Friulian language series: Gjenesi 26, promessis dal Signôr

Of the twenty-sixth chapter of the book of Genesis, the subject matter is: lis promessis dal Signôr, Diu dal pari Abram (promises of the Lord, God of Father Abraham); Rebeche e Abimelec (Rebekah and Abimelech); furtune di Isac (Isaac’s fortune); i poçs di Gjerar (wells of Gerar); indaûr promessis (promises afresh); il pat cun Abimelec (covenant with Abimelech); lis feminis ititis di Esaù (Esau’s Hittite wives). Itit (Hittite) in feminine form is itite; the feminine plural, then, is ititis.

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Read Gjenesi 26

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 26. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: capitâ (to happen, to occur, to come about), la tiere (land), grant (great), la miserie (famine), sot di (under), il re (king), il filisteu (Philistine), comparî (to appear), mostrâ (to show), restâ (to remain, to stay), benedî (to bless), la gjernazie (line), mantignî (to keep, to maintain), il zurament (oath), il pari (father), cressi (to increase), la stele (star), il cîl (heaven), il popul (people), il mont (world), tornâ (to repay, to give back), l’ubidience (obedience), (to go), indevant (forwards), seont che (according to what), meti in vore (to put to task), ordenâ (to order), un ordin (order), il comandament (commandment), la leç (law), fermâsi (to halt oneself).

Verse 1: E capità ta chê tiere une grande miserie: a great famine came about in that land. No la prime miserie ch’e capità sot di Abram, ma un’altre: not the first famine that came about in the time of Abraham [under Abraham], but another. Isac al lè a Gjerar, là che al jere Abimelec, re dai filisteus: Isaac went to Gerar, where Abimelech, king of the Philistines, was.

Verse 2: The Lord says to Isaac: no sta lâ in Egjit (do not go into Egypt); sta te tiere che jo ti mostrarai (stay in the land which I will show to you).

Verse 3: Reste culì: remain here; stay here. Jo o sarai cun te e ti benedissarai: I will be with you and bless you. Fâ un zurament is to be taken as to swear an oath; the Lord also says: parcè che jo ti darai (for I will give to you) a ti e a la tô gjernazie (to you and to your line) dute cheste tiere (all this land) e o mantegnarai il zurament (and I will maintain the oath) che i ai fat a to pari Abram (that I swore to your father Abraham). The verb mantignî means to maintain, to keep. The verbs tignî, mantignî and vignî follow the same conjugation model. In the text of this verse, you see that mantignî has undergone a vowel change in its stem in its futûr sempliç form (o mantegnarai); this vowel change is not mandatory, and, indeed, there are far more examples in this Bible of where no vowel change has been applied. Three new Friulian verb conjugation tables are presented below: presint indicatîf of tignî (the presint indicatîf of vignî can be found through the Friulian verb conjugations page), and futûr sempliç of tignî and vignî. In the futûr sempliç, no vowel change in the stem has been applied.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o ten
tu tegnis
al ten

e ten

o tignìn
o tignîs
a tegnin

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o tignarai
tu tignarâs
al tignarà

e tignarà

o tignarìn
o tignarês
a tignaran

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o vignarai
tu vignarâs
al vignarà

e vignarà

o vignarìn
o vignarês
a vignaran

Verse 4: O fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie come lis stelis dal cîl: I will make your line increase like the stars of the heaven. I darai dute cheste tiere e pe tô gjernazie a saran benedîts ducj i popui dal mont: I will give them all this land and by your line shall all the peoples of the earth be blessed.

Verse 5: Par tornâi l’ubidience di Abram (to repay the obedience of Abraham; to reward the obedience of Abraham) che al è simpri lât indevant (who ever went forwards) seont che i vevi dit jo (accordingly as I had said to him; accordingly as I had told him). The Lord continues: al à metût in vore (he enacted [put to task]) ce che jo i vevi ordenât di meti in vore (that which I had ordered him to enact). I miei ordins, i miei comandaments e lis mês leçs: my orders, my commandments and my laws.

Verse 6: Cussì Isac si fermà a Gjerar: so Isaac halted himself at Gerar.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: la int (people), il puest (place), domandâ a rivuart di (to ask about), la femine (wife), la sûr (sister), la pôre (fear), pensâ (to think), jessi bon di (to be capable of), copâ (to kill), la colpe (fault), biel (fine), bielzà (already), passâ (to pass {by}), un grum di (much), il timp (time), il re (king), cjalâ fûr (to look forth), il balcon (window; also barcon), cjareçâ (to caress), mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), scometi (to bet, to wager), il riscjo (risk), lâ a riscjo di (to be at risk of), murî (to die), une part dal gjenar (a deed of the sort), mancjâ pôc che (to almost come to pass that), cualchidun (someone, somebody), lâ a durmî cun (to go to sleep with), la schene (back; of human body), meti su pe schene (to put on one’s back), il pecjât (sin), un ordin (order), tocjâ (to touch).

Verse 7: La int dal puest (the men of the place) i domandarin a rivuart de sô femine (asked him about his wife). Lui ur rispuindè: e je mê sûr: he responded to them: she is my sister. The reason for his having said such: parcè che al veve pôre di dî (for he had fear to say): e je la mê femine (she is my wife). Pensant: thinking; this is the present participle of the verb pensâ. Isaac believes that he risks getting killed: cheste int culì e je buine di copâmi (these men are capable of killing me; these men could very well kill me) par colpe di Rebeche (by fault of Rebekah), ch’e je biele (for she is fine).

Verse 8: Al jere bielzà passât un grum di timp (much time had already passed by) cuant che Abimelec (when Abimelech), il re dai filisteus (the king of the Philistines), cjalant fûr une volte pal balcon (looking forth from the window on one time), al viodè Isac (saw Isaac) che al cjareçave Rebeche, la sô femine (who was caressing his wife Rebekah).

Verse 9: Abimelec al mandà a clamâ Isac: Abimelech sent to call Isaac. Abimelech says: o scomet ch’e je la tô femine (I wager that she is your wife). Supplementary examples of the verb scometi (to wager, to bet, to place a bet): scometìn une bire (let us bet a beer); scometi suntun cjaval (to wager on a horse); al à il vizi di scometi (he has the bad habit of placing bets; il vizi, vice); o scomet che tu pierdarâs il tren ancje doman (I bet that you will miss the train tomorrow as well). The verb scometi follows the conjugation model of meti. Abimelech continues: e parcè alore âstu dit (why then did you say): e je mê sûr? (she is my sister). Isaac: o ai pensât (I thought): o voi a riscjo di murî par colpe di jê (I am at risk of death by fault of her).

Verse 10: Abimelech asks: parcè mi âstu fate une part dal gjenar? (why did you do a deed of the sort to me?). He continues: al è mancjât pôc che (it almost came to pass that) cualchidun al les a durmî cu la tô femine (someone could have gone to sleep with your wife) e tu nus varessis metût su pe schene un grant pecjât (and you would have put upon our backs a great sin). Note the use of the subjunctive following al è mancjât pôc che (literally, it lacked little that); in this case, because it is question of past time, you find the coniuntîf imperfet form al les, from the verb lâ. Supplementary examples of the verb mancjâ (to lack): nus mancje il timp (we have not time [time lacks unto us]); e mancje une ore ae partence (the departure is one hour away; the departure is in one hour [one hour lacks unto the departure]; ae is a standardised contraction of a la); a mancjin trê chilometris (there are three kilometres left to go [three kilometres are lacking]).

Verse 11: Alore Abimelec al dè a dut il popul chest ordin (Abimelech then gave this order to all the people): chel che al tocjarà chest om (he who touches [will touch] this man) e la sô femine (or his wife [and his wife]) al sarà copât (shall be killed).

Versets 12-17

Vocabulary: semenâ (to sow), butâ (to cast), il cent par un (hundredfold), benedî (to bless), il siôr (sir, gentleman), deventâ siôr (to become rich), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), simpri di plui (ever more), deventâ un sioron (to become very rich), la mandrie (herd, flock), il besteam minût (little livestock), il besteam grant (great livestock), un slac di (many), il famei (servant), un filisteu (Philistine), la rabie (anger), vê rabie (to be angry), il poç (well), sgjavâ (to dig), ancjemò (yet), vîf (living), stropâ (to stop up, to plug), jemplâ di tiere (to fill with earth), vatint (leave), masse (too), grant (great), partî di li (to depart thence), campâsi (to set up camp, to encamp), ad ôr di (alongside), il riul (stream), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), aventi (there).

Verse 12: Isac al semenà in chês tieris (Isaac sowed in those lands) e, chel an (and, that year) al butà il cent par un (he produced [cast] a hundredfold). Il Signôr lu benedì: the Lord blessed him.

Verse 13: The Friulian for sir, gentleman, mister is il siôr. Examples: un siôr ti cîr (a gentleman is seeking you); siôr Pauli, cemût vadie? (mister Paul, how are you [how goes it]?; siôr is used in this example with the man’s given name, which has the combined effect of injecting respect whilst maintaining an affectionate, personalised feel). By extension, siôr can also be used in the sense of rich man, which is how it is employed in this verse. Of Isaac, you read: l’om al deventà siôr (the man became wealthy; he became a prosperous man). Si slargjà simpri di plui fin che al deventà un sioron: he broadened himself ever more until he became a very wealthy man; sioron is the augmentative form of siôr. More examples of siôr and sioron: al fâs une vite di siôr (he leads the life of a lord); i siôrs e i puars (the rich and the poor); chel sioron dal sigûr nol à fastidis a comprâ dut ce che al vûl (that very wealthy man certainly has no trouble buying anything he wants [everything that he wants]; dal sigûr, certainly; il fastidi, inconvenience, bother, problem).

Verse 14: Al veve mandriis di besteam minût e grant e un slac di fameis: he had little and great livestock and many servants. You have seen a number of Friulian usages equating to the English many: une vore di, un grum di, un grumon di, un slac di. In this verse, you find un slac di fameis, meaning many servants. Related examples from past chapters include: un grum di robe (much matter); un grumon di popui (many peoples); une vore di tendis (many tents). You read the following about the Philistines: i filisteus a vevin rabie (the Philistines were angry).

Verse 15: Ducj i poçs che i fameis di so pari a vevin sgjavâts (all the wells which his father’s servants had dug) cuant che al jere ancjemò vîf so pari Abram (when his father Abraham was yet living), i filisteus ju vevin stropâts e jemplâts di tiere (had the Philistines stopped up and filled with earth). The verb stropâ means to stop up, to plug, to block; supplementary examples: stropâ une buse (to plug a hole); i muredôrs a àn stropât un barcon (the bricklayers closed off a window). The verb sgjavâ means to dig; for instance, sgjavâ une buse means to dig a hole.

Verse 16: Vatint di chi (leave from here) che tu sês deventât masse grant par nô (for you have become too great for us).

Verse 17: Po Isac al partì di li (then Isaac departed thence), si campà ad ôr dal riul di Gjerar (encamped alongside the stream of Gerar) e si sistemà aventi (and settled himself there).

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: tornâ a sgjavâ (to dig anew), il famei (servant), il pari (father), il filisteu (Philistine), stropâ (to stop up), clamâ (to call), stes (same), stes (same), meti (to put), il non (name), la valade (valley), cjatâ (to find), la risultive (spring), la aghe vive (living water), il pastôr (shepherd, herder), plantâ (to plant), la barufe (row), cavilâ (to cavil), nassi (to originate, to arise), la libertât (freedom, liberty), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), fâ furtune (to become rich, to be prosperous; also fâ fortune).

Verse 18: Isac al tornà a sgjavâ i poçs (Isaac dug anew the wells) che a vevin sgjavâts i fameis di so pari Abram (which the servants of his father Abraham had dug) e che i filisteus ju vevin stropâts (and which the Philistines had stopped up) dopo muart Abram (after Abraham had died), e ju clamà cul stes non (and he called them by [with] the same name) che ju veve clamâts so pari (as his father had called them).

Verse 19: I fameis di Isac a sgjavarin te valade (Isaac’s servants dug in the valley) e li a cjatarin une risultive di aghe vive (and there they found a spring of living water).

Verse 20: Ma i pastôrs di Gjerar a plantarin une barufe cui pastôrs di Isac: but the herders of Gerar instigated [planted] a row with the herders of Isaac. L’aghe e je nestre: the water is ours. Isac i metè non a di chel poç Esec: Isaac put {the} name Esek unto that well. A vevin cavilât cun lui: they had cavilled with him. The name Esec comes from the Hebrew for strife, contention. Une barufe is a row; supplementary examples of this noun follow, as well as examples of the related verb barufâ (to row): al è un che al tache barufe facil (he is a one who starts rows easily [who starts easy row]); jessi in barufe (to be in a row); no si son capîts e a àn barufât par une stupidade (they misunderstood one another and rowed over a triviality); a àn barufât dute la gnot (they rowed all night); a barufin par ogni robe (they row over everything).

Verse 21: A sgjavarin un altri poç e e nassè une barufe ancje par chel: they dug another well and a row arose over that one as well. Lui i metè non Sitne: he put unto it {the} name Sitnah. The name Sitne comes from the Hebrew for enmity.

Verse 22: Alore al partì di li (then he departed thence) e al sgjavà un altri poç (and dug another well) e su chest no cavilarin (and over this one they did not cavil). I metè non Recobot: he put unto it {the} name Rehoboth. The name Recobot comes from the Hebrew for broad spaces. He says: cumò il Signôr nus à dade la libertât (now the Lord has given us the freedom) di slargjâsi (to broaden ourselves) e di fâ furtune in cheste tiere (and to be prosperous in this land).

Versets 23-34

Vocabulary: lâ sù a (to go up to), vie pe gnot (during the night), la pôre (fear), benedî (to bless), multiplicâ (to multiply), la gjernazie (line), in gracie di (thanks to, on account of), il servidôr (servant), fâ un altâr (to make an altar), preâ (to pray), il non (name), plantâ (to plant), la tende (tent), sgjavâ un poç (to dig a well), cjatâ (to find, to meet), dutun cun (along with), jessi di cjase (to be of the house), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), dal moment che (given that, seeing as), la asse (hatred), parâ fûr (to drive forth), palpâ (to perceive), jessi de bande di (to be on the side of), fâ un zurament (to take an oath), rivâ (to arrive), il cumbinament (agreement), il mâl (ill), tratâ ben (to treat well), lassâ (to leave), la pâs (peace), preparâ (to prepare), il gustâ (feast), mangjâ (to eat), bevi (to drink), saludâ (to take leave of, to bid farewell), lâsint in pâs (to leave in peace), par cumbinazion (by chance), propit ta chê dì (on that very day), puartâ la gnove di (to bear the news of), la aghe (water), clamâ (to call), vignî (to come), la citât (city, town), cumò (now), corante (forty; also cuarante), un an (year), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter).

Verse 23: Di li al lè sù a Bersabee: thence he went up to Beersheba.

Verse 24: Vie pe gnot i comparì il Signôr: during the night, the Lord appeared unto him. Jo o soi il Diu di to pari Abram: I am the God of your father Abraham. No sta vê pôre, che jo o soi cun te: have not fear, for I am with you. Jo ti benedissarai e o multiplicarai la tô gjernazie in gracie dal gno servidôr Abram: I will bless you and multiply your line on account of my servant Abraham.

Verse 25: Alore al fasè un altâr e al preà il non dal Signôr: so he built an altar and invoked the name of the Lord. E li al plantà la sô tende: and there he planted his tent. I fameis di Isac a sgjavarin un poç: Isaac’s servants dug a well.

Verse 26: Abimelec al vignì di Gjerar a cjatâlu dutun cun Acuzat (Abimelech came from Gerar to meet him, along with Ahuzzath) che al jere di cjase (who was of his house), e Picol, sorestant dai siei soldâts (chief of his troops [of his soldiers]).

Verse 27: Isaac asks: parcè vignîso culì (why do you come here) dal moment che mi vês in asse (given that you have me in hatred) e che mi vês parât fûr de vuestre tiere (and have driven me forth from your land?) The second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vignî is o vignîs; vignîso, then, is its interrogative form. O vês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê: mi vês in asse (you have me in hatred); as an auxiliary: mi vês parât fûr (you have driven me forth).

Verse 28: O vin palpât che il Signôr al jere de tô bande: we have perceived that the Lord is on your side. O vin is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. O vin dit: we have said. Fasìn un zurament fra nô e te: let us make an oath between us and you. Rivìn a un cumbinament: let us arrive at an agreement.

Verse 29: Zure che no tu mi fasarâs nissun mâl (swear that you will do me no ill), come che nô no ti vin mai fat nuie (just as we have never done anything to you), che ti vin tratât dome ben (but have only ever treated you well) e ti vin lassât in pâs (and have left you in peace). Tu cumò tu sês un om benedît dal Signôr: you now are a blessed man of the Lord.

Verse 30: Ur preparà un gustâ (he made them a feast [prepared for them (unto them) a feast]) e a mangjarin e a beverin (and they ate and drank).

Verse 31: Jevâts prin dal dì (having arisen before the day) a zurarin un par chel altri (they swore the one by that other). Po Isac ju saludà: Isaac then bade them farewell. Lôr s’int lerin di lui in pâs: they left from him in peace.

Verse 32: Par cumbinazion propit ta chê dì: by chance, on that very day. I fameis di Isac i puartarin la gnove dal poç che a vevin sgjavât: Isaac’s servants bore to him the news of the well which they had dug. The singular la gnove means {piece of} news; it is also often used in the plural. Example: âstu voie di sintî lis ultimis gnovis? (do you want to hear the latest news?). O vin cjatade l’aghe: we have found water.

Verse 33: Alore lui al clamà il poç Sabee (so he called the well Shebah) e di li al è vignût il non de citât Bersabee (and thence is come the name of the city Beersheba), come che al è cumò (as it is now). Sabee is from the Hebrew for oath; Bersabee, well of the oath.

Verse 34: A corant’agns (at age forty [at forty years]), Esaù al cjolè Gjudit (Esau took {for wife} Judith), fie di Beeri l’itit (daughter of Beeri the Hittite) e Basemat, fie di Elon l’itit (and Basemath, daughter of Elon the Hittite). 

Verset 35

Vocabulary: la colpe (fault), nassi (to arise, to originate), dome (only), la tichigne (quarrel).

The final verse of this chapter does not appear alongside the rest of the text for Gjenesi 26; instead, it appears at the beginning of the page for Gjenesi 27 and is read aloud in the video associated with that same chapter. You read: ma par colpe lôr (but by their fault) a nasserin dome tichignis cun Isac e Rebeche (only quarrels arose amongst [with] Isaac and Rebekah).