê alore e corè a dîjal a sô pari (she then ran off to tell [it] to her father). Dîjal means to tell it, to say it; it is a combination of + i + lu (to say + unto him + it). The “it” in question is what Rachel had just heard spoken by Jacob.

Verse 13: Cuant che al sintì che si tratave di so nevôt: when he heard that it was question of his nephew. Supplementary example of tratâsi di: si trate di vite o di muart (it is a question of life or death). Laban i vignì incuintri di dute corse: Laban came running up to him. You read how Laban receives his nephew: lu cjapà a bracecuel (he embraced him; he threw his arms around his neck); lu colmà di bussadis (he covered him in kisses); lu menà dentri in cjase (he brought him into the house). Jacop i contà dut ce che al jere sucedût: Jacob told him everything that had happened.

Versets 14-19

Vocabulary: propit (truly, indeed), il vues (bone), la cjar (flesh), restâ (stay), la cjase (house), il mês (month), intîr (entire), midiant che (given that), la parintât (kinship), fâ il famei (to be a servant), par dibant (for nothing), trop (how much), la fie (daughter), prin (first), vê non (to be named), secont (second), il voli (eye), smavit (bleared, faded), ben fat (shapely; of the body), biel di muse (beautiful; of the face), volê ben (to love), par siet agns (for seven years), zovin (young), miei (better), simpri miei ([it is] better [to]), il forest (outsider, foreigner), restâ cun (to stay with).

Verse 14: Laban says that Jacob is his bone and flesh: tu sês propit il gno vuès (you are truly my bone) e la mê cjar (and my flesh). You encountered a similar wording in Gjenesi 2:23, when Adam says of Eve: e je vuès dai miei vues (she is bone of my bones) e cjar de mê cjar (and flesh of my flesh). Jacop al restà in cjase sô par un mês intîr: Jacob stayed in his house for an entire month.

Verse 15: Fâ il famei means to be a servant (to act as servant, to serve as servant): midiant che o vin parintât (given that we are related [have kinship]), no tu varâs mo di fâmi il famei par dibant (you need not serve me for nothing; taken more literally, you will not have to act then as servant unto me for nothing). Laban asks Jacob to tell him what his wages are: disimi tu trop che o ai di dâti (tell me how much I am to give you).

Verse 16: Laban al veve dôs fiis (Laban had two daughters): la prime e veve non Lie (the first was named Leah) e la seconde Rachêl (and the second, Rachel).

Verse 17: Lie e veve vôi smavits: Leah had bleared eyes. Rachêl e jere plui ben fate e biele di muse: Rachel was more shapely and beautiful.

Verse 18: Jacop i voleve ben a Rachêl: Jacob loved Rachel. Jo ti fasarai di famei par siet agns: I shall serve you (act as servant unto you) for seven years. Tu âs di dâmi Rachêl: you must give me Rachel.

Verse 19: Simpri miei dâle a un di cjase che no a di un forest: better that I give her to one of the house than to an outsider; un di cjase is to be understood as referring to kin. Reste cun me: stay with me.

Versets 20-25

Vocabulary: sicheduncje (therefore), restâ (to remain), il famei (servant), siet agns di file (seven years straight), semeâ (to seem; also someâ), cualchi (a few, several), il dì (day), volê ben (to love), il timp (time), spirâ (to expire, to come to an end), la femine (wife), lassâ (to let, to allow), vivi (to live), clamâ dongje (to call together, to summon), la int (people), il lûc (place, site), il nuviçâr (wedding feast), sore sere (in the evening), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), menâ di (to bring unto), cedi (to cede, to give), la sierve (handmaid, maidservant), servî (to serve), tal indoman (the following day), a buinore (in the morning), jessi d’acuardi (to agree, to be in agreement), imbroiâ (to fool, to deceive, to dupe, to trick).

Verse 20: Sicheduncje Jacop al restà come famei siet agns di file par Rachêl: therefore Jacob remained (as) a slave seven years in a row for Rachel. These seven years were apparently not difficult for Jacob: i semearin cualchi dì (they seemed to him [only] a few days) cul ben che i voleve (with how much he loved her). Following cualchi, the noun is expressed in the singular: cualchi dì (a few days); cualchi libri (a few books); cualchi cjase (a few houses).

Verse 21: Il gno timp al è spirât: my time has come to an end.

Verse 22: Laban al clamà dongje dute la int dal lûc: Laban called together all the people of the place. Fâ un grant nuviçâr: to hold a great wedding feast. Related vocabulary: il nuviçâr (wedding feast, wedding reception), il nuviç (groom), la nuvice (bride), il vistît di nuvice (wedding dress), la nuvice di vuere (war bride).

Verse 23: Laban gives Leah, not Rachel, to Jacob: ma sore sere al cjolè sô fie Lie (but in the evening, he took his daughter Leah), e le menà di Jacop (and he brought her to Jacob). Chel al lè cun jê (literally, he [that one] went with her) is to be understood as meaning that Jacob had carnal relations with Leah.

Verse 24: Laban i cedè la sô sierve Zilpe (Laban gave her his maidservant Zilpah) par ch’e servìs sô fie Lie (so that she would serve his daughter Leah). After par che, the subjunctive is used; e servìs (from the verb servî) is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet.

Verse 25: Tal indoman a buinore: the next morning. Ve ch’e jere Lie: thus it was that it was Leah. Ce mi âstu fat?: what have you done to me? No jerino d’acuardi che jo ti fasevi di famei par Rachêl?: were we not in agreement that I would serve you (that I was acting unto you as servant) for Rachel? Parcè mi âstu imbroiât?: why have you deceived me?

Versets 26-30

Vocabulary: chi di nô (here amongst us), la usance (custom), maridâ (to marry off), la plui zovine (younger daughter), prime di (before), la plui grande (older daughter), lassâ passâ (to let pass, to allow to go by), la setemane (week), lis gnocis (wedding), il servizi (service), la cjase (house), altris siet agns (seven more years), fâ cussì (to do so), finî (to finish, to wait out), sposâ (to marry), la fie (daughter), cedi (to cede, to give), la sierve (handmaid, maidservant), servî (to serve), durmî cun (to sleep with), volê ben (to love), restâ famei (to remain a servant), il barbe (uncle).

Verse 26: Chi di nô (here amongst us) no je la usance (it is not the custom) di maridâ la plui zovine (to marry off the younger) prime de plui grande (before the older).

Verse 27: Ma lasse passâ cheste setemane di gnocis: but let this wedding week go by. Jo ti darai ancje chê altre: I shall give you the other one also. Pal servizi che tu fasarâs in cjase mê par altris siet agns: for the service that you will provide (do) in my house for another seven years.

Verse 28: Al finì chê setemane di gnocis: he waited out the wedding week. Laban lu lassà sposâ sô fie Rachêl: Laban let him marry his daughter Rachel.

Verse 29: Laban i cedè la sô sierve Bile: Laban gave her his maidservant Bilhah.

Verse 30: Jacop al durmì ancje cun Rachêl: Jacob slept with Rachel also. I voleve plui ben a Rachêl che no a Lie: he loved Rachel more than Leah. Al restà famei cun so barbe par altris siet agns: he remained a servant for (with) his uncle for another seven years.

Versets 31-35

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), lassâ di bande (to cast aside), cjapâ sù (to conceive), a la cuâl che (whereas), restâ sterpe (to remain barren), parturî un frut (to give birth to a boy), meti non (to name), la streme (affliction), un om (husband), volê ben (to love), tornâ a cjapâ sù (to conceive again), capî (to understand), cjapâ sù indaûr (to conceive again), chest viaç mo (this time indeed), cjalâ (to look; in this context, to consider), trê (three), cumò (now), la glorie (glory), dâi glorie a Diu (to praise God).

Verse 31: Il Signôr al viodè che Lie e jere lassade di bande: the Lord saw that Leah had been cast aside. I fasè cjapâ sù: he made her conceive. Read about the Friulian expression cjapâ sù. A la cuâl che Rachêl e restave sterpe: whereas Rachel remained barren.

Verse 32: E parturì un frut: she bore a son. I metè non Ruben: she named him Reuben. Il Signôr al à viodude la mê streme: the Lord has seen my afflcition. Cumò il gno om mi volarà ben: now my husband will love me.

Verse 33: E tornà a cjapâ sù: she conceived again. E parturì un altri frut: she bore another son. Il Signôr al à capît che o jeri lassade di bande: the Lord understood that I had been cast aside. Mi à dât ancje chest: he has given me this one also. I metè non Simeon: she named him Simeon.

Verse 34: E cjapà sù indaûr: she conceived again. Chest viaç mo il gno om mi cjalarà, che i ai dâts trê fruts: this time indeed my husband will consider me, for I have given him three boys. I metè non Levi: she named him Levi.

Verse 35: E tornà a cjapâ sù: she conceived again. Cumò i darai glorie a Diu: this time I shall praise God. Par chel: for this reason. Gjude: Judah. No à vûts altris fruts: she bore no other children.