Friulian language series: Gjenesi 22, tentazion di Abram

In the twenty-second chapter of the book of Genesis, Abraham is ordered by God to sacrifice his son Isaac. God says to Abraham: tu mal ufrissarâs in sacrifici (you shall offer him to me in sacrifice).

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Read Gjenesi 22

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Versets 1-2

Vocabulary: dopo (after), il fat (fact, matter), la prove (test, trial), meti a lis provis (to put to the test), clamâ (to call), rispuindi (to respond), cjapâ sù (to gather, to take up), dome (only), volê un ben di vite (to love dearly), la tiere (land, earth), ufrî (to offer), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la mont (mount, mountain), (to say, to tell).

Verse 1: Dopo di chescj fats: after these matters; conveys the passage of a certain amount of time. Diu al metè a lis provis Abram: God put Abraham to the test. God calls out to Abraham, who responds: ve chi ch’o soi (here I am).

Verse 2: God tells Abraham: cjape sù to fi (go get [take up] your son), che tu âs dome chel (whom only him do you have) e che tu i vuelis un ben di vite (and whom you love dearly). The Friulian volê ben means to love; for example: ti vuei ben (I love you); i vuei ben (I love him). Volê un ben di vite can be taken as to love dearly, to love very much. Tu tu vuelis is the second-person singular of the indicatîf presint of the verb volê. God continues: va te tiere di Morie (go into the land of Moriah) e li tu mal ufrissarâs in sacrifici (and there you shall offer him to me in sacrifice). Mal is a contraction of mi + lu. Observe: tu mi ufrissarâs (you will offer to me); tu mal ufrissarâs (you will offer him to me). Tu tu ufrissarâs is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb ufrî. Suntune mont che jo ti disarai: on a mountain that I shall tell you of. Observe mal alongside other similar contractions of indirect and direct object pronouns already encountered: tu mal ufrissarâs (you shall offer him to me); tal zuri (Gjenesi 21:24; I swear it to you); jal dè a Abimelec (Gjenesi 21:27; he gave it to Abimelech); je darai a la tô gjernazie (Gjenesi 12:7; I shall give it to your offspring); us es doi (Gjenesi 19:8; I give them to you). Here are the contractions produced when the indirect object pronouns in purple come into contact with the direct object pronouns in blue.

lu le ju lis
mi mal me mai mes
ti tal te tai tes
i jal je jai jes
si sal se sai ses
nus nus al nus e nus ai nus es
us us al us e us ai us es
ur ur al ur e ur ai ur es

Versets 3-5

Vocabulary: jevâ denant dì (to get up in the early morning), meti (to put, to place), la siele (saddle), il mus (ass, donkey), cjoli cun sè (to take with oneself), doi (two), il famei (servant), il fi (son), spacâ (to break, to split), il len (wood), il sacrifici (sacrifice), inviâsi (to head off, to set off), de bande che (in the direction that), (to say, to tell), tierç (third), la dì (day), alçâ i vôi (to lift one’s eyes; that is, to look up), viodi di lontan (to see in the distance), il lûc (site, place), dissal (he said), fermâsi (to stop oneself, to detain oneself), achì (here), il frut (boy, lad), lâ fin lassù (to go up there), preâ (to pray), tornâ indaûr (to come back, to return).

Verse 3: Abram al jevà denant dì: Abraham arose in the early morning (before day). I metè la siele al mus: he saddled his ass (he put the saddle unto his ass). Al cjolè cun sè doi fameis e so fi Isac: he took with him two servants and his son Isaac. Al spacà i lens pal sacrifici: he split the (pieces of) wood for the sacrifice. Il len means wood; the plural i lens can be taken as wood or pieces of wood. S’invià de bande che Diu i veve dit: he set off in the direction of which God had told him.

Verse 4: La tierce dì: on the third day. Alçant i vôi: looking up (lifting his eyes). Vôi is the plural of the masculine voli, meaning eye. Al viodè di lontan il lûc: he saw the place in the distance.

Verse 5: You find three first-person plural futûr sempliç forms in the text of this verse: o larìn (we shall go); o prearìn (we shall pray); o tornarìn (we shall return). Abraham instructs his servants: fermaitsi achì cul mus (wait [stop yourself] here with the ass). The verb employed here is the reflexive fermâsi, meaning to stop oneself, to detain oneself. Its second-person plural imperative form is fermaitsi. Jo e il frut o larìn fin lassù: the boy and I shall go up there. O prearìn e o tornarìn indaûr: we shall pray and we shall come back. Tornâ means to return; this verb is coupled here with indaûr, meaning back.

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: cjapâ sù (to pick up, to take up), il len (wood), il sacrifici (sacrifice), la schene (back; of human body), meti su pe schene (to put on one’s back), il fi (son), cjapâ in man (to take in hand, to pick up), il fûc (fire), il curtìs (knife), inviâsi (to set off, to head off), ducj i doi (both of them, the two of them), insiemit (together), voltâsi (to turn oneself around), viers di (towards), il pari (father), indulà (where), un agnel (lamb), brusâ (to burn), proviodi (to provide, to supply, to see to), continuâ (to continue), la strade (road, way).

Verse 6: Abram al cjapà sù i lens pal sacrifici: Abraham took up the (pieces of) wood for the sacrifice. Ju metè su pe schene di so fi Isac: he put them on the back of his son Isaac; the plural ju (them) stands in for the plural lens. Lui al cjapà in man il fûc e il curtìs: he took into his hand the fire and the knife. S’inviarin ducj i doi insiemit: they both set off together; the two of them headed off together.

Verse 7: Isac si voltà viers di so pari: Isaac turned towards his father. Ve chi il fûc e i lens: here is the fire and (pieces of) wood. Isaac asks his father where the lamb for the burnt offering is: ma indulà esal l’agnel che o vin di brusâ? (but where is the lamb that we must burn?). Isaac addresses his father as pai; this is an affectionate term of address for a father. Abraham responds: ben, fi gno? (well, my son?).

Verse 8: Abraham tells his son that God will provide the lamb: pal agnel di brusâ (for the lamb to burn), Diu al proviodarà (God shall provide). Continuâ la strade can be taken as to continue on one’s way: a continuarin la strade insiemit (they continued on their way together).

Versets 9-10

Vocabulary: rivâ (to arrive, to come), il lûc (place, site), mostrâ (to show), un altâr (altar), intassâ (to amass, to pile up), il len (wood), leâ (to bind, to tie up), il fi (son), meti (to put, to place), parsore di (on top of), slungjâ la man (to extend one’s hand), cjoli (to take), il curtìs (knife), sacrificâ (to sacrifice).

Verse 9: Rivâts tal lûc: having come to the place; because it is question here of both Abraham and Isaac, rivât is expressed in plural form as rivâts. Il lûc che Diu i veve mostrât: the place that God had shown him. Once they had arrived there, Abraham built an altar and piled up the wood: Abram al fasè l’altâr (Abraham built [made] the altar) e al intassà i lens (and he piled up the [pieces of] wood). Abraham then binds Isaac: al leà so fi (he bound his son), and lays him upon the altar: lu metè sul altâr, parsore dai lens (he put him on the altar, on top of the [pieces of] wood).

Verse 10: Abram al slungjà la man (Abram extended his hand) e al cjolè il curtìs (and took the knife) par sacrificâ il fi (to sacrifice his son).

Versets 11-14

Vocabulary: un agnul (angel), clamâ (to call), il cîl (heaven, sky), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), cuintri di (against), il frut (boy, lad), fâ mâl (to harm), cumò (now), savê (to know), la teme (fear), rifudâ (to refuse; also refudâ), nancje (not even), il fi (son), dome (only), alçâ (to raise, to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), il roc (ram), restâ impirât (to become caught), il cuâr (horn), il sterp (shrub), lâ a cjoli (to go take, to go get), brusâ (to burn), un altâr (altar), impen di (in place of, instead of), il lûc (place, site), proviodi (to provide, to supply, to see to), par chel (therefore, for this reason), in dì di vuê (this day, today), la mont (mount, mountain).

Verse 11: The angel of the Lord calls out to Abraham: ma l’agnul dal Signôr lu clamà dal cîl: but the angel of the Lord called out to him from the heaven. (Be sure not to confuse agnul [angel] and agnel [lamb].) Abraham responds: o soi chi (I am here).

Verse 12: The angel says to Abraham: no sta slungjâ la man cuintri dal to frut: (do not extend your hand against the boy). The angel also says: no sta fâi mâl (do not harm him). The expression fâ mal means to hurt, to injure. No sta fâi mâl translates literally as do not do harm unto him, where the equivalent of unto him is found in the i attached to the end of fâ. Fâ mâl: to do harm; fâi mâl: to do harm unto him. Vê teme di means to fear, to be afraid of. La teme di Diu: fear of God. The angel continues: cumò o sai (now I know) che tu âs teme di Diu (that you have [the] fear of God), che no tu mi âs rifudât nancje to fi (for you have not refused me even your son). Che tu vevis dome chel: whom only him you had (were having).

Verse 13: Abraham looks up and sees a ram caught in a shrub: alore Abram al alçà i vôi (then Abraham looked up [lifted his eyes]) e al viodè un roc (and he saw a ram) che al jere restât impirât (that had become caught) cui cuârs (by [with] the horns) intun sterp (in a shrub). Abraham takes the ram and makes a burnt offering: Abram al lè a cjoli il roc (Abraham went to take the ram) e lu brusà sul altâr impen dal fi (and he burnt it on the altar in place of his son).

Verse 14: The name given by Abraham to the place where this occurred has been rendered into Friulian as Diu al proviôt (God provides; God sees to it). Al proviôt is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb proviodi. You also read: par chel (for this reason) ancje in dì di vuê (yet today; still to this day) si dîs (it is said): “su la mont Diu al proviôt” (on the mountain God provides).

Versets 15-19

Vocabulary: un agnul (angel), clamâ (to call), il cîl (heaven, sky), secont (second), la volte (time), zurâ (to swear), sun me (on myself), la sentence (judgement, sentence, declaration), midiant che (given that), rifudâ (to refuse), il fi (son), l’unic (the only one), colmâ (to fill), la benedizion (blessing), multiplicâ (to multiply), la gjernazie (offspring), la stele (star), il savalon (sand), la rive (shore), il mâr (sea), rivâ (to come to, to succeed, to manage), paronâ (to rule, to dominate), la citât (city, town), il nemì (enemy, foe), benedî (to bless), il popul (people), la tiere (earth), ubidî (to obey), la vôs (voice), tornâ (to return, to go back), il famei (servant), metisi in viaç (to set off), insiemit (together), jessi a stâ (to dwell, to reside, to live).

Verse 15: L’agnul dal Signôr al clamà dal cîl Abram pe seconde volte: the angel of the Lord called out to Abraham from the heaven for the second time.

Verses 16-18: The angel of the Lord says: ti zuri sun me (by myself I swear), sentence dal Signôr (by declaration of the Lord), midiant che tu âs fat chest (given that you have done this), che no tu mi âs rifudât to fi (that you have not refused me your son), l’unic che tu vevis (the only one whom you had [were having]), jo ti colmarai di benedizions (I shall fill you with blessings) e o multiplicarai la tô gjernazie (and multiply your offspring) come lis stelis dal cîl (like the stars of the heaven) e come il savalon che al è su la rive dal mâr (and like the sand on the seashore [and like the sand that is on the shore of the sea]), e la tô gjernazie e rivarà a paronâ lis citâts dai tiei nemîs (and your offspring shall come to dominate the cities of your foes). He continues: pe tô gjernazie (by your offspring) a saran benedîts ducj i popui de tiere (all the peoples of the earth shall be blessed), parcè che tu âs ubidît a la mê vôs (because you have obeyed my voice).

Verse 19: Abram al tornà là che a jerin i siei fameis (Abraham returned to where his servants were) e si meterin in viaç ducj insiemit par Bersabee (and they all set off together for Beersheba). Abram al jere a stâ a Bersabee: Abraham dwelt (was dwelling) in Beersheba.

Versets 20-24

Vocabulary: dopo di chescj fats (after these matters), vignî a savê (to come to know, to find out), la dissendence (lineage, descendants), il fradi (brother), il prin fi (firstborn son), vê non (to be named), il pari (father), vot (eight), il fi (son), la concubine (concubine), vê fruts (to bear children).

Verse 20: Vignî a savê translates literally as to come to know; that is, to find out, to discover. Milcah (Milche in Friulian) bore children to Abraham’s brother Nahor (Nacor in Friulian): ancje Milche i veve dade une dissendence a so fradi Nacor (Milcah too had borne children [had given a lineage] to his brother Nahor.)

Verses 21-23: The names of Nahor’s eight sons are given: Uz (Huz), Buz (Buz), Kemuel (Kemuel), Chesed (Chesed), Azo (Hazo), Pildas (Pildash), Idlaf (Jidlaph), Betuel (Bethuel). Uz was the firstborn son: il prin fi. Kemuel was the father of Aram: il pari di Aram. Betuel al à vude Rebeche: Bethuel begot Rebekah; the past participle of (which is vût) is expressed as vude to agree in gender with the direct object Rebeche, a female. A son chescj i vot fîs che: these are the eight sons whom.

Verse 24: Nahor also had a concubine: al veve ancje une concubine. Her name was Reumah: e veve non Reumee. Reumah too bore children, whose names were: Tebac (Tebah), Gacam (Gaham), Tacas (Thahash), Maache (Maachah). Ancje chê e à vûts fruts: she too bore children. The past participle vûts agrees in gender and number with the direct object fruts.