Friulian language series: Gjenesi 21, al nas Isac

Of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Genesis, the subjects are: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); Abram al pare vie Agar (Abraham drives away Hagar); il pat di Abimelec (Abimelech’s pact).

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Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: vignî (to come), viodi di (to see to), (to say), (to do), imprometi (to promise), cjapâ sù (to take up), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), bielzà (already), (up), la etât (age), il timp (time), distinâ (to destine), nassi (to be born), meti (to put), il non (name), circuncidi (to circumcise), vot (eight), il dì (day), ordenâ (to order), cent (one hundred), un an (year), (to give), ridi (to laugh), savê (to know), daûr (behind), zontâ (to add), la tete (breast), i canais (little ones), e pûr (and yet), la vecjae (old age).

Verse 1: Il Signôr al vignì a viodi di Sare (the Lord came to see to Sarah) come che al veve dit (as he had said) e al fasè par jê (and did for her) come che al veve imprometût (as he had promised).

Verse 2: Sare e cjapà sù (Sarah conceived [took up]) e i parturì un fi a Abram (and bore a son to Abraham) cuant che e jere bielzà (when she was already) sù di etât (up in age), tal timp che Diu al veve distinât (in the time which God had destined).

Verse 3: Al fi che i jere nassût (unto the son who had been born to him), parturît di Sare (borne by Sarah), Abram i metè non Isac (Abraham put the name Isaac).

Verse 4: Abram al circuncidè so fi Isac (Abraham circumcised his son Isaac) sui vot dîs (on the eighth day [on the eight days]), come che Diu i veve ordenât (as the Lord had ordered him).

Verse 5: Abram al veve cent agns (Abraham was one hundred years old [had one hundred years]) cuant che al nassè so fi Isac (when his son Isaac was born).Al nassè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb nassi. The masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al nas, which we find in the subject line of this chapter. Examples: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); al nassè Isac (Isaac was born). Past time is also expressed using the passât prossim, where the past participle is nassût. Example: al è nassût Isac (Isaac was born). The Friulian for I was born is o soi nassût; but for a female, it is o soi nassude. Examples: o soi nassût ai 11 di Zenâr dal 1954 (I was born on 11 January 1954; male speaker); o soi nassude tai agns 70 (I was born in the 70s; female speaker). Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 6: E Sare e disè (and Sarah said): Diu mi à dât di ce ridi (God has given me whereabout to laugh), parcè che ducj chei che a vegnaran a savêle (for all those who come [will come] to know it) mi ridaran daûr (will laugh behind me).

Verse 7: Po e zontà (then she added): cui i varessial dit mo a Abram (who would have said then to Abraham) che Sare e varès dât di tete ai canais? (that Sarah should have given breast to little ones?). E pûr i ai dât (and yet I have given to him) un fi te sô vecjae (a son in his old age). — Found are two examples of the condizionâl passât (past conditional) in this verse: the interrogative cui i varessial dit and Sare e varès dât. In both, the auxiliary is conjugated in the condizionâl presint coupled with the past participle, to form the condizionâl passât. Two verb conjugations are presented below: the first is in the condizionâl presint; the second is in the condizionâl passât.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o varès
tu varessis
al varès

e varès

o varessin
o varessis
a varessin

Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

o varès dât
varessio dât?
tu varessis dât
varessistu dât?
al varès dât
varessial dât?

e varès dât
varessie dât?

o varessin dât
varessino dât?
o varessis dât
varessiso dât?
a varessin dât
varessino dât?

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: il frutin (male infant), cressi (to grow), cjoli (to take {away}), il lat (milk), (to make), la fiestone (great feast), la dì (day), viodi (to see), il frut (lad), (to have), la egjiziane (Egyptian woman), zuiâ (to play), il fi (son), (to say), parâ vie (to drive away), la sotane (bondsmaid), vê di (to have to), ereditâ (to inherit), la peraule (word), (to go), il cûr (heart), par vie di (on account of), ma (but), no sta (do not), nissun (not any), il rimuars (remorse), il piçul (little one), la sierve (maidservant), domandâ (to ask), scoltâ (to hearken), midiant di (by way of), la gjernazie (line), puartâ (to bear), il non (name), simpri (ever), ancje (also), grant (great), il popul (people), il sanc (blood), jevâ (to arise), a buinore (in the morning), un toc di (a bit of), il pan (bread), la bufule ({animal} bladder), la aghe (water), consegnâ (to consign), meti (to put), la spale (shoulder), mandâ vie (to send away), lâ par ca e par là (to go hitherwards and thitherwards), il desert (desert).

Verse 8: Il frutin al cressè (the infant grew) e *i cjolerin il lat* (and the milk was taken away from him) e Abram al fasè une fiestone+ (and Abraham made a great feast) la dì che i cjolerin il lat a Isac (the day when the milk was taken away from Isaac). — *Cjolii il lat a is a Friulian manner of saying to wean. Taken apart: i (unto him) cjolerin (they did take) il lat (the milk), which is to say, he was weaned; I have preferred a closer rendering, as I do not consider that it presents any particular comprehension problem: the milk was taken away from him. The Friulian employs the third-person plural a cjolerin (they did take), which, in context, may be made to align with the passive of English. +The Friulian for feast is the feminine fieste; for great feast, it is the augmentative fiestone.

Verses 9-10: Ma Sare e viodè il frut (but Sarah saw the lad) che Abram al veve vût di Agar l’egjiziane (whom Abraham had begotten by Hagar the Egyptian) che al zuiave cun so fi Isac ({and*} who was playing with her son Isaac) e i disè a Abram (and she said to Abraham): pare vie la sotane e il so frut (drive away the bondsmaid and her lad), parcè che il fi de sotane (for the bondsmaid’s son) nol à di ereditâ cun gno fi Isac (is not to inherit with my son Isaac). — *This and is included to make it clear that the playing was of the lad and not of Hagar; it is unnecessary in the Friulian, for the use of the masculine al zuiave can only refer to the lad.

Verses 11-12: Chestis peraulis i lerin al cûr a Abram (these words went to Abraham’s heart) par vie di so fi (on account of his son), ma Diu i disè (but God said to him): no sta vê nissun rimuars (have not any remorse) par vie dal piçul e de tô sierve (on account of the little one and thy maidservant); ce che ti domande Sare (that which Sarah asks of thee), scoltile (hearken unto her), parcè che al è midiant di Isac (for it is by way of Isaac) che la tô gjernazie e puartarà il to non par simpri (that thy line shall bear thy name for ever).

Verse 13: Ancje dal fi de sotane (also of the bondsmaid’s son) jo o fasarai un grant popul (will I make a great people), parcè che al è simpri dal to sanc (for he is ever of thy blood).

Verse 14: Abram al jevà a buinore (Abraham arose in the morning), al cjolè un toc di pan (took a bit of bread) e une bufule di aghe (and a bladder of water) che i consegnà a Agar (which he consigned to Hagar); *i metè il frut su pes spalis* (he put the lad upon her shoulders) e le mandà vie (and sent her away). Alore jê e lè par ca e par là (then she went hitherwards and thitherwards) pal desert di Bersabee (through the desert of Beer-Sheba). — *Taken apart: i (unto her) metè (he did put) il frut (the lad) su pes spalis (upon the shoulders). The feminine plural pes is the contraction of par + lis.

Versets 15-21

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), la bufule ({animal} bladder), no… plui (no more), la aghe (water), distirâ (to lay down), il frut (lad), sot di (under), un arbul (tree), (to go), sentâsi (to sit oneself down), di front di (in front of), lontan (far), il tîr (shot), un arc (bow), (to say), dentri di sè (inside oneself), trai (to draw, to shoot), il cûr (heart), murî (to die), scrufuiâsi (to crouch oneself down), devant di (before), scomençâ (to start), vaî (to weep), craçâ (to wail), sintî (to hear), il berli (outcry), un agnul (angel), clamâ (to call), il cîl (heaven), no sta (do not), la pôre (fear), fintremai lassù (so far as up there), il coragjo (courage), cjapâ sù (to take up), (to give), la man (hand), grant (great), il popul (people), viergi (to open), il voli (eye), la poce (pool), jemplâ (to fill), bevi (to drink), stâ (to dwell), simpri (ever), deventâ (to become), fermâsi (to halt oneself), il desert (desert), imparâ (to learn), un arc (bow), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), la mari (mother), cjatâ (to find), la femine (wife), la tiere (land).

Verses 15-16: Cuant che e viodè (when she saw) che te bufule (that in the bladder) no ’nd jere plui aghe (there was no more water), e distirà il frut (she laid the lad down) sot di un arbul (under a tree), e e lè a sentâsi (and went to sit herself down) di front di lui (in front of him), lontane tant che un tîr di arc (far so much as a bow shot). E diseve dentri di sè (she would say inside herself): no mi trai il cûr (it draws not my heart) di viodi a murî il gno frut (to see my lad dying). Si scrufuià devant di lui (she crouched herself down before him) e e scomençà a vaî e a craçâ (and started to weep and wail).

Verse 17: Diu al sintì i berlis dal frut (God heard the outcries of the lad) e l’agnul di Diu al clamà dal cîl Agar (and the angel of God called Hagar from the heaven) e i disè (and said to her): ce âstu po, Agar? (what hast thou then, Hagar?). No sta vê pôre (have not fear), che Diu al à sintût i berlis dal to frut (for God has heard the outcries of thy lad) fintremai lassù che al è lui (so far as up there, where he is).

Verse 18: Coragjo (courage). Cjape sù il frut (take up the lad) e dài la man (and give him thy hand), che jo o fasarai di lui un grant popul (for I will make of him a great people).

Verse 19: Diu al viergè i vôi di Agar (God opened Hagar’s eyes) e jê e viodè une poce (and she saw a pool). E lè a jemplâ la bufule (she went to fill the bladder) e i dè di bevi al frut (and gave the lad to drink).

Verse 20: E Diu al ste simpri cun lui (and God dwelt ever with him): al deventà grant (he became great) e si fermà tal desert (and halted himself in the desert) e al imparà a trai cul arc (and learnt to shoot with the bow).

Verse 21: Si sistemà intal desert di Paran (he settled himself in the desert of Paran) e sô mari i cjatà (and his mother found for him) une femine de tiere d’Egjit (a wife from the land of Egypt).

Versets 22-34

Vocabulary: tal fratimp (meanwhile), rivâ (to arrive), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), poben (well), zurâ (to swear), cumò (now), imbroiâ (to deceive), il fi (son), la int (people), la tiere (land), vignî (to come), il forest (foreigner), il rivuart (regard), rispuindi (to respond), cridâ (to reproach), par vie di (on account of), il poç (well), il famei (servant), puartâ vie (to bear away), dissal (he said), savê (to know), la robate (wicked matter), mai (not ever), nuie (not a thing), vignî (to come), cjoli (to take), il besteam (cattle), minût (little), grant (great), il pat (pact), meti di bande (to put aside), siet (seven), la piore (ewe), il trop (flock), domandâ (to ask), acetâ (to accept), la testemoneance (testimony), sgjavâ (to dig), par chel (therefore), il non (name), il lûc (place), ducj i doi (both), il cumbinament (arrangement), partî (to depart), tornâ (to return), il filisteu (Philistine), plantâ (to plant), il tamarîs (tamarisk), preâ (to pray), la eternitât (eternity), restâ (to remain), a lunc (at length).

Verse 22: Tal fratimp (meanwhile), al rivà Abimelec cun Picol, il sorestant dai siei soldâts (Abimelech arrived with Phicol the chief of his soldiers), a dîi a Abram (to say to Abraham): Diu al è cun te in dut ce che tu fasis (God is with thee in all that which thou doest).

Verse 23: Poben, zurimi cumò par Diu (well, swear to me now by God) che no tu mi imbroiarâs ni me ni i miei fîs ni la mê int (that thou wilt deceive neither me nor my sons nor my people) e che tu varâs par me (and that thou wilt have for me) e par cheste tiere là che tu sês vignût forest (and for this land whither thou hast come as a foreigner) chel rivuart che jo o ai vût par te (that regard which I have had for thee).

Verse 24: I rispuindè Abram (Abraham responded to him): tal* zuri (I swear it to thee). — *Tal is the contraction of ti + lu (unto thee + it).

Verse 25: Abram i cridà a Abimelec (Abraham reproached Abimelech) par vie dai poçs (on account of the wells) che i fameis di Abimelec (which Abimelech’s servants) i vevin puartât vie (had borne away from him).

Verse 26: Dissal Abimelec (Abimelech said): no sai cui che ti à fate cheste robate (I know not who did this wicked matter to thee): tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (thou saidest not ever a thing to me) e jo o ven a savêle dome cumò (and I come to know it but now).

Verse 27: Alore Abram al cjolè besteam minût e grant (then Abraham took cattle little and great) e jal* dè a Abimelec (and gave it to Abimelech); a faserin ancje un pat fra di lôr (they also made a pact between themselves). — *Jal is the contraction of i + lu (unto him + it), where lu stands in for the masculine besteam.

Verses 28-29: Abram al metè di bande siet pioris (Abraham put aside seven ewes) dal so trop (from his flock) e Abimelec i domandà (and Abimelech asked him): ce sono chês pioris (what are those ewes) che tu âs metudis di bande? (which thou hast put aside?).

Verse 30: I rispuindè (he responded to him): tu âs di acetâ di me chestis siet pioris (thou art to accept from me these seven ewes) come testemoneance che chest poç lu ai sgjavât jo (as testimony that this well I myself did dig).

Verse 31: Par chel i meterin non al lûc Bersabee (therefore the name Beer-Sheba was put [therefore they put the name Beer-Sheba] unto the place), parcè che ducj i doi a vevin zurât (for both had sworn).

Verse 32: Rivâts a un cumbinament a Bersabee (having arrived at an arrangement at Beer-Sheba), Abimelec e Picol, il sorestant dai siei soldats (Abimelech and Phicol the chief of his soldiers), a partirin par tornâ te tiere dai filisteus (departed to return into the land of the Philistines).

Verse 33: Abram al plantà un tamarîs a Bersabee (Abraham planted a tamarisk at Beer-Sheba) e li al preà il non dal Signôr (and there did he pray the name of the Lord), Diu de eternitât (God of eternity).

Verse 34: Abram al restà a lunc (Abraham remained at length) te tiere dai filisteus (in the land of the Philistines).