Friulian language series: Gjenesi 21:22-34, pat di Abimelec

You will now study the Friulian language as used in verses 22-34 of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Genesis; these verses, where the subject is il pat di Abimelec (the covenant of Abimelech), bring you to the end of the chapter. The two posts pertaining to chapter 21 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 21:22-34

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 21:22-34. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 22

Learn the following usages: tal fratimp (in the meantime), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier). The noun il sorestant is related to the verb sorestâ, meaning to look over, to supervise; you will recognise its components sore and stâ. Il sorestant dai siei soldâts can be taken as the chief of his troops.

You read that Abimelech arrives with Phichol (in Friulian, Picol) and tells Abraham that God is with him in all he does. In the text, you find a dîi a Abram (in order to tell Abraham), where dîi is the infinitive (to say) to which i (to him) is attached.

Versets 23-24

Abimelech tells Abraham to swear to deal forthrightly with him; Abraham agrees. The Friulian verb for to swear is zurâ; to swear by God, then, is zurâ par Diu. You read: poben, zurimi cumò par Diu che (well then, swear to me now by God that) no tu mi imbroiarâs (you will not dupe me). The verb imbroiâ means to dupe, to trick, to cheat.

With infinitives ending in â, you are familiar now with how the final e of their second-person singular imperative changes to i when an enclitic pronoun is added: zurâ; zure > zurimi (to swear; swear > swear to me), scoltâ; scolte > scoltile (to listen; listen > listen to her), tornâ; torne > tornii (to return; return > return to him), lassâ; lasse > lassimi (to let; let > let me), etc.

Abimelech continues: ni me ni i miei fîs ni la mê int (neither me nor my sons nor my people). He asks of Abraham the same consideration for him and his land that he has had for Abraham: zurimi (swear to me) […] che tu varâs par me e par cheste tiere (that you will have for me and this land) […] chel rivuart che jo o ai vût par te (that [same] consideration that I have had for you). This is not the first time that you are meeting the masculine rivuart (concern, consideration, apprehension): you first saw it at the beginning of your study in Gjenesi 2:25, when you read that Adam and Eve, before eating of the forbidden fruit, were unbothered by their nakedness (no vevin rivuart un dal altri); and in Gjenesi 3:10, when Adam, after having eaten of the fruit, hides from God because he has become aware of his vulnerability (o ai vût rivuart). In the current verse, vê rivuart par can be taken as to have consideration for.

In the text, you find: cheste tiere là che tu sês vignût forest (this land to which you have come as a stranger; an outsider). You will remember that un forest is a foreigner, stranger or outsider.

Abraham swears to what has been said: tal zuri (literally, I swear it to you). O zuri is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb zurâ. Tal is a contraction of ti + lu.

Verset 25

The verb cridâ means to reproach. You read that Abraham reproached Abimelech because his servants had taken wells of water away from him. You read: Abram i cridà a Abimelec (Abraham reproached Abimelech) par vie dai poçs (on account of the wells). You will remember il poç from Gjenesi 14:10 and Gjenesi 16:14. In the remainder of the verse, you find the expression puartâ vie, meaning to take away.

Verset 26

Abimelech tells Abraham that he was unaware of what had happened: no sai cui che ti à fate cheste robate (I do not know who did this ill deed [bad thing] to you). Une robate (bad thing, wicked thing) derives from une robe (thing). From Gjenesi 6:5, you will perhaps recall the following, in reference to the wickedness of man: dentri di sè al masanave dome robatis (within himself he brewed only wicked thoughts; devised only wicked ideas [wicked things]).

Abimelech continues: tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (you never told me anything) e jo o ven a savêle (and I come to know it) dome cumò (only now).

Observe the following:

tu tu mi âs dit
tu no tu mi âs dit
tu no tu mi âs mai dit
tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie
you have told me
you have not told me
you have never told me
you have never told me anything

Verset 27

This verse does not present any new usages to you; nonetheless, review the following: cjoli (to take), il besteam (livestock), minût e grant (small and large), fâ un pat (to make a covenant), fra di lôr (between them[selves]).

Jal is a contraction of i + lu. You read: jal dè a Abimelec (he gave it to Abimelech).

Versets 28-29

The expression meti di bande means to put aside, to set to one side. You read that Abraham set aside seven sheep: al metè di bande siet pioris (he put aside seven sheep) dal so trop (from his flock). Review: la piore (sheep), il trop (flock). Un trop di pioris is the Friulian for flock of sheep.

Abimelech asks about the seven sheep: ce sono chês pioris (what are those sheep) che tu âs metudis di bande (that you have put aside)? A son (they are) becomes sono in its interrogative form: ce sono? (what are?). Note that the past participle is expresssed as metudis (from metût), in order to agree in gender and number with the feminine plural noun pioris preceding it.

Versets 30-34

These final verses of the chapter do not present any particular difficulties in terms of grammar. You will need to learn the following new vocabulary, however: acetâ (to accept), la testemoneance (proof, testament), sgjavâ (to dig, to excavate), rivâ a un cumbinament (to come to an agreement), il tamarîs (tamarisk; a sort of shrub), la eternitât (eternity).

You may also need to review the following, some of which you saw in the notes above: il poç (well), par chel (for this reason), il non (name), meti non a (to name), il lûc (site, place), Bersabee (Beersheba), zurâ (to swear), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), partî (to leave), il filisteu (Philistine), plantâ (to plant), preâ (to pray), restâ a lunc (to stay a long time).