Friulian language series: Gjenesi 28, avôt di Jacop

In the twenty-eighth chapter of the book of Genesis, Jacob has a dream. The Friulian for dream is il sium; to have a dream is fâ un sium. From the subject line of this chapter: l’avôt di Jacop (Jacob’s vow).

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Read Gjenesi 28

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Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: mandâ a clamâ (to send for), benedî (to bless), precetâ (to enjoin), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), partî (to leave, to depart), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la mari (mother), sielzisi (to choose for oneself), di là vie (from there), la fie (daughter), il fradi (brother), fâ cressi (to make grow, to cause to increase), multiplicâ (to multiply; also moltiplicâ), fin che (until), deventâ (to become), la semblee (assembly, multitude), il popul (people), (to give), la gjernazie (offspring), la benedizion (blessing), il paron de tiere (lord of the land), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

Verse 1: Isac al mandà a clamâ Jacop: Isaac sent for Jacob. Lu benedì e lu precetà cussì: he blessed him and enjoined him thus. Isaac tells Jacob that he must never marry a Canaanite woman: no sta mai cjoli (do not ever take) une femine di chês di Canaan (a wife from amongst those of Canaan).

Verse 2: Partìs e va a Padan-Aram, in cjase di Betuel, pari di tô mari: leave and go to Paddan-Aram, to the house of Bethuel, your mother’s father. Sielgiti une femine di là vie, une des fiis di Laban, fradi di tô mari: choose for yourself a wife from there, one of the daughters of Laban, your mother’s brother. Three second-person singular imperative forms appear in this verse: partìs (leave); va (go); sielziti (choose for yourself). The spelling sielgi (to choose) is used here; the standardised spelling is sielzi. The second-person singular imperative of this verb is sielç; when ti is added, the resulting form is sielziti (sielgiti) — an i is inserted before ti, causing the final ç to change quality and become z (g). The present indicative conjugation of the verb partî is presented below, for your reference.

Verb: PARTÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o partìs
partissio?
tu
tu partissis
partissistu?
lui
al partìs
partissial?

e partìs
partissie?

o partìn
partìno?
vualtris
o partîs
partîso?
lôr
a partissin
partissino?

Verse 3: El-Shadai is one of the Hebrew names of God usually rendered in English as God Almighty. Che El-Shadai ti benedissi (may God Almighty [El Shaddai] bless you), che ti fasi cressi e ti multiplichi tant (may he increase you and multiply you greatly) fin che tu deventis une semblee di popui (until you become an assembly of peoples). All the verbs of this verse are in the present subjunctive.

Verse 4: More present subjunctive forms are found in this verse: che ti dedi (may he grant [give] you), a ti e a la tô gjernazie (to you and to your offspring), la benedizion di Abram (the blessing of Abraham) par che tu sedis paron de tiere (that you may be lord of the land) là che tu sês a stâ (where you are dwelling) e che Diu i à dade a Abram (and which God gave to Abraham). Consider the following: al benedìs; che al benedissi (he blesses; may he bless); al fâs; che al fasi (he makes; may he make); al multipliche; che al multiplichi (he multiplies; may he multiply); tu deventis; fin che tu deventis (you become; until you become); al da; che al dedi (he gives; may he give); tu sês; par che tu sedis (you are; so that you may be).

Versets 5-9

Vocabulary: saludâ (to bid farewell), partî par (to set out for), la cjase (house), il fi (son), un arameu (Aramean), il fradi (brother), la mari (mother), viodi (to see), benedî (to bless), mandâ (to send), cjatâsi (to find for oneself), la femine (wife), intant che (whilst), dâ un ordin (to give an instruction), cjoli (to take), nissun (no, not any), scoltâ (to listen to), il pari (father), capî (to understand), cjalâ di svuec (to look askance at, to look with disapproval upon), la fie (daughter), lâ di (to go unto), in plui di (in addition to), la sûr (sister).

Verse 5: Isac al saludà Jacop (Isaac bade farewell to Jacob) che al partì par Padan-Aram (who set out for Paddan-Aram) in cjase di Laban (to the house of Bethuel), fi di Betuel l’arameu (son of Bethuel the Aramean) e fradi di Rebeche (and brother of Rebekah), mari di Jacop e di Esaù (mother of Jacob and Esau).

Verse 6: Esaù al viodè (Esau saw) che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (that Isaac had blessed Jacob) e che lu veve mandât a Padan-Aram (and had sent him to Paddan-Aram) par cjatâsi une femine (to find a wife for himself) e che, intant che lu benedive (and that, whilst he was blessing him), i veve dât chest ordin (had given him this instruction): no sta cjoli nissune femine di Canaan (take no woman from Canaan). You find a number of trapassât prossim forms: al veve benedît (he had blessed); lu veve mandât (he had sent him); i veve dât (he had given him). The trapassât prossim informs that the past event in question took place before some other past event. Take, for example: Esaù al viodè che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob); first Isaac blessed Jacob, then Esau saw it. The use of the trapassât prossim in al veve benedît places this action farther back in time than that of Esau’s seeing, expressed as al viodè, using the passât sempliç.

Verse 7: Jacop al veve scoltât so pari e sô mari: Jacob had heeded (listened) to his father and his mother. Al jere partît par Padan-Aram: he had set out for Paddan-Aram. Consider the following: al à benedît Jacop; al veve benedît Jacop (he has blessed Jacob; he had blessed Jacob); lu à mandât a Padan-Aram; lu veve mandât a Padan-Aram (he has sent him to Paddan-Aram; he had sent him to Paddan-Aram); i à dât chest ordin; i veve dât chest ordin (he has given him this instruction; he had given him this instruction); Jacop al à scoltât so pari; Jacop al veve scoltât so pari (Jacob has heeded his father; Jacob had heeded his father); al è partît par Padan-Aram; al jere partît par Padan-Aram (he has set out for Paddan-Aram; he had set out for Paddan-Aram).

Verse 8: Esaù al capì che so pari al cjalave di svuec lis fiis di Canaan: Esau understood that his father looked (was looking) disapprovingly upon the daughters of Canaan.

Verse 9: E alore al lè di Ismael: so he went to Ishmael. Esau takes Macalat (Mahalath) to wife, in addition to Gjudit (Judith) and Basemat (Basemath). Al cjolè, in plui di chês che al veve, Macalat, fie di Ismael, fi di Abram e sûr di Nebaiot: he took, in addition to the ones he (already) had, Mahalath, the daughter of Ishmael — (who was the) son of Abraham — and sister of Nebaioth.

Versets 10-12

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), partî par (to set out for), par cumbinazion (by chance), rivâ (to arrive, to come), cert (certain; also ciert), il lûc (site, place), fermâsi (to stop oneself), passâ la gnot (to spend the night), il soreli (sun), za (already), lâ a mont (to set; of the sun), cjapâ sù (to pick up), la piere (stone), il santuari (sanctuary), meti (to put, to place), sot dal cjâf (under one’s head), distirâsi par tiere (to lie oneself down on the ground), il sium (dream), fâ un sium (to have a dream), viodi (to see), la scjale (ladder), il pît (foot), par tiere (on the ground), rivâ fint in cîl (to reach heaven), un agnul (angel), lâ sù e jù (to go up and down).

Verse 10: Jacop al lassà Bersabee e al partì par Caran: Jacob left Beersheba and set out for Haran.

Verse 11: Par cumbinazion al rivà intun cert lûc: he happened upon a certain place (by chance he came to a certain place). Cert is employed here to be imprecise; supplementary examples, using instead the standard spelling ciert: une cierte persone (a certain person); ti à cirût un ciert siôr (a certain gentleman was looking for you; was asking for you); cierte int no mi plâs (I do not like certain people; certain people are displeasing to me). Li si fermà a passâ la gnot: he stopped there to spend the night. Il soreli al jere za lât a mont: the sun had already set. Al cjapà sù une piere ch’e jere in chel santuari: he picked up a stone that was in that sanctuary. Le metè sot dal cjâf: he placed it under his head. Si distirà par tiere: he lay down on the ground.

Verse 12: Al fasè chest sium: he had this dream. Al viodè une scjale cui pîts par tiere: he saw a ladder with its legs [feet] on the ground. With reference to the human body, the Friulian for leg is la gjambe, and for foot it is il pît; of a ladder, the legs are referred to as feet: i pîts. La scjale e rivave fint in cîl: the ladder reached the heaven (the ladder was coming [arriving] as far as the heaven). I agnui di Diu a levin sù e jù: the angels of God were going up and down. A levin is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ. You will find the entire imperfet indicatîf conjugation of through the Friulian verb conjugations page.

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: presentâsi (to present oneself), devant di (before, in front of), il von (grandfather), la tiere (ground, earth, land), durmî (to sleep), la gjernazie (offspring), deventâ (to become), il pulvin (dust), slargjâsi (to spread oneself out), a soreli a mont (to the west), a soreli jevât (to the east), a miegegnot (to the north; also a miezegnot), a misdì (to the south), il forest (foreigner, stranger, outsider), benedî (to bless), vuardâ (to guard, to protect), par dut là che (wherever, everywhere that), menâ dongje (to bring back), tornâ a menâ dongje (to bring back again), bandonâ (to leave), fintremai che (until), imprometi (to promise).

Verse 13: Il Signôr si presentà devant di lui: the Lord presented himself before him. The Lord says: jo o soi il Signôr, il Diu di to von Abram e il Diu di Isac (I am the Lord, the God of your grandfather Abraham and the God of Isaac). Review: Names of family members in Friulian (see the notes at verse 12 on the linked page). La tiere che tu duarmis te doi a ti e a la tô gjernazie: I give the ground upon which you sleep to you and your offspring. Observe: la tiere che tu duarmis (the ground [upon] which you sleep) te doi (unto you I give it) a ti e a la tô gjernazie (to you and to your offspring). Tu tu duarmis is the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb durmî (to sleep). Below, you will find the present indicative conjugation of durmî in chart form. The past participle of durmî is durmît. Know also these three imperative forms of the verb: duar (sleep; second-person singular); durmìn (let us sleep; first-person plural); durmît (sleep; second-person plural). Supplementary examples of the verb durmî: o vin durmît pôc (we have slept little); lâ a durmî (to go to sleep, to go to bed); durmî in bande (to sleep on one’s side); durmî in schene (to sleep on one’s back); un discors che al fâs durmî (a speech that puts you to sleep); durmî cu la femine (to sleep with one’s wife); e je lade a durmî cun chel (she went to sleep with him).

Verb: DURMÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o duar
duarmio?
tu
tu duarmis
duarmistu?
lui
al duar
duarmial?

e duar
duarmie?

o durmìn
durmìno?
vualtris
o durmîs
durmîso?
lôr
a duarmin
duarmino?

Verse 14: La tô gjernazie e deventarà come pulvin de tiere: your offspring shall become as the dust of the earth. Lord tells Jacob that he will extend in all four directions: tu ti slargjarâs a soreli a mont (you will spread out to the west) e a soreli jevât (and to the east), a miegegnot (to the north) e a misdì (and to the south). The word employed here for north translates literally as midnight: miegegnot, standardised as miezegnot; for south, it translates literally as midday: misdì. Ducj i forescj de tiere a saran benedîts par te e pe tô gjernazie: all the foreigners of the earth shall be blessed through you and through your offspring.

Verse 15: Jo o soi cun te, ti vuardarai par dut là che tu larâs: I am with you, I shall protect you wherever you go (will go). Ti tornarai a menâ dongje in cheste tiere: I shall bring you back to this land. Jo no ti bandonarai fintremai che no varai fat dut ce che ti ai imprometût: I shall not leave you until I have done (shall have done) everything that I have promised you. O varai fat (I shall have done) is the first-person singular of the futûr anterior of the verb fâ. You will find the entire conjugation of the verb in this tense through the Friulian verb conjugations page.

Versets 16-18

Vocabulary: dopo di (after), il sium (dream), jevâ sù (to get up, to arise), propit culì (right here), savê (to know), cjapâ pôre (to take fright), trement (awesome, frightful), ce trement (how awesome), il santuari (sanctuary), la cjase (house), la puarte (door, gate), il cîl (heaven, sky), prin dal dì (in the early morning), poiâ (to support), il cjâf (head), meti in pîts (to set afoot), usance (as, after the manner of), il colonel (pillar), ongi (to anoint, to pour oil; also unzi), parsore vie (on top), il vueli (oil).

Verse 16: Jacop, dopo dal sium, al jevà sù e al disè: Jacob, after his (the) dream, arose and said. Jo no savevi is the negated, first-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb savê. You will find savê conjugated below in the imperfect indicative, for your reference. Jacob says: il Signôr al jere propit culì e jo no savevi (the Lord was right here and I did not know [was not knowing]). The reason the imperfet indicatîf is used here and not, say, the passât prossim, is because Jacob’s not knowing extended over a certain amount of time in the past. Jo no savevi is taken literally in English as I was not knowing or even, in other contexts, as I used not to know. To take another example, al fevelà means he spoke (at a specific moment), whereas al fevelave means he was speaking (over a period of time: moments, hours, etc.). Consider now the following: o savevi (I was knowing; I used to know); o ai savût (I found out). Using the passât prossim of the verb savê conveys the sense of to come to know, to find out. What is understood is that the knowing came at a specific moment in the past. Supplementary examples: o ai savût che doman al è un sciopar (I found out that there is a strike tomorrow); daspò, âstu savût nuie di chê propueste di lavôr? (have you not found out anything then about that job offer?).

Verb: SAVÊ
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o savevi
savevio?
tu
tu savevis
savevistu?
lui
al saveve
savevial?

e saveve
savevie?

o savevin
savevino?
vualtris
o savevis
saveviso?
lôr
a savevin
savevino?

Verse 17: Po al cjapà pôre: then he took fright. Jacob says: ce trement che al è chest santuari (how awesome is this sanctuary). Trement can also mean frightful; in this context, Jacob has experienced fear mixed with reverence, and so trement is probably better taken here as awesome, awe-inducing, rather than frightful. He says: cheste e je propit la cjase di Diu (this is the very house of God) e la puarte dal cîl (and the gate of heaven).

Verse 18: Jevât prin dal dì: having arisen in the early morning. The text of this verse continues: al cjolè la piere (he took the stone) che al veve poiât il cjâf (with which he had supported his head) e le metè in pîts usance un colonel (and he set it afoot as a pillar [after the manner of a pillar]) e le ongè parsore vie cul vueli (and anointed it on top with oil). The anointing of the stone with oil was a symbolic gesture meant to consecrate the spot where God had manifested himself to Jacob.

Versets 19-22

Vocabulary: clamâ (to call), il lûc (place, site), prime (before, previously), la citât (city), clamâsi (to be called), fâ un avôt (to make a vow), jessi de mê bande (to be on my side), tignî vuardât (to keep protected), fâ un viaç (to make a journey), lassâ mancjâ (to allow to lack, to let go without), il toc di pan (piece of bread), la munture (garments, clothing; also monture), taponâsi (to cover oneself), dâ la gracie di (to make the concession of), tornâ san e salf (to return safe and sound), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la piere (stone), il colonel (pillar), paiâ (to pay), fin tal ultin (to the last), la decime (one tenth), (to give).

Verse 19: Al clamà chel lûc Betel (he called that site Bethel), ma prime la citât si clamave Luz (but previously the city was called Luz).

Verses 20-22: Jacop al fasè chest avôt: Jacob made this vow. The vow: se Diu al è de mê bande (if God is on my side) e mi ten vuardât tal viaç che o stoi fasint (and keeps me protected on the journey that I am making), se no mi lasse mancjâ un toc di pan (if he does not make me want for a bit of bread [allow me to lack a bit of bread]) e une munture par taponâmi (and garments to cover myself), se mi dà la gracie (if he makes me the concession) di tornâ san e salf te cjase di gno pari (of returning safe and sound to my father’s house), alore il Signôr al sarà il gno Diu (then the Lord shall be my God), e cheste piere che jo o ai metude come colonel (and this stone that I have set up as a pillar) e sarà une cjase di Diu (shall be a house of God) e o paiarai (and I shall pay) fin tal ultin (to the last) la decime di dut ce che tu mi darâs (the tenth of everything that you give [will give] me). Regarding san e salf (safe and sound): san means healthy, sound, whereas salf means safe, unhurt; taken literally, san e salf translates as sound and safe.