Friulian language series: Gjenesi 28, avôt di Jacop

In the twenty-eighth chapter of the book of Genesis, Jacob has a dream. The Friulian for dream is the masculine noun sium. From the subject line of this chapter: l’avôt di Jacop (Jacob’s vow).

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), benedî (to bless), precetâ (to enjoin), cussì (so), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), partî (to depart), (to go), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la mari (mother), sielgisi (to select for oneself), di là vie (thence), la fie (daughter), il fradi (brother), (to make), cressi (to increase), multiplicâ (to multiply), fin che (until), deventâ (to become), la semblee (assembly), il popul (people), (to give), la gjernazie (line), la benedizion (blessing), il paron de tiere (lord of the land), là che (where), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

Verse 1: Isac al mandà a clamâ Jacop (Isaac sent to call Jacob), lu benedì (blessed him) e lu precetà cussì (and enjoined him so): no sta mai cjoli une femine (take not ever a wife) di chês di Canaan (from those of Canaan).

Verse 2: Partìs (depart) e va a Padan-Aram (and go to Paddan-Aram), in cjase di Betuel, pari di tô mari (into the house of Bethuel father of thy mother), e sielgiti une femine di là vie (and select for thyself a wife thence), une des fiis di Laban, fradi di tô mari (one of the daughters of Laban brother of thy mother). — Three second-person singular imperatives appear in this verse: partìs (depart); va (go); sielgiti (select for thyself). Of sielgi, the second-person singular imperative is sielç; when ti is added, the resulting form is sielgiti: an i is inserted before ti, causing the final ç to change quality and become g. For reference, the present indicative conjugation of the verb partî is presented below.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o partìs
tu partissis
al partìs

e partìs

o partìn
o partîs
a partissin

Verse 3: Che El-Shadai ti benedissi (may El-Shaddai bless thee), che ti fasi cressi (may he make thee increase) e ti multiplichi tant (and multiply thee so) fin che tu deventis une semblee di popui (until thou becomest an assembly of peoples).

Verse 4: Che ti dedi (may he give to thee), a ti e a la tô gjernazie (to thee and to thy line), la benedizion di Abram (the blessing of Abraham) par che tu sedis paron de tiere (that thou mayest be lord of the land) là che tu sês a stâ (where thou art dwelling) e che Diu i à dade a Abram (and which God gave to Abraham).

Versets 5-9

Vocabulary: saludâ (to see off), partî (to depart), la cjase (house), il fi (son), un arameu (Aramean), il fradi (brother), la mari (mother), viodi (to see), benedî (to bless), mandâ (to send), cjatâsi (to find for oneself), la femine (wife), intant che (whilst), (to give), un ordin (order), cjoli (to take), nissun (not any), scoltâ (to hearken), il pari (father), capî (to understand), cjalâ di svuec (to look askew {upon}), la fie (daughter), alore (so), lâ di (to go unto), in plui di (in addition to), la sûr (sister).

Verse 5: Isac al saludà Jacop (Isaac saw Jacob off) che al partì par Padan-Aram (who departed for Paddan-Aram), in cjase di Laban, fi di Betuel l’arameu (into the house of Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean) e fradi di Rebeche, mari di Jacop e di Esaù (and brother of Rebekah mother of Jacob and Esau).

Verse 6: Esaù al viodè che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob) e che lu veve mandât a Padan-Aram (and that he had sent him to Paddan-Aram) par cjatâsi une femine e che (to find for himself a wife and that), intant che lu benedive (whilst he was blessing him), i veve dât chest ordin (he had given to him this order): no sta cjoli nissune femine di Canaan (take not any wife from Canaan). — Found in this verse are a number of trapassât prossim forms: al veve benedît (he had blessed); lu veve mandât (he had sent him); i veve dât (he had given to him). The trapassât prossim informs that the past event in question took place before some other past event. Take, for instance: Esaù al viodè che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob); first Isaac blessed Jacob, then Esau saw it. The use of the trapassât prossim in al veve benedît places this action farther back in time than that of Esau’s seeing, expressed as al viodè, using the passât sempliç.

Verse 7: Jacop al veve scoltât so pari e sô mari (Jacob had hearkened unto his father and mother) e al jere partît par Padan-Aram (and had departed for Paddan-Aram).

Verses 8-9: Esaù al capì (Esau understood) che so pari al cjalave di svuec lis fiis di Canaan (that his father would look askew upon the daughters of Canaan) e alore al lè di Ismael e al cjolè (and so he went unto Ishmael and took), in plui di chês che al veve (in addition to those whom he had), Macalat, fie di Ismael, fi di Abram e sûr di Nebaiot (Mahalath daughter of Ishmael son of Abraham and sister of Nebaioth).

Versets 10-12

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), partî (to depart), par cumbinazion (by chance), rivâ (to arrive), cert (certain), il lûc (place), li (there), fermâsi (to halt oneself), passâ (to pass), la gnot (night), il soreli (sun), za (already), lâ a mont (to set), cjapâ sù (to take up), la piere (stone), il santuari (sanctuary), meti (to put), sot di (under), il cjâf (head), distirâsi (to lie oneself down), par tiere (on the ground), il sium (dream), viodi (to see), la scjale (ladder), il pît (foot), fint in (so far as into), il cîl (heaven), un agnul (angel), lâ sù e jù (to go up and down).

Verse 10: Jacop al lassà Bersabee (Jacob left Beer-Sheba) e al partì par Caran (and departed for Haran).

Verse 11: Par cumbinazion al rivà intun cert lûc (by chance he arrived in a certain place) e li si fermà a passâ la gnot (and there did halt himself to pass the night), parcè che il soreli al jere za lât a mont (for the sun had already set). Al cjapà sù une piere (he took up a stone) ch’e jere in chel santuari (which was in that sanctuary), le metè sot dal cjâf (put it under his head) e si distirà par tiere (and lay himself down on the ground).

Verse 12: Al fasè chest sium (he had [he made] this dream): al viodè une scjale cui pîts par tiere (he saw a ladder with its feet on the ground) ma ch’e rivave fint in cîl (but which would arrive so far as into the heaven) e i agnui di Diu che *a levin* sù e jù (and the angels of God who were going up and down). — *A levin is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of lâ; the entire imperfet indicatîf conjugation of this verb is found through the Friulian verb conjugations page.

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: presentâsi (to present oneself), devant di (before), (to say), il von (grandfather), la tiere (land, earth), durmî (to sleep), (to give), la gjernazie (line), deventâ (to become), il pulvin (dust), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), a soreli a mont (to the west), a soreli jevât (to the east), a miegegnot (to the north), a misdì (to the south), il forest (foreigner), benedî (to bless), vuardâ (to guard), par dut là che (wherever), (to go), tornâ a menâ (to lead back), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), bandonâ (to forsake), fintremai che (until), (to done), imprometi (to promise).

Verse 13: Il Signôr si presentà devant di lui (the Lord presented himself before him) e i disè (and said to him): jo o soi il Signôr (I am the Lord), il Diu di to von Abram e il Diu di Isac (the God of thy grandfather Abraham and the God of Isaac). La tiere che tu duarmis (the land whereon thou sleepest) te doi a ti e a la tô gjernazie (do I give to thee and to thy line).Tu tu duarmis is the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb durmî (to sleep). Below is the present indicative conjugation of durmî in table form. Moreover, know the following of this verb: its past participle is durmît; its three imperative forms are: duar (sleep; second-person singular), durmìn (let us sleep; first-person plural), durmît (sleep; second-person plural).

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o duar
tu duarmis
al duar

e duar

o durmìn
o durmîs
a duarmin

Verse 14: La tô gjernazie e deventarà come pulvin de tiere (thy line shall become like dust of the earth); tu ti slargjarâs a soreli a mont e a soreli jevât (thou shalt broaden thyself to the west and to the east), a miegegnot e a misdì (to the north and to the south), e ducj i forescj de tiere (and all the foreigners of the earth) a saran benedîts par te e pe tô gjernazie (shall be blessed by thee and by thy line).

Verse 15: Jo o soi cun te (I am with thee), ti vuardarai par dut là che tu larâs (I will guard thee wherever thou goest [wilt go]) e ti tornarai a menâ dongje in cheste tiere (and I will lead thee back alongside into this land), parcè che jo no ti bandonarai (for I will not forsake thee) fintremai che no varai fat (until I have [will have] done) dut ce che ti ai imprometût (all that which I have promised to thee).

Versets 16-18

Vocabulary: dopo di (after), il sium (dream), jevâ sù (to arise), (to say), propit (squarely), culì (here), culì (here), savê (to know), po (then), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), trement (awesome), il santuari (sanctuary), la cjase (house), la puarte (gate), il cîl (heaven), prin di (before), il dì (day), cjoli (to take), la piere (stone), poiâ (to set down), il cjâf (head), meti in pîts (to put afoot), usance (after the manner of), il colonel (column), ongi (to anoint), parsore vie (over above), il vueli (oil).

Verse 16: Jacop, dopo dal sium (Jacob, after the dream), al jevà sù e al disè (arose and said): il Signôr al jere propit culì (the Lord was squarely here) e *jo no savevi* (and I knew not). — *Jo no savevi is the first-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb savê. The passât prossim is not employed here, for this would have instead conveyed the sense of to come to know. Consider, for instance: o savevi che… (I knew that…); o ai savût che… (I found out that…); no savevi che… (I knew not that…); no ai savût che… (I found out not that).

Verb: SAVÊ
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o savevi
tu savevis
al saveve

e saveve

o savevin
o savevis
a savevin

Verse 17: Po al cjapà pôre e al disè (then he took fear and said): ce trement che al è chest santuari (how awesome is this sanctuary). Cheste e je propit la cjase di Diu (this is squarely the house of God) e la puarte dal cîl (and the gate of the heaven).

Verse 18: Jevât prin dal dì (having arisen before the day), al cjolè la piere che al veve poiât il cjâf (he took the stone whereon he had set down his head) e le metè in pîts usance un colonel (and put it afoot after the manner of a column) e le ongè parsore vie cul vueli (and anointed it over above with oil).

Versets 19-22

Vocabulary: clamâ (to call), il lûc (place), prime (beforehand), la citât (city), clamâsi (to be called), (to make), un avôt (vow), la bande (side), tignî vuardât (to keep guarded), il viaç (journey), lassâ mancjâ (to let lack), un toc di (a bit of), il pan (bread), la munture (raiment), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), (to give), la gracie (grace), tornâ (to return), san (sound), salf (safe), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la piere (stone), meti (to put), il colonel (column), paiâ (to pay), fin tal ultin (to the last), la decime (one tenth), (to give).

Verse 19: Al clamà chel lûc Betel (he called that place Bethel), ma prime la citât si clamave Luz (but beforehand the city was called Luz).

Verses 20-22: Jacop al fasè chest avôt (Jacob made this vow): se Diu al è de mê bande (if God is on my side) e mi ten vuardât tal viaç che o stoi fasint (and keeps me guarded in the journey which I am making), se no mi lasse mancjâ un toc di pan (if he lets me not lack a bit of bread) e une munture par taponâmi (and a raiment to conceal myself), se mi dà la gracie di tornâ san e salf (if he gives me the grace of returning safe and sound [sound and safe]) te cjase di gno pari (into the house of my father), alore il Signôr al sarà il gno Diu (then the Lord shall be my God) e cheste piere che jo o ai metude come colonel (and this stone which I have put as a column) e sarà une cjase di Diu (shall be a house of God) e o paiarai fin tal ultin (and I will pay to the last) la decime di dut ce che tu mi darâs (the one tenth of all that which thou givest [wilt give] to me).