Friulian language series: Gjenesi 21, al nas Isac

The subjects of the twenty-first chapter of the book of Genesis are: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); Abram al pare vie Agar (Abraham sends Hagar away); il pat di Abimelec (the covenant of Abimelech).

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Read Gjenesi 21

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 21. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

The Lord visits Sarah and does for her as he had promised. Il Signôr al vignì a viodi di Sare: the Lord came to visit Sarah. Viodi di can be taken as meaning to visit. Al fasè par jê come che al veve imprometût: he did for her as he had promised. The Friulian verb imprometi means to promise.

Verset 2

In previous chapters, you saw the expression to be advanced in years expressed as jessi in là cui agns. In the current verse, you find it expressed as jessi sù di etât (literally, to be up in age). The Friulian for age is the feminine etât.

Learn or review the following: cjapâ sù (to conceive, to get pregnant), parturî (to give birth, to bear), bielzà (already), tal timp che (at the time that), distinâ (to designate, to decide; also expressed as destinâ).

I parturì un fi a Abram: she bore a son unto Abraham. Bielzà sù di etât: already advanced in years; already in old age. Tal timp che Diu al veve distinât: at the time that God had designated.

Verset 3

Two instances of i appear in this verse: this first means to her, unto her (that is, to Sarah); the second means to him, unto him (that is, to Isaac). Al fi che i jere nassût: unto the son that had been born to her. Parturît di Sare: borne by Sarah. Abram i metè non Isac: Abraham put the name Isaac unto him; that is, Abraham named him Isaac.

al fi (unto the son)
che (that)
i (unto her)
jere nassût (had been born)

Abram (Abraham)
i (unto him)
metè non Isac (put [the] name Isaac)

The Friulian for name is the masculine noun non.

Verset 4

Abraham circumcises his son Isaac on the eighth day. Recall from Gjenesi 17 that the Friulian verb for to circumcise is circuncidi. Al circuncidè: he circumcised. This verb is also expressed as circoncidi. Al circuncidè could also be written al circoncidè.

The Friulian for on the eighth day is expressed as sui vot dîs (literally, on the eight days).

Come che Diu i veve ordenât: as God had commanded him; literally, as God had ordered unto him.

Verset 5

You read that Abraham was one hundred years old when Isaac was born: al veve cent agns (he was one hundred years old) cuant che al nassè so fi Isac (when his son Isaac was born).

Al nassè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb nassi. The masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al nas. Examples: al nas Isac (Isaac is born); al nassè Isac (Isaac was born). The past tense can also be expressed using the passât prossim, where the past participle is nassût. Example: al è nassût Isac (Isaac was born; Isaac has been born).

The Friulian for I was born is o soi nassût; for a female, it is o soi nassude. Examples: o soi nassût ai 11 di zenâr dal 1954 (I was born on 11 January 1954); o soi nassude tai agns 70 (I was born in the 70s). Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verset 6

Sarah says that God has brought her laughter: Diu mi à dât ce ridi. The verb ridi means to laugh. Look at another example using ce in the same way: no àn ce mangjâ. The meaning of ce in these sentences is that which: Diu mi à dât ce ridi (God has given me that which to laugh [at]; that is, God has given me reason to laugh, God has made me laugh); no àn ce mangjâ (they do not have that which to eat; that is, they have nothing to eat).

You find the expression ridi daûr, which translates literally as to laugh behind; the sense of this expression is to mock, to laugh at. You read: ducj chei che a vegnaran a savêle (all those who will come to know it) mi ridaran daûr (will laugh at me; will mock me).

Verset 7

Recall the meaning of the verb zontâ, which is to add.

You find two examples of the condizionâl passât (past conditional) in this verse: the interrogative cui i varessial dit (who would have said to him) and Sare e varès dât (Sarah would have given). In both these examples, you find the auxiliary conjugated in the condizionâl presint coupled with the past participle, to form the condizionâl passât.

al varès
he would have
al varès dât
he would have given

o varès
I would have
o varès dit
I would have said

Below, you will find two verb conjugations: the first is in the condizionâl presint; the second is in the condizionâl passât. (The notes for this verse continue after the charts.)

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o varès
tu varessis
al varès

e varès

o varessin
o varessis
a varessin

Condizionâl passât
Past conditional

o varès dât
varessio dât?
tu varessis dât
varessistu dât?
al varès dât
varessial dât?

e varès dât
varessie dât?

o varessin dât
varessino dât?
o varessis dât
varessiso dât?
a varessin dât
varessino dât?

Return now to the text, where you find: cui i varessial dit mo a Abram (who now would have said to Abraham) che Sare e varès dât di tete ai canais? (that Sarah would have given teat to babies?; that is, that Sarah would have suckled babies?). Dâ di tete means to nurse, to suckle, to breastfeed, where la tete is the Friulian for teat, breast. Un canai is a baby, child; in the next verse, you will find another noun for this: il frutin.

Supplementary examples using both the present and past conditional: o varès pôre (I would be frightened; literally, I would have fear); al varès un impat (it would have an impact); o varessin di jessi contents (we would have to be satisfied); a varessin fat cussì (they would have done thus, that is how they would have done it). In Gjenesi 2:19, you met the following about the naming of the animals by Adam: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non che l’om i varès metût.

In the remainder of the verse, e pûr means and yet, nonetheless. Sarah gave Abraham a son in her old age: te sô vecjae. The Friulian for old age is la vecjaie (found here under the variant spelling la vecjae).

Verset 8

You now find the noun il frutin, meaning baby, child. You read that the child grew: al cressè; the infinitive is cressi (to grow, to increase).

The Friulian for milk is il lat. Isaac’s parents weaned him: i cjolerin il lat (they weaned him; literally, they took the milk from him). Abraham celebrates Isaac’s weaning: al fasè une fiestone (he held a great feast). La fieste is the Friulian for feast; its augmentative form is la fiestone (great feast).

La dì che i cjolerin il lat a Isac: on the day that Isaac was weaned; literally, the day that they took the milk from Isaac.

Versets 9-10

The verb zuiâ means to play. In verse 9, you read: ma Sare e viodè il frut (but Sarah saw the child) che Abram al veve vût di Agar l’egjiziane (whom Abraham had had with [from] Hagar the Egyptian) che al zuiave cun so fi Isac (who was playing with her son Isaac).

Sarah refers to Hagar as la sotane (slave); the masculine form of this is il sotan. This noun is related to another one that you have already seen: la sotanance (oppression, subjugation), from Gjenesi 15. As an adjective, sotan means oppressed, subjugated.

You now meet the expression parâ vie again. When you first encountered it in Gjenesi 6:7, you read that God wanted to destroy the man whom he had created: o vuei parâ vie […] l’om che o ai creât; here, parâ vie can be taken as to do away with, to get rid of. In verse 10, Sarah tells Abraham to do away with the handmaid Hagar. She does not want Hagar destroyed, of course; she simply wants her to go away. In this sense, parâ vie can be taken as to send away. You read: pare vie la sotane e il so frut (send away the slave and her child).

Supplementary examples of the expression parâ vie: pare vie la taule dal mûr (pull the table away from the wall); parâ vie i pinsîrs dal cjâf (to clear one’s mind [head]); lu àn parât vie de vore (they sacked him from his job; they fired him from work). In all these examples, the basic sense of parâ vie is to drive away, to send away. From these, you also have a number of nouns to learn or review: la taule (table), il mûr (wall), il pinsîr (thought), il cjâf (head), la vore (work).

Sarah says: il fi de sotane (the son of the slave) nol à di ereditâ (must not inherit) cun gno fi Isac (with my son Isaac). The verb ereditâ, which you have already met, means to inherit; Sarah does not want Hagar’s son to be heir with hers.

Versets 11-13

Verse 11: You encounter a new expression: lâ al cûr (to hurt, to offend, to cut to the bone; literally, to go to the heart). You read: chestis peraulis i lerin al cûr a Abram (these words went to Abraham’s heart; that is, these words offended Abraham) par vie di so fi (on account of his son).

Verse 12: God tells Abraham that he must not have regret: no sta vê nissun rimuars (do not have any remorse) par vie dal piçul (on account of the little one) e de tô sierve (and of your servant). The Friulian il rimaurs means regret, remorse. Abraham and Hagar’s son Ishmael is referred to here as un piçul, which translates literally as a little (one). God continues by telling Abraham to listen to Sarah: ce che ti domande Sare (that which Sarah asks of you), scoltile (listen to her). The two verbs here are domandâ (to ask) and scoltâ (to listen). The second-person singular imperative of scoltâ is scolte; when le is added, the final e changes to i to become scoltile. Al è midiant di Isac che la tô gjernazie e puartarà il to non par simpri: it is by way of Isaac that your offspring shall forever bear your name.

Verse 13: Ancje dal fi de sotane jo o fasarai un grant popul: of the son of the slave, too, I shall make a great nation (a great people). Al è simpri dal to sanc: he is no less of your blood.

Verset 14

Abraham arises in the morning, gets bread and water, and gives it to Hagar: al jevà a buinore (he got up in the morning; he arose in the morning), al cjolè un toc di pan (he took a piece of bread) e une bufule di aghe (and a bladder of water) che i consegnà a Agar (which he gave to Hagar). Abraham carried the water in an animal bladder: une bufule.

Abraham puts the child on Hagar’s shoulders: i metè il frut su pes spalis (he put the child on her shoulders), and sends her away: le mandà vie (he sent her away). Pes is a contraction of par + lis. The Friulian for shoulder is la spale.

You met the expression lâ par ca e par là in Gjenesi 20:13; it means to wander, to roam (literally, to go over here and over there). You read that Hagar wandered in the desert of Beersheba: e lè par ca e par là (she wandered; she roamed) pal desert di Bersabee (through the desert of Beersheba).

Versets 15-16

Vocabulary: no… plui (no more), distirâ (to stretch out, to lay down), sentâsi (to sit down), lontan tant che (as far as), un tîr di arc (bowshot; literally, shot of bow), no mi trai il cûr di (I do not want, I do not wish), murî (to die), scrufuiâsi (to crouch down, to squat down), scomençâ (to start), vaî (to cry), craçâ (to wail, to shriek).

Verse 15: E viodè che e bufule no ’nd jere plui aghe: she saw that in the bladder there was no more water. E distirà il frut sot di un arbul: she laid the child down under a tree.

Verse 16: E lè a sentâsi di front di lui: she went to sit down opposite him. Lontane tant che un tîr di arc: as far as the shot of a bow. The Friulian for bow (as in bow and arrow) is un arc. Related vocabulary: la frece (arrow); trai une frece (to shoot an arrow); il tîr (shot); la pistole (gun); la bale (bullet). No mi trai il cûr di viodi a murî il gno frut: I do not wish to see my son die; in the expression no mi trai il cûr di, you find the verb trai conjugated in the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf. The reflexive scrufuiâsi means to crouch down: si scrufuià devant di lui (she crouched down in front of him); related to this usage is une bestie scrufuiade from Gjenesi 4:7. E scomençà a vaî e a craçâ: she started to cry and wail.

Verset 17

You met the noun il berli in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, when the outcry against these cities had reached God: il berli al rive fint al Signôr (Gjenesi 19:13). In the current verse, i berlis refers to the cries of the child: Diu al sintì i berlis dal frut (God heard the cries of the boy).

The angel of God (agnul di Diu) calls out to Hagar from the heaven and asks: ce âstu po? (what then is the matter?). Ce âstu translates literally as what have you; it is to be taken in the sense of what is the matter. The angel tells Hagar to have no fear: no sta vê pôre (fear not; have no fear), for God heard the boy’s crying in heaven: Diu al à sintût i berlis dal to frut (God has heard the cries of your child) fintremai lassù (all the way up there) che al è lui (where he is).

Verset 18

The interjection coragjo (literally, courage) is used to encourage, as in have faith, take heart, come on then. God tells Hagar to pick up the child: cjape sù il frut, and to take his hand: dài la man. Dài la man translates literally as give him your (the) hand. Review the three imperative forms of the verb dâ: da (give; second-person singular); dait (give; second-person plural); din (let us give; first-person plural). Jo o fasarai di lui un grant popul: I shall make a great nation (people) of him.

Versets 19-21

Vocabulary: viergi (to open; also written vierzi), il voli (eye; plural, i vôi), la poce (pool), jemplâ (to fill), dâ di bevi (to give to drink), stâ cun (to be with, to stay with), deventâ grant (to grow up), fermâsi (to dwell), il desert (desert), imparâ (to learn), trai cul arc (to shoot with a bow), sistemâsi (to settle), cjatâ (to find).

Verse 19: Diu al viergè i vôi di Agar: God opened Hagar’s eyes; literally, God opened the eyes unto Hagar. Jê e viodè une poce: she saw a pool (of water). E lè a jemplâ la bufule: she went to fill the bladder. I dè di bevi al frut: she gave the child to drink.

Verse 20: Al ste is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb stâ. You read: Diu al ste simpri cun lui (God stayed with him always). Ishmael grew up: al deventà grant, he dwelt in the desert: si fermà tal desert, and he learnt to shoot with a bow: al imparà a trai cul arc.

Verse 21: Si sistemà intal desert di Paran: he settled in the desert of Paran. Sô mari i cjatà une femine: his mother found a wife for him. De tiere d’Egjit: from the land of Egypt.

Verset 22

Learn the following: tal fratimp (in the meantime), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier).

The noun il sorestant is related to the verb sorestâ, meaning to look over, to supervise; you will recognise its components sore and stâ. Il sorestant dai siei soldâts can be taken as the chief of his soldiers; the chief of his troops.

Abimelech arrives with Phichol (in Friulian, Picol) and tells Abraham that God is with him in all he does: Diu al è cun te (God is with you) in dut ce che tu fasis (in all that you do).

In rivâ […] a dîi a Abram (to come [to arrive] in order to tell Abraham), dîi is the infinitive (to say) to which i (unto him) has been attached. Dî: to say; dîi: to say to him.

Versets 23-24

Verse 23: Abimelech tells Abraham to swear to deal forthrightly with him, to which Abraham agrees. The Friulian for to swear is zurâ; to swear by God, then, is zurâ par Diu. You read: poben, zurimi cumò par Diu (well then, swear now to me by God) che no tu mi imbroiarâs (that you will not dupe me). The verb imbroiâ means to dupe, to trick, to cheat.

With infinitives ending in â, you are now familiar with how the final e of their second-person singular imperative changes to i when an enclitic pronoun is added: zurâ; zure > zurimi (to swear; swear > swear to me); scoltâ; scolte > scoltile (to listen; listen > listen to her); tornâ; torne > tornii (to return; return > return to him); lassâ; lasse > lassimi (to let; let > let me).

Abimelech continues: ni me ni i miei fîs ni la mê int (neither me nor my sons nor my people). He asks of Abraham the same consideration for him and his land that he has had for Abraham: zurimi (swear to me) […] che tu varâs par me e par cheste tiere (that you will have for me and this land) […] chel rivuart che jo o ai vût par te (that [same] consideration that I have had for you). This is not the first time that you are meeting the masculine rivuart (concern, consideration): you first saw it at the beginning of your study in Gjenesi 2:25, when you read that Adam and Eve, before eating of the forbidden fruit, were unbothered by their nakedness and did not shy away from one another (no vevin rivuart un dal altri); and in Gjenesi 3:10, when Adam, after having eaten of the fruit, hides from God because he has become aware of his vulnerability (o ai vût rivuart). In the current verse, vê rivuart par can be taken as to have consideration for.

Cheste tiere là che tu sês vignût forest: this land to which you have come as a foreigner; an outsider. Recall that un forest is a foreigner, stranger or outsider.

Verse 24: Abraham swears to what has been said: tal zuri (literally, I swear it to you). O zuri is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb zurâ. Tal is a contraction of ti + lu.

Verset 25

The verb cridâ means to reproach. Abraham reproached Abimelech because his servants had seized wells of water from him: Abram i cridà a Abimelec (Abraham reproached Abimelech) par vie dai poçs (on account of the wells) che i fameis di Abimelec (that the servants of Abimelech) i vevin puartât vie (had seized from him; literally, had taken away from him). You also encountered il poç in Gjenesi 14:10 and Gjenesi 16:14.

Verset 26

Abimelech tells Abraham that he was unaware of what had happened: no sai cui che ti à fate cheste robate (I do not know who did this ill deed to you).

o sai
I know

no sai
I do not know

Une robate (bad thing, wicked action, ill deed) derives from une robe (thing). You also met robate in Gjenesi 6:5, where you encountered the following, in reference to the wickedness of man: dentri di sè al masanave dome robatis.

Abimelech continues: tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie (you never told me anything) e jo o ven a savêle (and I come to know it) dome cumò (only now). Observe the following:

tu tu mi âs dit
you have told me

tu no tu mi âs dit
you have not told me

tu no tu mi âs mai dit
you have never told me

tu no tu mi âs mai dit nuie
you have never told me anything

Verset 27

Review: cjoli (to take), il besteam (livestock), minût e grant (small and large), fâ un pat (to make a pact), fra di lôr (between them[selves]).

Alore Abram al cjolè besteam minût e grant: Abraham then took small and large livestock; that is, Abraham then took sheep and oxen. Jal is a contraction of i + lu, where lu stands in for the masculine besteam. You read: jal dè a Abimelec (he gave it [the livestock] to Abimelech). A faserin ancje un pat fra di lôr: they also made a pact between themselves.

Versets 28-29

Verse 28: The expression meti di bande means to put aside, to set to one side. You read that Abraham set aside seven sheep: al metè di bande siet pioris (he set aside seven sheep [ewes]) dal so trop (from his flock). Review: la piore (sheep, ewe), il trop (flock). Un trop di pioris is the Friulian for flock of sheep.

Verse 29: Abimelech asks about the seven ewes: ce sono chês pioris (what are those ewes) che tu âs metudis di bande? (that you have set aside?); that is, what is the meaning of those seven ewes that you have set aside? A son (they are) becomes sono in its interrogative form: ce sono? (what are?). Note that the past participle is expresssed as metudis (from metût), in order to agree in gender and number with the feminine plural pioris preceding it.

Versets 30-34

New vocabulary: acetâ (to accept), la testemoneance (proof, testament), sgjavâ (to dig, to excavate), rivâ a un cumbinament (to come to an agreement), il tamarîs (tamarisk; a sort of shrub), la eternitât (eternity).

Review: il poç (well), par chel (for this reason), il non (name), meti non a (to name), il lûc (site, place), Bersabee (Beersheba), ducj i doi (both of them, the two of them), zurâ (to swear), il sorestant (chief), il soldât (soldier), partî (to leave, to depart), il filisteu (Philistine), plantâ (to plant), preâ (to pray), restâ a lunc (to remain a long time).

Verse 30: Tu âs di acetâ di me chestis siet pioris: you must accept these seven ewes from me. Come testemoneance che: as proof that. Chest poç lu ai sgjavât jo: it was me who dug this well. Observe: o ai sgjavât chest poç (I dug this well); chest poç lu ai sgjavât jo (it was me who dug this well).

Verse 31: Par chel i meterin non al lûc Bersabee: hence they named the place Beersheba; literally, hence they put (the) name Beersheba unto the place. Parcè che ducj i doi a vevin zurât: because the two of them had sworn; that is, because the two of them had sworn an oath.

Verse 32: Rivâts a un cumbinament: having come to an agreement. A partirin par tornâ te tiere dai filisteus: they departed to return to the land of the Philistines.

Verse 33: Plantâ un tamarîs: to plant a tamarisk. Li al preà il non dal Signôr: there he invoked (prayed) the name of the Lord. Diu de eternitât: God of eternity; that is, Everlasting God.

Verse 34: Abram al restà a lunc te tiere dai filisteus: Abraham remained a long time in the land of the Philistines.