Friulian language series: Gjenesi 25, muart di Abram

The twenty-fifth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: i fîs di Cheture (the sons of Keturah); muart di Abram (death of Abraham); gjernazie di Ismael (offspring of Ishmael); lis promessis si colmin (promises are fulfilled); Esaù e Jacop (Esau and Jacob); Jacop al cuiste i dirits di primarûl (Jacob buys the rights of firstborn son). Learn or review the following: la promesse (promise), colmâ (to fill, to fulfil), colmâsi (to be fulfilled), cuistâ (to buy, to acquire), il dirit (right), il primarûl (firstborn son).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 25

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: tornâ a cjoli (to take again), altri (other), la femine (wife, woman), vê non (to be named), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), lassâ (to leave), la robe (possessions, goods), la concubine (concubine), il regâl (gift), fâ regâi (to give gifts), prin di murî (before dying), mandâ vie (to send away), lontan di (away from, far from), a soreli jevât (to the east), la tiere (land, earth), nassi (to be born), il soreli (sun).

Verse 1: Abram al tornà a cjoli un’altre femine (Abraham took another wife) ch’e veve non Cheture (whose name was Keturah [who was having (the) name Keturah]).

Verse 2: Jê i parturì Zimran, Joskan, Medan, Madian, Isbak e Suac: she bore to him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Midian, Ishbak, Shuah.

Verse 3: Joskan al à vût Sabe e Dedan: Jokshan begot Shebah and Dedan. I fîs di Dedan a forin i asurim, i letusim e i leumim: the sons of Dedan were the Asshurim, the Letushim and the Leummim.

Verse 4: Fîs di Madian: Efe, Efer, Enoc, Abide, Eldae: sons of Midian: Ephah, Epher, Hanoch, Abidah, Eldaah. Chescj a son i fîs di Cheture: these are the sons of Keturah.

Verse 5: E Abram i lassà dute la sô robe a Isac: and Abraham left all his possessions to Isaac.

Verse 6: Ai fîs po (whereas to the sons) des sôs concubinis (of his concubines) ur fasè regâi (he gave gifts [to them]) e, prin di murî (and, before he died [before dying]), ju mandà vie lontan di so fi Isac (he sent them away from his son Isaac), a soreli jevât (to the east), tes tieris là che al nas il soreli (to the lands where the sun rises [is born]). Al nas (he is born; it is born) is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of nassi.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: trop (how much, how many), vivi (to live), cent e setante cinc (one hundred and seventy five), un an (year), spirâ (to breathe one’s last), murî (to die), la vecjae (old age; also vecjaie), vieli vieli (very old indeed), passût di dîs (full of days), dâsi dongje (to gather oneself), la int (people), soterâ (to bury), il landri (cave), il cjamp (field), un itit (Hittite), in face di (before, facing), comprâ (to buy), sapulî (to bury; also sepulî), la femine (wife), benedî (to bless), lâ a stâ (to go to dwell), dongje di (by, alongside), il poç (well).

Verse 7: Ve trop che al à vivût in dut Abram: this is how long Abraham lived in all. Cent e setantecinc agns: one hundred and seventy five years. Review: How to count in Friulian. Supplementary examples of trop: tropis pagjinis âstu studiât? (how many pages have you studied?); no sai trop zucar che o ai di zontâ (I do not know how much sugar I am to add); cjol trope torte che tu vûs (take as much cake as you want); cjol tropis cjadreis che ti coventin (take as many chairs as you need; la cjadree, chair; coventâ, to be necessary); trops àno rispuindût? (how many have responded?); no sai trop che mi reste di spindi (I do not know how much I have left to spend); trop vegnial? (how much does it cost?); trop mi fasistu spietâ? (how long will you make me wait?); trop che al mangje il vuestri cjan? (how much does your dog eat?); trop vuelistu pardabon cjatâ vore? (how much do you really want to find work?). Pronunciation note: When trop means how many, the pronunciation of the p drops in the masculine plural trops; when trop means flock, the pronunciation of the p is maintained in the plural trops.

Verse 8: Po Abram al spirà: then Abraham breathed his last. Al murì dopo di une biele vecjae: he died after a good old age. Abraham died when he was vieli vieli (very old indeed) and passût di dîs (full of days). The adjective vieli, meaning old, is repeated here for emphasis. The verb passi means to feed, to sate; its past participle is passût (fed, sated). Passût di dîs, translating literally as fed on days, sated with days, conveys the sense of at a ripe age, full of days. The expression dâ dongje means to gather; used reflexively, as in dâsi dongje, it means to gather oneself. Al tornà a dâsi dongje de sô int: he gathered himself back unto his people; the meaning of this is that he joined his dead predecessors.

Verse 9: Isac e Ismael, siei fîs (his sons Isaac and Ishmael), lu soterarin tal landri di Macpele (buried him in the cave of Machpelah), tal cjamp di Efron fi di Socar l’itit (in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite), in face di Mamre (facing Mamre).

Verse 10: Al è il cjamp che Abram al veve comprât dai itits: this is the field that Abraham had bought from the Hittites. Là a forin sapulîts Abram e la sô femine Sare: there Abraham and his wife Sarah were buried.

Verse 11: Dopo muart Abram (after Abraham had died), Diu al benedì so fi Isac (God blessed his son Isaac), e Isac al lè a stâ (and Isaac went to dwell) dongje dal poç di Lacai-Roi (by the well of Lahai-Roi).

Versets 12-18

Vocabulary: ve chi (this is), la gjernazie (offspring), il fi (son), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), egjizian (Egyptian), il non (name), daûr di (according to), la tribù (tribe), prin (first), podopo (then), il borc (village), il campament (encampment), dodis (twelve), il sorestant (chief), cent e trentesiet (one hundred and thirty seven), un an (year), spirâ (to breathe one’s last), murî (to die), dâsi dongje (to gather oneself), la int (people), il confin (border, confine), de bande di (towards), sistemâsi (to settle), in face di (alongside, by), il fradi (brother).

Verse 12: Ve chi la gjernazie di Ismael (this is the lineage of Ishmael), fi di Abram (Abraham’s son), chel che lu à vût di Agar (whom he begot by Hagar), la sierve egjiziane di Sare (Sarah’s Egyptian maidservant).

Verses 13-15: Chescj a son i nons dai fîs di Ismael (these are the names of the sons of Ishmael) daûr dai lôr nons e de lôr tribù (according to their names and their tribe): il prin fi di Ismael al è Nebaiot (Ishamel’s firstborn was [is] Nebaioth), podopo Kedar (followed by Kedar), Adbeel (Adbeel), Mibsan (Mibsam), Misme (Mishma), Dume (Dumah), Masseh (Massa), Adad (Hadad), Teme (Tema), Jetur (Jetur), Nafis (Naphish), Kedme (Kedemah).

Verse 16: Chescj a son i fîs di Ismael (these are the sons of Ishmael) e chescj i lôr nons (and these [are] their names) daûr dai lôr borcs e dai campaments (according to their villages and their encampments): dodis sorestants di dodis tribûs (twelve chiefs from twelve tribes).

Verse 17: E ve trop che al à vivût Ismael (and this is how long Ishmael lived): cent e trentesiet agns (one hundred and thirty-seven years). Po al spirà, al murì e al tornà a dâsi dongje de sô int: then he breathed his last, died and gathered himself back unto his people.

Verse 18: Al stave di Avile fint a Sur (he dwelt [was dwelling] from Havilah unto Shur), sul confin dal Egjit (on the border of Egypt), lant de bande de Assirie (going towards Assyria); lant is the present participle of the verb lâ. Si jere sistemât in face di ducj i siei fradis: he had settled alongside all his brethren (brothers).

Versets 19-26

Vocabulary: la storie (story), corante (forty; also cuarante), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), preâ (to pray), la femine (wife), il frut (child), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), cjapâ sù (to conceive), pocâsi (to strike one another), pa la cuâl (which is why), domandâ (to ask), il consei (advice, counsel), il popul (people), il grim (womb, uterus), la gjernazie (offspring), saltâ fûr (to come forth), lis vissaris (innards, guts), dividisi (to split up), fuart (strong), il famei (servant), spirâ (to expire), parturî (to bear), il gimul (twin; also zimul), rossit (reddish), pelôs (hairy), la manteline (cloak, robe), meti non (to name), subit dopo (immediately afterwards), il fradi (brother), tignî (to hold), la manute (little hand), il talon (heel), nassi (to be born), sessante (sixty), un an (year).

Verse 19: Cheste e je la storie di Isac, fi di Abram: this is the story of Isaac, son of Abraham. Abram al à vût Isac: Abraham begot Isaac.

Verse 20: Isac al veve corant’agns (Isaac was forty years old [was having forty years]) cuant che al cjolè Rebeche (when he took [to wife] Rebekah), fie di Betuel l’arameu (daughter of Bethuel the Aramean) di Padan-Aram (of Paddan-Aram) e sûr di Laban l’arameu (and sister of Laban the Aramean).

Verse 21: Isac al preà il Signôr pe sô femine: Isaac pleaded with (prayed) the Lord on behalf of (for) his wife. No i vignivin fruts: she could not have children (children were not coming to her). Il Signôr lu scoltà e Rebeche, la sô femine, e cjapà sù: the Lord heeded him, and Rebekah, his wife, conceived.

Verse 22: Ma i fruts si pocavin dentri di jê: but the children struck (were striking) one another inside of her. The verb pocâ means to hit, to strike; the reflexive pocâsi, then, means to hit one another, to strike one another. Supplementary examples of the verb pocâ: lu à pocât cuntun pugn (he hit him with his fist; il pugn, fist); lis dôs machinis si son pocadis (the two cars struck one another; la machine, car); i doi veicui si son pocâts li de crosere (the two vehicles hit one another at the intersection; il veicul, vehicle; la crosere, intersection). Pa la cuâl e disè: which is why she said. Rebekah says: s’e je cussì, parcè mo dut chest? (if this is how it is, why then all this?); by this, Rebekah is asking: if this is how pregnancy is, why then did I desire all this? E lè a domandâi consei al Signôr: she went to ask counsel of the the Lord.

Verse 23: Doi popui a son tal to grim: two peoples are in your womb. Dôs gjernaziis a saltaran fûr des tôs vissaris e si dividaran: two offspring shall come forth from your innards and they shall divide. Une gjernazie e sarà plui fuarte di chê altre: one offspring shall be stronger than the other. Il plui grant al sarà famei dal plui piçul: the older (greater) shall be the servant of the younger (lesser).

Verse 24: Cuant che al spirà il timp di parturî: when her labour had come to an end; taken more literally, when the time of giving birth had come to an end (expired). Ve ch’e veve dôi gimui: thus it was that she had two twins. Un zimul (found here as gimul) is a twin; its plural is zimui (gimui). Supplementary examples of zimul: vê un fradi zimul (to have a twin brother); a son nassûts trê zimui (triplets have been born). Zimul can also be used as adjective (zimul, zimui; zimule, zimulis); the former Twin Towers of New York, for example, can be referred to as lis Tors Zimulis.

Verse 25: Al saltà fûr il prin: the first one emerged (came out). Dut rossit e pelôs come une manteline: all reddish and hairy like a cloak. I meterin non Esaù: they named him Esau (unto him they put [the] name Esau).

Verse 26: Subit dopo al saltà fûr so fradi (immediately afterwards emerged [came out] his brother) che al tignive cu la manute Esaù pal talon (who was holding Esau by the heel with his little hand). The Friulian for hand is la man; in the text of this verse, you find la manute (little hand), which is the diminutive of man. The hand can be referred to as la manute when it pertains to babies and children. I meterin non Jacop: they named him Jacob (unto him they put [the] name Jacob). Cuant che a nasserin, Isac al veve sessant’agns: when they were born, Isaac was sixty years old (was having sixty years).

Versets 27-34

Vocabulary: cressi (to grow), il cjaçadôr (hunter), il mistîr (skill, trade), invezit (on the other hand), pacjific (calm, mild, placid), vê nant (to prefer; also vê inant), tignî par (to be partial to, to favour), puartâ dongje (to bring back), alc di bon (something good), un viaç (one time), preparâ (to prepare), la mignestre (soup), tornâ dongje (to come back), la campagne (open, country), strac muart (dead tired), parâ jù (to swallow), un pocje di (a bit of), ros (red), scanât (exhausted), clamâ (to call), prime (first of all, beforehand), vendi (to sell), il dirit (right), il prin fi (firstborn son), stâ par murî (to be about to die), interessâ (to interest), zurâ (to swear), daurman (at once, immediately), esibî (to present), il pan (bread), la vuaìne (bean), bevi (to drink), jevâ sù (to get up, to arise), lâsint (to go off), bacilâ (to be concerned, to pay regard).

Verse 27: I fruts a cresserin: the boys grew up. About Esau, you read: Esaù al deventà cjaçadôr di mistîr, simpri ator pai cjamps (Esau became a skilled hunter, always out in the fields). About Jacob, you read: Jacop invezit al jere un om pacjific (Jacob on the other hand was a mild man), che al veve nant stâ in cjase (who preferred to stay in the house). The expression vê nant (or vê inant) means to prefer. Another way to express this in Friulian is with vê miôr; for example: o ai miôr la bire scure che no chê clare (I prefer dark beer to light beer; la bire, beer; scûr, dark; clâr, light).

Verse 28: Isac al tignive par Esaù (Isaac was partial to Esau) parcè che al puartave dongje simpri alc di bon (because he always brought back something good), ma Rebeche e veve nant Jacop (but Rebekah preferred Jacob). The good things that Esau brought back were meats; he was a hunter.

Verse 29: Un viaç Jacop al preparà une mignestre: one time Jacob prepared a soup. Esaù al tornà dongje de campagne: Esau came back from the open. Strac: tired. Strac muart: dead tired.

Verse 30: Esau says to Jacob: lassimi parâ jù (let me eat [swallow]) un pocje di cheste robe rosse (a bit of this red stuff), che o soi scanât (for I am exhausted). Edom means red, which refers to the colour of both Esau’s complexion and the broth. Par chel lu clamarin Edom: this is why he was called (they called him) Edom.

Verse 31: Prime tu âs di vendimi i dirits di prin fi: first you must sell me your birthright (rights of firstborn son).

Verse 32: O stoi par murî: I am about to die; by this, he means that he is exhausted. Ce mi interessino i dirits di prin fi?: of what interest to me is my birthright (are my rights of firstborn son)? The verb interessâ means to interest; ce mi interessino i dirits di prin fi can be taken more literally as what do the rights of firstborn son interest me, where interessino is the interrogative form of a interessin.

Verse 33: Zurimal translates literally as swear it to me, where mal is a contraction of mi + lu. The second-person singular imperative of zurâ is zure; the final e becomes i when mal is added. Daurman means at once, immediately. Zurimal daurman: swear it to me at once. Chel altri i zurà e i vendè il so dirit di prin fi a Jacop: the other one (Esau) swore to him and he sold his birthright to Jacob.

Verse 34: Alore Jacop i esibì pan e mignestre di vuainis a Esaù (Jacob then put bread and bean soup before Esau) che al mangjà, al bevè, po al jevà sù e s’int lè (who ate, drank and then got up and left). The final sentence draws attention to how little regard Esau paid to his birthright: chest al è ce che Esaù (this is the extent to which Esau) al bacilave pai siei dirits di prin fi (was concerned for his birthright).