Friulian language series: Gjenesi 26, promessis dal Signôr

You will now study chapter 26 of the book of Genesis in Friulian, where the subject matter is: lis promessis dal Signôr, Diu dal pari Abram (promises of the Lord, God of Father Abraham); Rebeche e Abimelec (Rebekah and Abimelech); furtune di Isac (Isaac’s fortune); i poçs di Gjerar (wells of Gerar); indaûr promessis (promises afresh); il pat cun Abimelec (covenant with Abimelech); lis feminis ititis di Esaù (Esau’s Hittite wives). Itit (Hittite) in feminine form is itite; the feminine plural, then, is ititis.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 26

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 26. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: capitâ (to happen), la tiere (land), grant (great), la miserie (famine), il re (king), il filisteu (Philistine), comparî (to appear), mostrâ (to show), restâ (to remain), benedî (to bless), la gjernazie (offspring), mantignî (to keep, to maintain), il zurament (oath), il pari (father), fâ cressi (to make increase), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven, sky), il popul (people), il mont (world), tornâ (to repay, to give back), l’ubidience (obedience), lâ indevant (to go forward), seont che (according to what), meti in vore (to carry out), ordenâ (to order, to command), un ordin (order, command), il comandament (commandment), la leç (law), fermâsi (to dwell).

Verse 1: A great famine occurred: e capità une grande miserie. Like sucedi, the verb capitâ means to happen, to occur. Ta chê tiere: in that land. No la prime miserie ch’e capità sot di Abram, ma un’altre: not the first famine that occurred in the time of (under) Abraham, but another. Re dai filisteus: king of the Philistines.

Verse 2: The Lord says to Isaac: no sta lâ in Egjit (do not go to Egypt); sta te tiere che jo ti mostrarai (stay in the land that I shall show you). Note that Friulian says lâ in Egjit (to go to Egypt), using the preposition in. Another example: o soi lât in Irlande (I went to Ireland).

Verse 3: Reste culì: remain here; stay here. O mantegnarai il zurament (I shall maintain the oath) che i ai fat a to pari Abram (that I made with your father Abraham). The verb mantignî means to maintain, to keep. The verbs tignî, mantignî and vignî follow the same conjugation model. In the text of this verse, you see that mantignî has undergone a vowel change in its stem in its futûr sempliç form (o mantegnarai); this vowel change is not mandatory, and, indeed, there are far more examples in this Bible of where no vowel change has been applied. For example, in 1 Rês 6:12, you read: jo o mantignarai la mê peraule (I shall keep my word). In Salms 89:29, you read: i mantignarai par simpri il gno boncûr (I shall always maintain my compassion for him). In Denêl 11:3, you read: podopo al vignarà fûr un re potent (then a powerful king will arise). In Luche 4:11, you read: ti tignaran sù cu lis mans (they will hold you up with their hands).

Three new Friulian verb conjugation charts are presented below: presint indicatîf of tignî (the presint indicatîf of vignî can be found through the Friulian verb conjugations page), and futûr sempliç of tignî and vignî. In the futûr sempliç, I have not applied a vowel change in the stem.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o ten
tu tegnis
al ten

e ten

o tignìn
o tignîs
a tegnin

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o tignarai
tu tignarâs
al tignarà

e tignarà

o tignarìn
o tignarês
a tignaran

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o vignarai
tu vignarâs
al vignarà

e vignarà

o vignarìn
o vignarês
a vignaran

Verse 4: O fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie come lis stelis dal cîl: I shall increase your offspring like the stars of the heaven; fâ cressi can be taken more literally as to make grow, to cause to increase. Pe tô gjernazie: by your offspring.

Verse 5: Par tornâi l’ubidience di Abram (to repay the obedience of Abraham; to reward the obedience of Abraham) che al è simpri lât indevant (who always went forward) seont che i vevi dit jo (according to what I had said to him; according to what I had told him). The Lord continues: al à metût in vore (he carried out) ce che jo i vevi ordenât di meti in vore (that which I had ordered him to carry out). I miei ordins, i miei comandaments e lis mês leçs: my commands (orders), my commandments and my laws.

Verse 6: Cussì Isac si fermà a Gjerar: Isaac thus dwelt in Gerar; so Isaac stayed in Gerar.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: la int (people), il puest (place, site), domandâ a rivuart di (to ask about), la femine (wife), la sûr (sister), vê pôre (to be afraid), pensâ (to think), jessi bon di (to be capable of), copâ (to kill), la colpe (fault), par colpe di (on account of), biel (attractive), bielzà (already), un grum di (a lot of), il timp (time), il re (king), cjalâ fûr (to look out), il balcon (window; also expressed as barcon), cjareçâ (to caress), mandâ a clamâ (to send for), scometi (to bet), il riscjo (risk), lâ a riscjo di (to be at risk of), murî (to die), une part dal gjenar (a deed of the sort), mancjâ pôc che (to almost come to pass that; literally, to lack little that), cualchidun (someone, somebody), lâ a durmî cun (to go to sleep with; that is, to have sexual intercourse with), la schene (back; of human body), meti su pe schene (to bring upon, to cause to bear), il pecjât (sin), un ordin (command), tocjâ (to touch).

Verse 7: La int dal puest (the men [people] of the place) i domandarin a rivuart de sô femine (asked him about his wife). You read why Isaac said that Rebekah was his sister: al veve pôre di dî (he was afraid to say): e je la mê femine (she is my wife). You have seen before that vê pôre means to be afraid; here, you find it used as part of the expression vê pôre di, followed by an infinitive. For example, vê pôre di dî means to be afraid to say; vê pôre di fâlu means to be afraid to do it. Isaac says that he risks getting killed: cheste int culì e je buine di copâmi (these men [people] are capable of killing me; these men could very well kill me) par colpe di Rebeche (on account of Rebekah), ch’e je biele (for she is beautiful).

Verse 8: Al jere bielzà passât un grum di timp: a good deal of time had already passed. Cjalant fûr une volte pal balcon: looking one time out the window; note the use of the prepostion par in cjalâ fûr pal balcon (to look out the window). Abimelech had understood that Rebekah was not Isaac’s sister: al viodè Isac che al cjareçave Rebeche (he saw Isaac who was caressing Rebekah).

Verse 9: O scomet ch’e je la tô femine (I bet that she is your wife). Supplementary examples of the verb scometi (to bet, to place a bet): scometìn une bire (let us bet a beer); scometi suntun cjaval (to bet on a horse); al à il vizi di scometi (he has the bad habit of placing bets; il vizi, vice); o scomet che tu pierdarâs il tren ancje doman (I bet that you will miss the train tomorrow as well). The verb scometi follows the conjugation model of meti. O ai pensât: I thought. O voi a riscjo di murî par colpe di jê: I am at risk of death on account of her.

Verse 10: Abimelech asks: parcè mi âstu fate une part dal gjenar? (why did you do a deed of the sort to me?). He continues: al è mancjât pôc che (it almost came to pass that) cualchidun al les a durmî cu la tô femine (someone could have gone to sleep with your wife) e tu nus varessis metût su pe schene un grant pecjât (and you would have brought upon us a great sin; literally, and you would have put upon our backs [upon the backs unto us] a great sin). Note the use of the subjunctive following al è mancjât pôc che (literally, it lacked little that); in this case, because it is question of past time, you find the coniuntîf imperfet form al les, from the verb lâ. Supplementary examples of the verb mancjâ (to be lacking, to be missing): nus mancje il timp (we do not have time; literally, the time is lacking unto us); e mancje une ore ae partence (the departure is one hour away, the departure is in one hour; literally, one hour is lacking unto the departure; ae is a standardised contraction of a la); a mancjin trê chilometris (there are three kilometres left [to go]; literally, three kilometres are lacking).

Verse 11: Al dè: he gave. Chel che al tocjarà chest om: he who touches (will touch) this man. Al sarà copât: he shall be killed.

Versets 12-17

Vocabulary: semenâ (to sow), butâ il cent par un (to reap a hundredfold), il siôr (sir, gentleman), deventâ siôr (to become rich), slargjâsi (to become rich; literally, to broaden oneself), simpri di plui (more and more), deventâ un sioron (to become very rich), la mandrie (herd), il besteam minût (small livestock; that is, sheep, flocks), il besteam grant (large livestock; that is, oxen, herds), un slac di (a great deal of, a lot of), il famei (servant), un filisteu (Philistine), la rabie (anger), vê rabie (to be angry), il poç (well), sgjavâ (to dig), ancjemò vîf (still alive), stropâ (to stop up, to plug), jemplâ di tiere (to fill with earth), vatint (leave, be gone; second-person singular imperative of lâsint), masse grant (too great), partî di li (to leave from there), campâsi (to set up camp, to encamp), ad ôr di (alongside), il riul (stream), sistemâsi (to settle), aventi (there).

Verse 12: Isac al semenà in chês tieris: Isaac sowed in those lands. Chel an: that year. Al butà il cent par un: he reaped a hundredfold.

Verse 13: The Friulian for sir, gentleman, mister is il siôr. Examples: un siôr ti cîr (a gentleman is looking for you; cirî, to look for); siôr Pauli, cemût vadie? (mister Paul, how are you?; literally, mister Paul, how goes it?; siôr is used in this example with the man’s given name, which has the combined effect of injecting respect whilst maintaining an affectionate, personalised feel). By extension, siôr can also be used in the sense of rich man, wealthy man; this is how it is used in this verse. Of Isaac, you read: l’om al deventà siôr (the man became wealthy; he became a wealthy man). Si slargjà simpri di plui fin che al deventà un sioron: he became more and more rich until he became a very wealthy man indeed; sioron is the augmentative form of siôr. The reflexive verb slargjâsi is to be taken here as to get rich, to become wealthy. This is not the first time that you are encountering slargjâsi; you will perhaps recall it from Gjenesi 14:23, where you encountered: Abram si è slargjât in gracie di me. More examples of siôr and sioron: al fâs une vite di siôr (he leads the life of a lord; that is, a comfortable life with material wealth); i siôrs e i puars (the rich and the poor); chel sioron dal sigûr nol à fastidis a comprâ dut ce che al vûl (that very wealthy man has certainly no trouble buying everything he wants; dal sigûr, certainly; il fastidi, inconvenience, bother, problem).

Verse 14: You have seen a number of Friulian usages equating to the English a lot of: une vore di, un grum di, un grumon di, un slac di. In this verse, you find un slac di fameis, meaning a lot of servants, a great deal of servants, a good many servants. Other examples that you have seen in past chapters include: un grum di robe (a lot of possessions); un grumon di popui (a lot of peoples, nations); une vore di tendis (a lot of tents). You read the following about the Philistines: i filisteus a vevin rabie (the Philistines were angry).

Verse 15: Ducj i poçs che i fameis di so pari a vevin sgjavâts: all the wells that his father’s servants had dug. I filisteus ju vevin stropâts e jemplâts di tiere: the Philistines had stopped them up and filled them with earth. The verb stropâ means to stop up, to plug, to block. Supplementary examples of the verb stropâ: stropâ une buse (to plug a hole); i muredôrs a àn stropât un barcon (the bricklayers closed off a window). Recall that the verb sgjavâ means to dig; for example, sgjavâ une buse means to dig a hole.

Verse 16: Vatint di chi: be gone from here; go away from here. Che tu sês deventât masse grant par nô: for you have become too great for us.

Verse 17: Po Isac al partì di li: Isaac then departed from there. Si campà ad ôr dal riul di Gjerar: he encamped alongside the stream of Gerar. Si sistemà aventi: he settled there.

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: tornâ a sgjavâ (to dig anew), il famei (servant), il pari (father), il filisteu (Philistine), stropâ (to stop up), clamâ (to call), stes (same), stes (same), il non (name), la valade (valley), cjatâ (to find), la risultive (spring, fountain), aghe vive (springing water), il pastôr (shepherd, herder), la barufe (argument, quarrel, disagreement), plantâ une barufe (to start an argument), cavilâ (to argue, to quarrel; cavilâ su, to argue about, to quarrel about), nassi (to be born; used here in the sense of to arise), la libertât (freedom, liberty), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself; to become rich), fâ furtune (to become rich, to be prosperous; also expressed as fâ fortune).

Verse 18: Isac al tornà a sgjavâ i poçs: Isaac dug anew the wells. Dopo muart Abram: after Abraham had died. Ju clamà cul stes non: he called them by the same name.

Verse 19: Li a cjatarin une risultive di aghe vive: there they found a well of springing water.

Verse 20: I pastôrs di Gjerar a plantarin une barufe cui pastôrs di Isac: the herders of Gerar started a quarrel with the herders of Isaac. L’aghe e je nestre: the water is ours. Isac i metè non a di chel poç Esec: Isaac named that well Esek. A vevin cavilât cun lui: they had quarrelled with him. The name Esec comes from the Hebrew for strife, contention. Une barufe is an argument; supplementary examples of this noun follow, as well as examples of the related verb barufâ (to argue): al è un che al tache barufe facil (he gets into arguments easily; literally, he is one who starts arguments easily); jessi in barufe (to be in an argument); no si son capîts e a àn barufât par une stupidade (they misunderstood each other and argued over a triviality); a àn barufât dute la gnot (they argued all night); a barufin par ogni robe (they argue over everything).

Verse 21: E nassè une barufe ancje par chel: a quarrel arose over that one as well. Lui i metè non Sitne: he named it Sitnah. The name Sitne comes from the Hebrew for enmity.

Verse 22: Al partì di li: he departed from there. Su chest no cavilarin: they did not quarrel about this one. I metè non Recobot: he named it Rehoboth. The name Recobot comes from the Hebrew for wide spaces. Cumò il Signôr nus à dade la libertât (now the Lord has given us the freedom) di slargjâsi (to broaden ourselves) e di fâ furtune in cheste tiere (and to be prosperous in this land).

Versets 23-34

Vocabulary: lâ sù a (to go up to), vie pe gnot (during the night), in gracie di (thanks to, on account of), il servidôr (servant), fâ un altâr (to make an altar), preâ (to pray), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent), dutun cun (along with), jessi di cjase (to be of the house), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), dal moment che (given that, seeing as), vê in asse (to hate), parâ fûr (to drive out, to send away), palpâ (to perceive), jessi de bande di (to be with, to be on the side of), fâ un zurament (to take an oath), rivâ a un cumbinament (to reach an agreement), fâ mâl (to hurt, to do harm), tratâ ben (to treat well), la pâs (peace), lassâ in pâs (to leave alone, to leave undisturbed, to not bother), preparâ (to prepare), il gustâ (luncheon, lunch), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), saludâ (to take leave of, to bid farewell), lâsint in pâs (to leave in peace), par cumbinazion (by chance), propit ta chê dì (on that very day), la gnove ([piece of] news), puartâ la gnove di (to bring news of).

Verse 23: Di li al lè sù a Bersabee: from there he went up to Beersheba.

Verse 24: Vie pe gnot i comparì il Signôr: during the night, the Lord appeared unto him. No sta vê pôre: fear not; have no fear. In gracie dal gno servidôr Abram: on account of my servant Abraham.

Verse 25: Al preà il non dal Signôr: he invoked the Lord by name (he prayed the name of the Lord). Li al plantà la sô tende: there he pitched his tent.

Verse 26: Abimelec al vignì di Gjerar a cjatâlu dutun cun Acuzat: Abimelech came from Gerar to meet (find) him, along with Ahuzzath. Al jere di cjase: he was of (his) house. Sorestant dai siei soldâts: chief of his troops (of his soldiers).

Verse 27: Isaac asks: parcè vignîso culì (why do you come here) dal moment che mi vês in asse (given that you hate me) e che mi vês parât fûr de vuestre tiere (and that you have driven me out of your land?) The second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vignî is o vignîs; vignîso, then, is its interrogative form. O vês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê: mi vês in asse (you hate me; literally, you have me in hate); as an auxiliary: mi vês parât fûr (you have driven me out). Asse is a feminine noun meaning hate; supplementary examples follow: al veve la cjalade plene di asse (he had a look full of hate); vê in asse lis vueris (to hate wars); pes codis in autostrade o ai une asse che no ti dîs (you have no idea how much I hate traffic jams; more literally, for highway queues I have a hate that I shall not [do not] tell you; la code, queue, line-up; la autostrade, highway).

Verse 28: O vin palpât che il Signôr al jere de tô bande: we have perceived that the Lord is on your side. O vin is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. O vin dit we have said. Fasìn un zurament fra nô e te: let us make an oath between us and you. Rivìn a un cumbinament: let us reach an agreement.

Verse 29: Zure che no tu mi fasarâs nissun mâl: swear that you will do me no harm. Come che nô no ti vin mai fat nuie: just as we have never done anything to you. Ti vin tratât dome ben: we have only (ever) treated you well. Ti vin lassât in pâs: we have left you undisturbed (in peace).

Verse 31: Jevâts prin dal dì: having arisen early. Zurâ un par chel altri: to swear to one another. Po Isac ju saludà: Isaac then bid them farewell. Lôr s’int lerin di lui in pâs: they departed from him in peace.

Verse 32: Par cumbinazion propit ta chê dì: by chance, on that very day. The expression puartâ la gnove di means to bring (the) news of. The singular la gnove means (piece of) news; it is also often used in the plural. Example: âstu voie di sintî lis ultimis gnovis? (do you want to hear the latest news?). O vin cjatade l’aghe: we have found water.

Verse 33: Di li al è vignût il non de citât: from there derives (came) the name of the city. Come che al è cumò: just as it is to this day (just as it is now).

Verse 34: A corant’agns: at age forty.

Names: Acuzat (Ahuzzath), Picol (Phichol), Gjudit (Judith), Beeri (Beeri), Basemat (Bashemath), Elon (Elon); Bersabee (Beersheba), Sabee (Shebah). Sabee is from the Hebrew for oath; Bersabee is from the Hebrew for well of the oath.

Verset 35

The final verse of this chapter does not appear alongside the rest of the text for Gjenesi 26; instead, it appears at the beginning of the page for Gjenesi 27 and is read aloud in the video associated with that same chapter. In full, verse 35 reads: Ma par colpe lôr a nasserin dome tichignis cun Isac e Rebeche. This verse can be understood as follows: ma par colpe lôr (but on account of them; that is, on account of Esau’s two wives) a nasserin dome tichignis cun Isac e Rebeche (only quarrels arose with Isaac and Rebekah). The only new usage here is la tichigne, meaning quarrel.