Study Friulian from the Bible: Genesis 21, verses 22-34

You will now study the Friulian language used in verses 22-34 of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Genesis; that is, Gjenesi 21:22-34. These verses, where the subject is il pat di Abimelec (the covenant of Abimelech), bring you to the end of the chapter.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study below, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of these verses in the video begins at 0:00 and ends at 1:55.

Verset 22

Learn the following usages: tal fratimp (in the meantime), il sorestant (head, leader, commander, captain), il soldât (soldier). The noun il sorestant is related to the verb sorestâ, meaning to look over, to supervise; you will recognise its components sore and stâ. Il sorestant dai siei soldâts, then, means the commander of his soldiers, the commander of his army.

You read that Abimelech arrives with Phichol (in Friulian, Picol) and tells Abraham that God is with him in all he does. In the text, you find a dîi a Abram (in order to tell Abraham), where dîi is the infinitive (to say) to which i (to him) is attached.

Versets 23-24

Abimelech tells Abraham to swear to deal forthrightly with him; Abraham agrees. The Friulian verb for to swear is zurâ; to swear by God, then, is zurâ par Diu. (Note that zurâ means to swear in the sense of making a promise, not in the sense of using obscene language.) You read: poben, zurimi cumò par Diu che (well then, swear to me now by God that) no tu mi imbroiarâs (you will not dupe me). The verb imbroiâ means to dupe, to trick, to cheat.

With infinitives ending in â, you are familiar now with how the final e of their second-person singular imperative changes to i when an enclitic pronoun is added: zurâ; zure > zurimi (to swear; swear > swear to me), scoltâ; scolte > scoltile (to listen; listen > listen to her), tornâ; torne > tornii (to return; return > return to him), lassâ; lasse > lassimi (to let; let > let me), etc.

Abimelech continues: ni me ni i miei fîs ni la mê int (neither me nor my sons nor my people). He asks of Abraham the same consideration for him and his land that he has had for Abraham: zurimi (swear to me) […] che tu varâs par me e par cheste tiere (that you will have for me and this land) […] chel rivuart che jo o ai vût par te (that [same] consideration that I have had for you).

This is not the first time that you are encountering il rivuart (concern, consideration): you first saw it at the beginning of your study in Gjenesi 2:25, when you read that Adam and Eve, before eating of the forbidden fruit, were unbothered by their nakedness; and in Gjenesi 3:10, when Adam, after having eaten of the fruit, hides from God because he became aware of his vulnerability.

In the text, you find: cheste tiere là che tu sês vignût forest (this land to which you have come as a stranger; an outsider). You will remember that un forest is a foreigner, stranger or outsider.

Abraham swears to what has been said: tal zuri (literally, I swear it to you). O zuri is the first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb zurâ. Tal is a contraction of ti + lu.

Verset 25

The verb cridâ means to reproach. You read that Abraham reproached Abimelech because his servants had taken wells of water away from him. You read: Abram i cridà a Abimelec (Abraham reproached Abimelech) par vie dai poçs (because of the wells). You will remember il poç from Gjenesi 14:10 and Gjenesi 16:14. In the remainder of the verse, you find the expression puartâ vie, meaning to take away.

Verset 26

Abimelech tells Abraham that he was unaware of what had happened: no sai cui che ti à fate cheste robate (I do not know who did this to you; literally, I do not know who did this bad thing to you). Une robate (bad thing) derives from une robe (thing). From Gjenesi 6:5, perhaps you will remember the following, in reference to the wickedness of man: al masanave dome robatis (he pondered only wicked things; that is, he had only wicked thoughts).

Abimelech continues: tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (you never told me anything) e jo o ven a savêle (and I come to know it) dome cumò (only now).

Observe the following:

tu tu mi âs dit
tu no tu mi âs dit
tu no tu mi âs mai dit
tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie
you have told me
you have not told me
you have never told me
you have never told me anything

Verset 27

This verse does not present any new usages to you; nonetheless, review the following: cjoli (to take), il besteam (livestock), minût e grant (small and large), fâ un pat (to make a covenant), fra di lôr (between them[selves]).

Jal is a contraction of i + lu. You read: jal dè a Abimelec (he gave it to Abimelech).

Versets 28-29

The expression meti di bande means to put aside, to set to one side. You read that Abraham set aside seven sheep: al metè di bande siet pioris (he put aside seven sheep) dal so trop (from his flock). Review: la piore (sheep), il trop (flock). Un trop di pioris is the Friulian for flock of sheep.

Abimelech asks about the seven sheep: ce sono chês pioris (what are those sheep) che tu âs metudis di bande (that you have put aside)? A son (they are) becomes sono in its interrogative form: ce sono? (what are?). Note that the past participle is expresssed as metudis (from metût), in order to agree in gender and number with the feminine plural noun pioris preceding it.

Versets 30-34

These final verses of the chapter do not present any particular difficulties in terms of grammar. You will need to learn the following new vocabulary, however: acetâ (to accept), la testemoneance (proof, testament), sgjavâ (to dig, to excavate), rivâ a un cumbinament (to come to an agreement), il tamarîs (tamarisk; a sort of shrub), la eternitât (eternity).

You may also need to review the following, some of which you just saw in the notes above: il poç (well), par chel (for this reason), il non (name), meti non a (to name), il lûc (site, place), Bersabee (Beersheba), zurâ (to swear), il sorestant (commander), il soldât (soldier), partî (to leave), il filisteu (Philistine), plantâ (to plant), preâ (to pray), restâ a lunc (to stay a long time).


Supplemental listening material in Friulian

In addition to listening to the Bible, you may wish to start listening to other material in Friulian. Suggestion: Radio Onde Furlane.