Friulian language series: Gjenesi 25, muart di Abram

In your study of the Friulian language, you have now reached chapter 25 of the book of Genesis. The end of this chapter brings you to the halfway point in the book of Genesis, where there are 50 chapters in total. The subject matter of this chapter is: i fîs di Cheture (the sons of Keturah); muart di Abram (death of Abraham); gjernazie di Ismael (offspring of Ishmael); lis promessis si colmin (promises are fulfilled); Esaù e Jacop (Esau and Jacob); Jacop al cuiste i dirits di primarûl (Jacob buys the rights of firstborn son). Learn or review the following: la promesse (promise), colmâ (to fill, to fulfil), colmâsi (to be fulfilled), cuistâ (to buy, to acquire), il dirit (right), il primarûl (firstborn son).

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Read Gjenesi 25

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: tornâ a cjoli (to take again), altri (other), la femine (wife, woman), vê non (to be named), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), lassâ (to leave), la robe (possessions, goods), la concubine (concubine), il regâl (gift), fâ regâi (to give gifts), prin di murî (before dying), mandâ vie (to send away), lontan di (far from), a soreli jevât (to the east), la tiere (land, earth), nassi (to be born), il soreli (sun).

New names: Cheture (Keturah), Zimran (Zimran), Joskan (Jokshan), Medan (Medan), Madian (Midian), Isbak (Ishbak), Suac (Shuah), Sabe (Shebah), Dedan (Dedan), Efe (Ephah), Efer (Epher), Enoc (Hanoch), Abide (Abidah), Eldae (Eldaah).

Verse 1: Abram al tornà a cjoli un’altre femine: Abraham took another wife.

Verse 2: Jê i parturì: she bore unto him.

Verse 3: Joskan al à vût: Joskan begot. A forin: (they) were. Peoples: i asurim (Asshurim), i letusim (Letushim), i leumim (Leummim).

Verse 4: Chescj a son: these are.

Verse 5: E Abram i lassà dute la sô robe a Isac: and Abraham left all his possessions to Isaac.

Verse 6: Ai fîs po des sôs concubinis: whereas to the sons of his two concubines. Ur fasè regâi: he gave them gifts. Mandâ vie lontan di: to send far away from. Tes tieris là che al nas il soreli: into the lands where the sun rises (is born); al nas (he is born; it is born) is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of nassi.

Versets 7-11

Vocabulary: trop (how much, how many), vivi (to live), cent e setante cinc (one hundred and seventy five), un an (year), spirâ (to breathe one’s last), murî (to die), la vecjae (old age; also vecjaie), vieli vieli (very old indeed), passût di dîs (full of days), dâsi dongje (to gather oneself), la int (people), soterâ (to bury), il landri (cave), il cjamp (field), un itit (Hittite), in face di (before, facing), comprâ (to buy), sapulî (to bury; also sepulî), la femine (wife), benedî (to bless), lâ a stâ (to go dwell), dongje di (by, alongside), il poç (well).

Verse 7: Ve trop che al à vivût in dut Abram: this is how long Abraham lived in all. Cent e setantecinc agns: one hundred and seventy five years. Review: How to count in Friulian. Supplementary examples of trop: tropis pagjinis âstu studiât? (how many pages have you studied?); no sai trop zucar che o ai di zontâ (I do not know how much sugar I am to add); cjol trope torte che tu vûs (take as much cake as you want); cjol tropis cjadreis che ti coventin (take as many chairs as you need; la cjadree, chair; coventâ, to be necessary); trops àno rispuindût? (how many have responded?); no sai trop che mi reste di spindi (I do not know how much I have left to spend); trop vegnial? (how much does it cost?); trop mi fasistu spietâ? (how long will you make me wait?); trop che al mangje il vuestri cjan? (how much does your dog eat?); trop vuelistu pardabon cjatâ vore? (how much do you really want to find work?). Pronunciation note: When trop means how many, the pronunciation of the p drops in the masculine plural trops; when trop means flock, the pronunciation of the p is maintained in the plural trops.

Verse 8: Po Abram al spirà: then Abraham breathed his last. Al murì dopo di une biele vecjae: he died after a good old age. Abraham died when he was vieli vieli and passût di dîs. The adjective vieli means old; it is repeated here for emphasis, giving it the sense of very old indeed. Recall that the verb passi means to feed, to sate; its past participle is passût (fed, sated). Passût di dîs translates literally as fed on days, sated with days; the sense of it is full of days (that is, very old). The expression dâ dongje means to gather; used reflexively, as in dâsi dongje, it means to gather oneself. Al tornà a dâsi dongje de sô int: he gathered himself back unto his people; the meaning of this is that he joined his dead predecessors.

Verse 9: Soterâ tal landri: to bury in the cave. In face di Mamre: facing Mamre.

Verse 10: Comprâ dai itits: to buy from the Hittites. Là a forin sapulîts: there were buried.

Verse 11: Dopo muart Abram: after Abraham had died. Isac al lè a stâ dongje dal poç di Lacai-Roi: Isaac went to dwell by the well of Lahai-Roi.

Versets 12-18

Vocabulary: ve chi (this is), la gjernazie (offspring), il fi (son), la sierve (female servant, handmaid), egjizian (Egyptian), il non (name), daûr di (according to), la tribù (tribe), prin (first), podopo (then), il borc (village), il campament (encampment), dodis (twelve), il sorestant (chief), cent e trentesiet (one hundred and thirty seven), un an (year), spirâ (to breathe one’s last), murî (to die), dâsi dongje (to gather oneself), la int (people), il confin (border, confine), de bande di (towards), sistemâsi (to settle), in face di (alongside, by), il fradi (brother).

Names: Nebaiot (Nebaioth), Kedar (Kedar), Adbeel (Adbeel), Mibsan (Mibsam), Misme (Mishma), Dume (Dumah), Masseh (Massa), Adad (Hadad), Teme (Tema), Jetur (Jetur), Nafis (Naphish), Kedme (Kedemah).

Verse 12: Chel che lu à vût di Agar: whom he begot by Hagar.

Verse 13: Daûr dai lôr nons e de lôr tribù: according to their names and their tribe.

Verse 16: Daûr dai lôr borcs e dai campaments: according to their villages and their encampments. Dodis sorestants di dodis tribûs: twelve chiefs from twelve tribes.

Verse 17: E ve trop che al à vivût Ismael: and this is how long Ishmael lived. Cent e trentesiet agns: one hundred and thirty-seven years. The remainder of this verse uses wording encountered in the eighth verse.

Verse 18: Placenames: Avile (Havilah), Sur (Shur), l’Egjit (Egypt), l’Assirie (Assyria). Al stave di Avile fint a Sur: he dwelt (was dwelling) from Havilah unto Shur. Sul confin dal Egjit: on the border of Egypt. Lant de bande de Assirie: going towards Assyria; lant is the present participle of the verb lâ. Si jere sistemât in face di ducj i siei fradis: he had settled alongside all his brothers. 

Versets 19-26

Vocabulary: la storie (story), cuarante (forty; expressed here as corante), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), preâ (to pray), la femine (wife), il frut (child), scoltâ (to listen), cjapâ sù (to conceive), pocâsi (to strike one another), pa la cuâl (which is why), domandâ (to ask), il consei (advice, counsel), il popul (people), il grim (womb, uterus), la gjernazie (offspring), saltâ fûr (to come forth), lis vissaris (innards, guts), dividisi (to split up), fuart (strong), il famei (servant), spirâ (to expire), parturî (to bear), il gimul (twin; also zimul), rossit (reddish), pelôs (hairy), la manteline (cloak, robe), meti non (to name), subit dopo (immediately afterwards), il fradi (brother), tignî (to hold), la manute (little hand), il talon (heel), nassi (to be born), sessante (sixty), un an (year).

Verse 19: Cheste e je la storie di Isac: this is the story of Isaac.

Verse 20: Isac al veve corant’agns: Isaac was forty years old. Un arameu: Aramean.

Verse 21: Isac al preà il Signôr pe sô femine: Isaac pleaded with (prayed) the Lord on behalf of (for) his wife. No i vignivin fruts: she could not have children (children were not coming to her).

Verse 22: Ma i fruts si pocavin dentri di jê: but the children struck (were striking) one another inside of her. The verb pocâ means to hit, to strike; the reflexive pocâsi, then, means to hit one another, to strike one another. Supplementary examples of the verb pocâ: lu à pocât cuntun pugn (he hit him with his fist; il pugn, fist); lis dôs machinis si son pocadis (the two cars struck one another; la machine, car); i doi veicui si son pocâts li de crosere (the two vehicles hit one another at the intersection; il veicul, vehicle; la crosere, intersection). Pa la cuâl e disè: which is why she said. Rebekah says: s’e je cussì, parcè mo dut chest? (if this is how it is, why then all this?); by this, Rebekah is asking: if this is how pregnancy is, why then did I desire all this?

Verse 23: Doi popui a son tal to grim: two peoples are in your womb. Dôs gjernaziis a saltaran fûr des tôs vissaris e si dividaran: two offspring shall come forth from your innards and they shall divide. Une gjernazie e sarà plui fuarte di chê altre: one offspring shall be stronger than the other. Il plui grant al sarà famei dal plui piçul: the older (bigger) shall be the servant of the younger (smaller).

Verse 24: Cuant che al spirà il timp di parturî: when her labour had come to an end; taken more literally, when the time of giving birth had come to an end (expired). Ve ch’e veve dôi gimui: thus it was that she had two twins. Un zimul (found here as gimul) is a twin; its plural is zimui (gimui). Supplementary examples of zimul: vê un fradi zimul (to have a twin brother); a son nassûts trê zimui (triplets have been born). Zimul can also be used as adjective (zimul, zimui; zimule, zimulis); the former Twin Towers of New York, for example, can be referred to as lis Tors Zimulis.

Verse 25: Dut rossit e pelôs come une manteline: all reddish and hairy like a cloak.

Verse 26: Che al tignive cu la manute Esaù pal talon: who was holding Esau by the heel with his little hand. The Friulian for hand is la man; in the text of this verse, you find la manute (little hand), which is the diminutive of man. The hand can be referred to as la manute when it pertains to babies and children. Cuant che a nasserin: when they were born.

Versets 27-34

Vocabulary: cressi (to grow), il cjaçadôr (hunter), il mistîr (skill, trade), invezit (on the other hand), pacjific (calm, mild, placid), vê nant (to prefer; also vê inant), tignî par (to be partial to, to favour), puartâ dongje (to bring back), alc di bon (something good), un viaç (one time), preparâ (to prepare), la mignestre (soup), tornâ dongje (to come back), la campagne (field, country), strac muart (dead tired), parâ jù (to swallow; by extension, to eat), un pocje di (a bit of), ros (red), scanât (exhausted), clamâ (to call), prime (first of all, beforehand), vendi (to sell), il dirit (right), il prin fi (firstborn son), stâ par murî (to be about to die), interessâ (to interest), zurâ (to swear), daurman (at once, immediately), esibî (to present), il pan (bread), la vuaìne (bean), bevi (to drink), jevâ sù (to get up, to arise), lâsint (to go off), bacilâ (to be concerned, to pay regard).

Verse 27: I fruts a cresserin: the boys grew up. About Esau, you read: Esaù al deventà cjaçadôr di mistîr, simpri ator pai cjamps (Esau became a skilled hunter, always out in the fields). About Jacob, you read: Jacop invezit al jere un om pacjific (Jacob on the other hand was a mild man), che al veve nant stâ in cjase (who preferred to stay in the house). The expression vê nant (or vê inant) means to prefer. Another way to express this in Friulian is with vê miôr; for example: o ai miôr la bire scure che no chê clare (I prefer dark beer to light beer; la bire, beer; scûr, dark; clâr, light).

Verse 28: Isac al tignive par Esaù (Isaac was partial to Esau) parcè che al puartave dongje simpri alc di bon (because he always brought back something good), ma Rebeche e veve nant Jacop (but Rebekah preferred Jacob). The good things that Esau brought back were meats; he was a hunter.

Verse 29: Un viaç Jacop al preparà une mignestre: one time Jacob prepared a soup. Strac: tired. Strac muart: dead tired.

Verse 30: Esau says to Jacob: lassimi parâ jù (let me swallow; that is, eat) un pocje di cheste robe rosse (a bit of this red stuff), che o soi scanât (for I am exhausted). Edom means red, which refers to the colour of both Esau’s complexion and the broth; par chel lu clamarin Edom: for this reason, they called him Edom.

Verse 31: Prime tu âs di vendimi i dirits di prin fi: first you must sell me your birthright (rights of firstborn son).

Verse 32: O stoi par murî: I am about to die; by this, he simply means that he is exhausted. Ce mi interessino i dirits di prin fi?: of what interest to me is my birthright (rights of firstborn son)? The verb interessâ means to interest; ce mi interessino i dirits di prin fi can be taken more literally as what do the rights of firstborn son interest me, where interessino is the interrogative form of a interessin.

Verse 33: Zurimal translates literally as swear it to me, where mal is a contraction of mi + lu. The second-person singular imperative of zurâ is zure; the final e becomes i when mal is added. Daurman means at once, immediately. Zurimal daurman: swear it to me at once. Chel altri i zurà e i vendè il so dirit di prin fi a Jacop: the other one (Esau) swore to him and he sold his birthright to Jacob.

Verse 34: Alore Jacop i esibì pan e mignestre di vuainis a Esaù: so Jacob put bread and bean soup before Esau. S’int lè: he left; he went away. The final sentence draws attention to how little regard Esau paid to his birthright: chest al è ce che Esaù (this is the extent to which Esau) al bacilave pai siei dirits di prin fi (was concerned for his birthright). In other words, he disregarded his birthright altogether.