Friulian language series: Gjenesi 21, al nas Isac

Of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Genesis, the subjects are: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); Abram al pare vie Agar (Abraham sends away Hagar); il pat di Abimelec (Abimelech’s pact).

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Read Gjenesi 21

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Versets 1-7

Vocabulary: vignî (to come), viodi di (to take note of, to check in on), (to say), (to do, to make), imprometi (to promise), cjapâ sù (to take up), parturî (to bear), il fi (son), bielzà (already), la etât (age), sù di etât (advanced in age), il timp (time), distinâ (to determine; also destinâ), nassi (to be born), meti (to put, to place), il non (name), circuncidi (to circumcise), vot (eight), il dì (day), ordenâ (to order, to command), cent (one hundred), un an (year), (to give), ridi (to laugh), savê (to know), daûr (behind),  zontâ (to add), mo (now, ever), dâ di tete (to suckle, to nurse), il canai (infant, young child), e pûr (and yet), la vecjae (old age; also vecjaie).

Verse 1: Il Signôr al vignì a viodi di Sare (the Lord came to take note of Sarah) come che al veve dit (as he had said) e al fasè par jê (and he did for her) come che al veve imprometût (as he had promised).

Verse 2: Sare e cjapà sù (Sarah conceived [took up]) e i parturì un fi a Abram (and bore a son to Abraham) cuant che e jere bielzà (when she was already) sù di etât (advanced in age [up in age]), tal timp che Diu al veve distinât (at the time that God had determined).

Verse 3: Al fi che i jere nassût (unto the son who had been born to him), parturît di Sare (borne by Sarah), Abram i metè non Isac (Abraham put unto him the name Isaac); for clarity: Abraham gave the name of Isaac to the son whom Sarah had borne him.

Verse 4: Abram al circuncidè so fi Isac (Abraham circumcised his son Isaac) sui vot dîs (on the eighth day [on the eight days]), come che Diu i veve ordenât (as the Lord had commanded him [commanded unto him]).

Verse 5: Abram al veve cent agns (Abraham was one hundred years old [was having one hundred years]) cuant che al nassè so fi Isac (when his son Isaac was born). Al nassè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb nassi. The masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al nas, which you find in the subject line of this chapter. Examples: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); al nassè Isac (Isaac was born). Past time can also be expressed using the passât prossim, where the past participle is nassût. Example: al è nassût Isac (Isaac was born). The Friulian for I was born is o soi nassût; for a female, it is o soi nassude. Examples: o soi nassût ai 11 di zenâr dal 1954 (I was born on 11 January 1954); o soi nassude tai agns 70 (I was born in the 70s). Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 6: Sarah says: Diu mi à dât di ce ridi (God has given me cause to laugh), parcè che ducj chei che a vegnaran a savêle (for all those who learn of it [will come to know it]) mi ridaran daûr (will laugh on my account [will laugh behind me]). The meaning of di ce in Diu mi à dât di ce ridi is at which (of which): as in, God has given me at which to laugh. Consider another example: no àn ce mangjâ (they have nothing to eat [they have not that which to eat]).

Verse 7: Po e zontà: she then added. Sarah says: cui i varessial dit mo a Abram (who ever would have said to Abraham) che Sare e varès dât di tete ai canais? (that Sarah would have suckled infants [would have given teat to infants]?) Dâ di tete means to nurse, to suckle, to breastfeed, where the feminine tete is the Friulian for teat, breast. E pûr i ai dât un fi te sô vecjae: and yet I have given him a son in his old age. You find two examples of the condizionâl passât (past conditional) in this verse: the interrogative cui i varessial dit (who would have said to him) and Sare e varès dât (Sarah would have given). In both, you find the auxiliary conjugated in the condizionâl presint coupled with the past participle, to form the condizionâl passât. Consider: al varès; al varès dât (he would have; he would have given); o varès; o varès dit (I would have; I would have said). Two verb conjugations are presented below: the first is in the condizionâl presint; the second is in the condizionâl passât. Supplementary examples using both the present and past conditional: o varès pôre (I would be frightened [I would have fear]); al varès un impat (it would have an impact); o varessin di jessi contents (we ought to be satisfied [we would have to be satisfied]); a varessin fat cussì (they would have done so). In Gjenesi 2:19, you met the following about the naming of the animals by Adam: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non che l’om i varès metût.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o varès
tu varessis
al varès

e varès

o varessin
o varessis
a varessin

Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

o varès dât
varessio dât?
tu varessis dât
varessistu dât?
al varès dât
varessial dât?

e varès dât
varessie dât?

o varessin dât
varessino dât?
o varessis dât
varessiso dât?
a varessin dât
varessino dât?

Versets 8-14

Vocabulary: il frutin (infant, young child), cressi (to grow), cjoli (to take), il lat (milk), (to make, to do), la fiestone (great feast), la dì (day), viodi (to see), il frut (boy, child), (to have), la egjiziane (Egyptian woman), zuiâ (to play), il fi (son), (to say), parâ vie (to send away, to drive out), la sotane (slavewoman), vê di (must, to have to), ereditâ (to inherit), la peraule (word), (to go), il cûr (heart), par vie di (on account of), ma (but), no sta (do not), nissun (no, not any), il rimuars (remorse, regret), il piçul (child, little one), la sierve (maidservant, handmaid), domandâ (to ask), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), midiant di (through, by way of), la gjernazie (offspring), puartâ (to bear, to carry), il non (name), par simpri (for ever), ancje (also, too), grant (great, big, large), il popul (people), simpri (yet, also), il sanc (blood), jevâ (to arise), a buinore (in the morning), il toc (piece, bit), il pan (bread), la bufule (animal bladder), la aghe (water), consegnâ (to give, to hand over), meti (to put, to place), la spale (shoulder), mandâ vie (to send away, to send off), lâ par ca e par là (to wander, to roam), il desert (desert).

Verse 8: Il frutin al cressè (the child grew) e i cjolerin il lat (and he was weaned [they took the milk from him]) e Abram al fasè une fiestone (and Abraham held [made] a great feast) la dì che i cjolerin il lat a Isac (the day that Isaac was weaned [the day that they had taken the milk from Isaac]). The Friulian for feast is the feminine fieste; for great feast, in augmentative form, it is the feminine fiestone.

Verses 9-10: Ma Sare e viodè il frut (but Sarah saw the boy) che Abram al veve vût di Agar l’egjiziane (whom Abraham had begotten by Hagar the Egyptian) che al zuiave cun so fi Isac (who was playing with her son Isaac) e i disè a Abram (and she said to Abraham): pare vie la sotane e il so frut (send away the slavewoman and her boy), parcè che il fi de sotane (for the slavewoman’s son) nol à di ereditâ cun gno fi Isac (is not to inherit along with my son Isaac). Supplementary examples of parâ vie: pare vie la taule dal mûr (pull the table away from the wall); parâ vie i pinsîrs dal cjâf (to clear one’s mind [to drive away the thoughts from one’s head]); lu àn parât vie de vore (they sacked him from his job [they sent him away from work]).

Verses 11-12: Chestis peraulis i lerin al cûr a Abram (these words troubled Abraham [these words went to Abraham’s heart]) par vie di so fi (on account of his son), ma Diu i disè (but God said to him): no sta vê nissun rimuars (have no remorse [do not have any remorse]) par vie dal piçul e de tô sierve (on account of the little one and your maidservant); ce che ti domande Sare (that which Sarah asks of you [asks unto you]), scoltile (heed her), parcè che al è midiant di Isac (for it is through Isaac) che la tô gjernazie (that your offspring) e puartarà il to non par simpri (shall bear your name for all time).

Verse 13: Ancje dal fi de sotane (of the slavewoman’s son also) jo o fasarai un grant popul (will I make a great nation [people]), parcè che al è simpri dal to sanc (for he too is of your blood).

Verse 14: Abram al jevà a buinore (Abraham arose in the morning), al cjolè un toc di pan (took a bit of bread) e une bufule di aghe (and a bladder of water) che i consegnà a Agar (which he gave to Hagar); i metè il frut su pes spalis (he put the boy on her shoulders [unto her he put the boy on the shoulders]) e le mandà vie (and sent her away). Alore jê e lè par ca e par là pal desert di Bersabee: she then wandered (went over here and over there) through the desert of Beersheba. Pes is a contraction of par + lis.

Versets 15-21

Vocabulary: viodi (to see), la bufule (animal bladder), no… plui (no more), la aghe (water), distirâ (to lay down), il frut (boy, child), sot di (under, below), un arbul (tree), (to go), sentâsi (to sit down, to take a seat), di front di (in front of, opposite), lontan (far, away), tant che (as much as), il tîr (shot), un arc (bow), (to say), dentri di (inside, within), trai (to draw, to pull), il cûr (heart), murî (to die), scrufuiâsi (to crouch, to huddle), devant di (before, in front of), scomençâ (to start, to begin), vaî (to cry), craçâ (to wail aloud), sintî (to hear), il berli (outcry), un agnul (angel), clamâ (to call), il cîl (heaven, sky), no sta (do not), la pôre (fear), fintremai (as far as, up to), lassù (up there),  il coragjo (courage, bravery), cjapâ sù (to take up), (to give), la man (hand), grant (great), il popul (people), viergi (to open; also vierzi), il voli (eye), la poce (pool), jemplâ (to fill), bevi (to drink), stâ (to stay), simpri (always), deventâ (to become), fermâsi (to dwell), il desert (desert), imparâ (to learn), sistemâsi (to settle), la mari (mother), cjatâ (to find), la femine (wife, woman), la tiere (land).

Verses 15-16: Cuant che e viodè (when she saw) che te bufule (that in the bladder) no ’nd jere plui aghe (there was no more water), e distirà il frut (she laid the boy down) sot di un arbul (under a tree), e e lè a sentâsi (and went to sit down) di front di lui (opposite him), lontane tant che un tîr di arc (at a bowshot’s distance away [far as much as the shot of a bow]). E diseve dentri di sè: no mi trai il cûr di viodi a murî il gno frut: she said to herself (was saying within herself): I wish not to look upon my boy as he dies (it draws not my heart to see dying my boy). Regarding tîr di arc and the verb trai, see also the notes at verse 20. Si scrufuià devant di lui e e scomençà a vaî e a craçâ: she crouched down before him and began to cry and wail aloud.

Verse 17: Diu al sintì i berlis dal frut (God heard the cries of the boy) e l’agnul di Diu al clamà dal cîl Agar (and the angel of God called Hagar from the heaven) e i disè (and said to her): ce âstu po, Agar? (what ever ails you [what then have you], Hagar?). No sta vê pôre, che Diu al à sintût i berlis dal to frut fintremai lassù che al è lui: fear not (do not have fear), for God has heard the cries of your boy up there where he is.

Verse 18: Coragjo: up now; come then. Coragjo is an interjection used to encourage one to pluck up courage. The angel says: cjape sù il frut (lift up [take up] the lad) e dài la man (and give him your hand), che jo o fasarai di lui un grant popul (for I will make a great nation [people] of him).

Verse 19: Diu al viergè i vôi di Agar e jê e viodè une poce: God opened Hagar’s eyes and she saw a pool. E lè a jemplâ la bufule e i dè di bevi al frut: she went to fill the bladder and gave the boy to drink.

Verse 20: Ishmael became a bowman: e Diu al ste simpri cun lui (and God stayed ever with him): al deventà grant (he became great) e si fermà tal desert (and dwelt in the desert) e al imparà a trai cul arc (and learnt to shoot with a bow [with the bow]). You encounter a number of related usages in verses 16 and 20: un tîr di arc (bowshot; verse 16); no mi trai il cûr di (I wish not to [it draws not my heart]; verse 16); trai cul arc (to shoot a bow [to shoot with the bow]; verse 20).

Verse 21: Si sistemà intal desert di Paran (he settled in the desert of Paran) e sô mari i cjatà (and his mother found for him) une femine de tiere d’Egjit (a wife from the land of Egypt).

Versets 22-34

Vocabulary: tal fratimp (in the meantime), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), poben (well then, so), zurâ (to swear), cumò (now), imbroiâ (to deceive, to dupe), il fi (son), la int (people), la tiere (land), vignî (to come), il forest (foreigner), il rivuart (consideration, concern), rispuindi (to respond), cridâ (to reproach), par vie di (on account of), il poç (well), il famei (servant), puartâ vie (to take away), dissal (he said), savê (to know), la robate (ill deed), mai (never), nuie (nothing), cjoli (to take), il besteam minût (small livestock), il besteam grant (large livestock), il pat (pact, covenant), meti (to put, to place), la bande (side), siet (seven), la piore (ewe, sheep), il trop (flock), domandà (to ask), acetâ (to accept), la testemoneance (testimony), sgjavâ (to dig), par chel (for that reason), il non (name), il lûc (place, site), ducj i doi (both of them), il cumbinament (agreement), partî (to depart, to leave), tornâ (to return, to go back), il filisteu (Philistine), plantâ (to plant), il tamarîs (tamarisk), preâ (to pray), la eternitât (eternity), restâ (to remain, to stay), a lunc (at length).

Verse 22: Tal fratimp (in the meantime), al rivà Abimelec cun Picol, il sorestant dai siei soldâts, a dîi a Abram (Abimelech came with Phicol, chief of his troops [soldiers], to say to Abraham): Diu al è cun te in dut ce che tu fasis (God is with you in all that you do).

Verses 23-24: Abimelech continues: poben, zurimi cumò par Diu (so swear to me now by God) che no tu mi imbroiarâs ni me ni i miei fîs ni la mê int (that you will deceive neither me nor my sons nor my people) e che tu varâs par me e par cheste tiere (and that you will have for me and for this land) là che tu sês vignût forest (to which [where] you have come as a foreigner) chel rivuart che jo o ai vût par te (the same consideration [that consideration] that I have had for you). Abraham says: tal zuri (I swear it to you). Tal zuri = ti + lu + zuri (unto you + it + I swear).

Verse 25: Abram i cridà a Abimelec (Abraham reproached Abimelech) par vie dai poçs (on account of the wells) che i fameis di Abimelec (that Abimelech’s servants) i vevin puartât vie (had taken away from him).

Verse 26: Abimelech says: no sai cui che ti à fate cheste robate (I do not know who wronged you [who did this ill deed to you]): tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (you never told me about it [you have never told me anything]) e jo o ven a savêle dome cumò (and only now am I hearing about it [and I come to know it only now]). Review the word order of the following: tu tu mi âs dit (you have told me); tu no tu mi âs dit (you have not told me); tu no tu mi âs mai dit (you have never told me); tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (you have never told me anything).

Verse 27: Alore Abram al cjolè besteam minût e grant (Abraham then took sheep and oxen [small and large livestock]) e jal dè a Abimelec (and gave them to Abimelech [and gave it to Abimelech). Jal is a contraction of i + lu (unto him + it), where lu stands in for the masculine besteam. A faserin ancje un pat fra di lôr: they also made a pact between them.

Verses 28-29: Abram al metè di bande (Abraham set aside) siet pioris (seven ewes) dal so trop (from his flock) e Abimelec i domandà (and Abimelech asked him): ce sono chês pioris (what is the meaning of those ewes [what are those ewes]) che tu âs metudis di bande? (that you have set aside?).

Verse 30: Abraham says: tu âs di acetâ di me (you are to accept from me) chestis siet pioris (these seven ewes) come testemoneance (as a testimony) che chest poç lu ai sgjavât jo (that it was I who dug this well).

Verse 31: Par chel i meterin non al lûc Bersabee (they therefore named the place Beersheba), parcè che ducj i doi a vevin zurât (for the two of them had sworn).

Verse 32: Rivâts a un cumbinament a Bersabee (having reached an agreement at Beersheba), Abimelec e Picol, il sorestant dai siei soldats (Abimelech and Phicol, chief of his troops [soldiers]), a partirin par tornâ te tiere dai filisteus (departed and returned [departed to return] to the land of the Philistines).

Verse 33: Abram al plantà un tamarîs a Bersabee (Abraham planted a tamarisk at Beersheba) e li al preà il non dal Signôr (and there he invoked [prayed] the name of the Lord), Diu de eternitât (God of eternity).

Verse 34: Abram al restà a lunc te tiere dai filisteus: Abraham remained at length in the land of the Philistines.