Genesis 28 in Friulian

In the twenty-eighth chapter of the book of Genesis, Jacob has a dream. The Friulian for dream is the masculine noun sium. From the subject line of this chapter: l’avôt di Jacop (Jacob’s vow).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 28

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 28. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), benedî (to bless), precetâ (to enjoin), cussì (so), cjoli (to take), la femine (wife), partî (to depart), (to go), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la mari (mother), sielgisi (to select for oneself), di là vie (thence), la fie (daughter), il fradi (brother), (to make), cressi (to increase), multiplicâ (to multiply), fin che (until), deventâ (to become), la semblee (assembly), il popul (people), (to give), la gjernazie (line), la benedizion (blessing), il paron de tiere (lord of the land), là che (where), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

Verse 1: Isac al mandà a clamâ Jacop (Isaac sent to call Jacob), lu benedì (blessed him) e lu precetà cussì (and enjoined him so): no sta mai cjoli une femine (take not ever a wife) di chês di Canaan (from those of Canaan).

Verse 2: Partìs e va a Padan-Aram (depart and go unto Paddan-Aram), in cjase di Betuel, pari di tô mari (into the house of Bethuel father of thy mother), e sielgiti une femine di là vie (and select for thyself a wife thence), une des fiis di Laban, fradi di tô mari (one of the daughters of Laban brother of thy mother). — Three second-person singular imperatives appear in this verse: partìs (depart); va (go); sielgiti (select for thyself). Of sielgi, the second-person singular imperative is sielç; when ti is added, the resulting form is sielgiti: an i is inserted before ti, causing the final ç to change quality and become g. For reference, the present indicative conjugation of the verb partî is presented below.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o partìs
tu partissis
al partìs

e partìs

o partìn
o partîs
a partissin

Verse 3: Che El-Shadai ti benedissi (may El-Shaddai bless thee), che ti fasi cressi (may he make thee increase) e ti multiplichi tant (and multiply thee so) fin che tu deventis une semblee di popui (until thou become an assembly of peoples).

Verse 4: Che ti dedi (may he give unto thee), a ti e a la tô gjernazie (unto thee and unto thy line), la benedizion di Abram (the blessing of Abraham) par che tu sedis paron de tiere (that thou may be lord of the land) là che tu sês a stâ (where thou art dwelling) e che Diu i à dade a Abram (and which God gave unto Abraham).

Versets 5-9

Vocabulary: saludâ (to see off), partî (to depart), la cjase (house), il fi (son), un arameu (Aramean), il fradi (brother), la mari (mother), viodi (to see), benedî (to bless), mandâ (to send), cjatâsi (to find for oneself), la femine (wife), intant che (whilst), (to give), un ordin (order), cjoli (to take), nissun (not any), scoltâ (to hearken), il pari (father), capî (to understand), cjalâ di svuec (to look askew {upon}), la fie (daughter), alore (so), lâ di (to go unto), in plui di (in addition unto), la sûr (sister).

Verse 5: Isac al saludà Jacop (Isaac saw Jacob off) che al partì par Padan-Aram (who departed for Paddan-Aram), in cjase di Laban, fi di Betuel l’arameu (into the house of Laban son of Bethuel the Aramean) e fradi di Rebeche, mari di Jacop e di Esaù (and brother of Rebekah mother of Jacob and Esau).

Verse 6: Esaù al viodè che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob) e che lu veve mandât a Padan-Aram (and that he had sent him unto Paddan-Aram) par cjatâsi une femine e che (to find for himself a wife and that), intant che lu benedive (whilst he was blessing him), i veve dât chest ordin (he had given him this order): no sta cjoli nissune femine di Canaan (take not any wife from Canaan). — Found in this verse are a number of trapassât prossim forms: al veve benedît (he had blessed); lu veve mandât (he had sent him); i veve dât (he had given him). The trapassât prossim informs that the past event in question took place before some other past event. Take, for instance: Esaù al viodè che Isac al veve benedît Jacop (Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob); first Isaac blessed Jacob, then Esau saw it. The use of the trapassât prossim in al veve benedît places this action farther back in time than that of Esau’s seeing, expressed as al viodè, using the passât sempliç.

Verse 7: Jacop al veve scoltât so pari e sô mari (Jacob had hearkened unto his father and mother) e al jere partît par Padan-Aram (and was departed for Paddan-Aram).

Verses 8-9: Esaù al capì (Esau understood) che so pari al cjalave di svuec lis fiis di Canaan (that his father would look askew upon the daughters of Canaan) e alore al lè di Ismael e al cjolè (and so he went unto Ishmael and took), in plui di chês che al veve (in addition unto those whom he had), Macalat, fie di Ismael, fi di Abram e sûr di Nebaiot (Mahalath daughter of Ishmael son of Abraham and sister of Nebaioth).

Versets 10-12

Vocabulary: lassâ (to leave), partî (to depart), par cumbinazion (by chance), rivâ (to arrive), cert (certain), il lûc (place), li (there), fermâsi (to halt oneself), passâ (to pass), la gnot (night), il soreli (sun), za (already), lâ a mont (to set), cjapâ sù (to take up), la piere (stone), il santuari (sanctuary), meti (to put), sot di (under), il cjâf (head), distirâsi (to lie oneself down), par tiere (on the ground), il sium (dream), viodi (to see), la scjale (ladder), il pît (foot), fint in (so far as into), il cîl (heaven), un agnul (angel), lâ sù e jù (to go up and down).

Verse 10: Jacop al lassà Bersabee (Jacob left Beer-Sheba) e al partì par Caran (and departed for Haran).

Verse 11: Par cumbinazion al rivà intun cert lûc (by chance he arrived in a certain place) e li si fermà a passâ la gnot (and there did halt himself to pass the night), parcè che il soreli al jere za lât a mont (for the sun was already set). Al cjapà sù une piere (he took up a stone) ch’e jere in chel santuari (which was in that sanctuary), le metè sot dal cjâf (put it under his head) e si distirà par tiere (and lay himself down on the ground).

Verse 12: Al fasè chest sium (he made this dream): al viodè une scjale cui pîts par tiere (he saw a ladder with its feet on the ground) ma ch’e rivave fint in cîl (but which would arrive so far as into the heaven) e i agnui di Diu che *a levin* sù e jù (and the angels of God who were going up and down). — *A levin is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of lâ; the entire imperfet indicatîf conjugation of this verb is found through the Friulian verb conjugations page.

Versets 13-15

Vocabulary: presentâsi (to present oneself), devant di (before), (to say), il von (grandfather), la tiere (land, earth), durmî (to sleep), (to give), la gjernazie (line), deventâ (to become), il pulvin (dust), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), a soreli a mont (unto the west), a soreli jevât (unto the east), a miegegnot (unto the north), a misdì (unto the south), il forest (foreigner), benedî (to bless), vuardâ (to guard), par dut là che (whithersoever), (to go), tornâ a menâ (to lead back), menâ dongje (to lead alongside), bandonâ (to forsake), fintremai che (until), (to done), imprometi (to promise).

Verse 13: Il Signôr si presentà devant di lui (the Lord presented himself before him) e i disè (and said unto him): jo o soi il Signôr (I am the Lord), il Diu di to von Abram e il Diu di Isac (the God of thy grandfather Abraham and the God of Isaac). La tiere che tu duarmis (the land whereon thou sleepest) te doi a ti e a la tô gjernazie (do I give unto thee and unto thy line).Tu tu duarmis is the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb durmî (to sleep). Below is the present indicative conjugation of durmî in table form. Moreover, know the following of this verb: its past participle is durmît; its three imperative forms are: duar (sleep; second-person singular), durmìn (let us sleep; first-person plural), durmît (sleep; second-person plural).

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o duar
tu duarmis
al duar

e duar

o durmìn
o durmîs
a duarmin

Verse 14: La tô gjernazie e deventarà come pulvin de tiere (thy line will become like dust of the earth); tu ti slargjarâs a soreli a mont e a soreli jevât (thou wilt broaden thyself unto the west and unto the east), a miegegnot e a misdì (unto the north and unto the south), e ducj i forescj de tiere (and all the foreigners of the earth) a saran benedîts par te e pe tô gjernazie (will be blessed by thee and by thy line).

Verse 15: Jo o soi cun te (I am with thee), ti vuardarai par dut là che tu larâs (I shall guard thee whithersoever thou wilt go) e ti tornarai a menâ dongje in cheste tiere (and I shall lead thee back alongside into this land), parcè che jo no ti bandonarai (for I shall not forsake thee) fintremai che no varai fat (until I shall have done) dut ce che ti ai imprometût (all that which I have promised thee).

Versets 16-18

Vocabulary: dopo di (after), il sium (dream), jevâ sù (to arise), (to say), propit (squarely), culì (here), culì (here), savê (to know), po (then), cjapâ (to take), la pôre (fear), trement (awesome), il santuari (sanctuary), la cjase (house), la puarte (gate), il cîl (heaven), prin di (before), il dì (day), cjoli (to take), la piere (stone), poiâ (to set down), il cjâf (head), meti in pîts (to put afoot), usance (after the manner of), il colonel (column), ongi (to anoint), parsore vie (over above), il vueli (oil).

Verse 16: Jacop, dopo dal sium (Jacob, after the dream), al jevà sù e al disè (arose and said): il Signôr al jere propit culì (the Lord was squarely here) e *jo no savevi* (and I knew not). — *Jo no savevi is the first-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb savê. The passât prossim is not employed here, for this would have instead conveyed the sense of to come to know. Consider, for instance: o savevi che… (I knew that…); o ai savût che… (I found out that…); no savevi che… (I knew not that…); no ai savût che… (I found out not that).

Verb: SAVÊ
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o savevi
tu savevis
al saveve

e saveve

o savevin
o savevis
a savevin

Verse 17: Po al cjapà pôre e al disè (then he took fear and said): ce trement che al è chest santuari (how awesome is this sanctuary). Cheste e je propit la cjase di Diu (this is squarely the house of God) e la puarte dal cîl (and the gate of the heaven).

Verse 18: Jevât prin dal dì (in having arisen before the day), al cjolè la piere che al veve poiât il cjâf (he took the stone whereon he had set down his head) e le metè in pîts usance un colonel (and put it afoot after the manner of a column) e le ongè parsore vie cul vueli (and anointed it over above with oil).

Versets 19-22

Vocabulary: clamâ (to call), il lûc (place), prime (beforehand), la citât (city), clamâsi (to be called), (to make), un avôt (vow), la bande (side), tignî vuardât (to keep guarded), il viaç (journey), lassâ mancjâ (to let lack), un toc di (a bit of), il pan (bread), la munture (raiment), taponâsi (to conceal oneself), (to give), la gracie (grace), tornâ (to return), san (sound), salf (safe), la cjase (house), il pari (father), la piere (stone), meti (to put), il colonel (column), paiâ (to pay), fin tal ultin (unto the last), la decime (tithe), (to give).

Verse 19: Al clamà chel lûc Betel (he called that place Bethel), ma prime la citât si clamave Luz (but beforehand the city was called Luz).

Verses 20-22: Jacop al fasè chest avôt (Jacob made this vow): se Diu al è de mê bande (if God be on my side) e mi ten vuardât tal viaç che o stoi fasint (and keep me guarded in the journey which I am making), se no mi lasse mancjâ un toc di pan (if he let me not lack a bit of bread) e une munture par taponâmi (and a raiment to conceal myself), se mi dà la gracie di tornâ san e salf (if he give me the grace of returning safe and sound) te cjase di gno pari (into the house of my father), alore il Signôr al sarà il gno Diu (then the Lord will be my God) e cheste piere che jo o ai metude come colonel (and this stone which I have put as a column) e sarà une cjase di Diu (will be a house of God) e o paiarai fin tal ultin (and I shall pay unto the last) la decime di dut ce che tu mi darâs (the tithe of all that which thou wilt give me).