Friulian language series: Gjenesi 20, Sare e Abimelec

The twentieth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of Sarah and Abimelech: Sare e Abimelec.

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Versets 1-10

Vocabulary: partî (to depart, to leave), di li (from there), la tiere (land), fermâsi (to settle), fra (between), lâ a stâ (to go to dwell), (to say), la femine (wife), la sûr (sister), il re (king), mandâ (to send), cjoli (to take), vignî (to come), il sium (dream), la gnot (night), murî (to die), la colpe (fault), za (already), maridât (married), tocjâ (to touch), fâ murî (to kill), mo (now, surely), il nocent (innocent man), ancje (also, too), confermâ (to confirm, to uphold), il fradi (brother), (to do, to make), bon (good), la fede (faith), la man (hand), net (clean), il cont (account, matter), rispuindi (to respond), savê (to know), lassâ (to let, to allow), il pecjât (sin), cuintri di (against), volê (to want), lâ dongje (to draw near), cumò (now), tornâ (to return, to restore), un om (man), il profete (prophet), preâ (to pray), vivi (to live), però (but, however), impreteribil (surely, inevitably), la int (people), jevâ (to arise), adorone (very early), clamâ (to call, to summon), il famei (servant), contâ (to tell, to relate), la cuistion (matter, situation), spirtâsi (to take fright), la muart (death), po (then), tirâ su (to bring upon), il ream (kingdom), la tristerie (wickedness, iniquity), la sorte (sort, kind), la opare (deed, action), cussì (thus, so), saltâ sù (to come upon), la part (deed, action).

Verse 1: Abram al partì di li (Abraham departed from there) pe tiere dal Negheb (for the land of the Negev) e si fermà fra Kades e Sur (and settled between Kadesh and Shur). Al lè a stâ a Gjerar: he went to dwell in Gerar.

Verse 2: Abram al disè de sô femine (of his wife, Abraham said) che e jere sô sûr (that she was his sister) e Abimelec, il re di Gjerar (and Abimelech, the king of Gerar), al mandà a cjoli Sare (sent for Sarah [sent to take Sarah]).

Verse 3: Ma Diu i vignì in sium a Abimelec vie pe gnot: but in the night, God came to Abimelech in a dream (but God came in a dream to Abimelech during the night). God says: tu murarâs (you shall die) par colpe de femine (on account of the woman) che tu âs cjolte (whom you have taken), parcè che e je za maridade (for she is already married). Supplementary examples of vie par (during): vie pal mês (during the month); vie pal istât (during the summer); vie pal invier (during the winter); vie pe vierte (during the spring); vie pe sierade (during the autumn); vie pe setemane dai 10 ai 17 di setembar (during the week of 10 to 17 September); vie pe buinore di domenie (during Sunday morning); vie pal an scolastic (during the school year).

Verse 4: Abimelec, che no le veve tocjade, al disè (Abimelech, who had not touched her, said): Signôr gno (O my Lord), no tu fasarâs mo murî un nocent (surely you will not kill [make die] an innocent man).

Verse 5: No esal stât lui a dîmi (was it not he himself who said to me): e je mê sûr (she is my sister), e ancje jê e à confermât (and she too put forth [confirmed]): al è gno fradi (he is my brother). Abimlech continues: jo lu ai fat in buine fede (I acted [did it] in good faith) e o ai lis mans netis (and my hands are clean [I have clean hands]) par chel cont (in this matter). To have clean hands is to be blameless.

Verse 6: Diu i rispuindè in sium: God responded to him in the dream. He says: o sai ancje jo (I myself know) che tu lu âs fat in buine fede (that you acted [did it] in good faith) e o soi stât jo (and it was I) che no ti ai lassât (who did not allow you) fâ un pecjât cuintri di me (to commit [do] a sin against me); o soi jo (it was I) che no ai volût che tu i lessis dongje (who prevented you from lying with her [who did not want that you were drawing near to (going alongside) her)]). Lâ dongje (to draw near) translates literally as to go alongside; to go near; it is used here in the sense of to lie with, to be intimate with. Tu tu lessis is the second-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb lâ. After volê che (to want that), the subjunctive is employed. Consider: tu tu vâs (you go); no vuei che tu ledis (I do not want you to go [I do not want that you go]); tu tu levis (you were going); no ai volût che tu lessis (I did not want you to go [I did not want that you were going]). The following conjugations of are presented below: imperfet indicatîf, coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet. Other conjugations of can be found here: Friulian verb conjugations.

Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o levi
tu levis
al leve

e leve

o levin
o levis
a levin

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o ledi
o les
tu ledis
tu lessis
al ledi
al les

e ledi
e les

o ledin
o lessin
o ledis
o lessis
a ledin
a lessin

Verse 7: Ma cumò tornii la femine a di chest om: but now restore the woman to this man. Tornii: return to him; restore to him. Torne is second-person singular imperative of the verb tornâ; before i (unto him) is added, the final e of torne changes to i, resulting in tornii. Al è un profete e al prearà par te par che tu vivis: he is a prophet and will pray for you that you may live. God continues: se però no tu je tornis (if, however, you do not restore her to him), tu murarâs impreteribil (you shall surely die), tu e dute la tô int (you and all your people). Je is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her). Consider: tu le tornis (you restore her); tu je tornis (you restore her to him); se no tu le tornis (if you do not restore her); se no tu je tornis (if you do not restore her to him).

Verse 8: Abimelec al jevà adorone (Abimelech arose very early) e al clamà ducj i siei fameis (and called all his servants). Ur contà dute la cuistion: he related to them the entire matter. I oms si spirtarin a muart: the men became frightened to death.

Verses 9-10: Po Abimelec al mandà a clamâ Abram: Abimelech then summoned Abraham. Abimelech asks: ce mi âstu fat po? (what ever have you done to me?). He also asks: ce ti àio fat jo a ti (what have I done to you), di tirâ su di me (as to bring upon me) e sul gno ream (and upon my kingdom) une tristerie di chê sorte? (a wickedness of the sort [of that sort]?). Tu mi âs fate une opare che no si fâs cussì: you have performed against me a deed which ought not be done (unto me you have done a deed that is not done so). Abimelech also asks: ce ti esal saltât sù di fâmi chê part? (what came upon you to perform such a deed against me [what came upon you to do that deed to me]?).

Versets 11-18

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), scrupulâ (to surmise, to conjecture), viodi (to see), il paîs (land, country), il timôr (fear, terror), copâ (to kill), la colpe (fault), la femine (wife), par altri (moreover), la sûr (sister), pardabon (really, truly, indeed), la fie (daughter), il pari (father), la part (part, side), la mari (mother), cjoli (to take), cussì (thus, so), lâ par ca e par là (to wander, to roam), lontan di (far from), la famee (family), il plasê (kindness, favour), par dut là che (wherever, everywhere that), rivâ (to arrive, to come), vê di (must, to have to), (to say), simpri (always), il fradi (brother), alore (then, so), il besteam minût (small livestock), il besteam grant (large livestock), il famei (male servant), la sierve (female servant, maidservant), ufrî (to offer), tornâ (to return, to restore), culì (here), fâ cont (to reckon, to account), la cjase (house), lâ a stâ (to go to dwell), plasê (to be pleasing), miôr (better, best), ve chi (here is, this is), mil (one thousand), il toc (piece, bit), l’arint (silver), il vêl (veil), il voli (eye), la int (people), in mût che (in order that), nissun (nobody), lis cjacaris (chatter, gossip), preâ (to pray), vuarî (to heal), podê (may, can, to be able), tornâ a vê (to have again), i fruts (children), deventâ (to become), sterp (barren).

Verse 11: Abraham says: o ai scrupulât (I surmised): tu viodarâs che in chest paîs (you will see that in this land) no ’nd è timôr di Diu (there is not fear of God) e mi coparan (and they will kill me) par colpe de mê femine (on account of my wife).

Verse 12: Par altri (moreover), jê e je mê sûr pardabon (she is indeed my sister), fie di gno pari (daughter of my father) ma no par part di mari (but not of my mother [but not by way (side) of my mother]), e jo le ai cjolte (and I took her {for wife}).

Verse 13: Cussì, cuant che Diu mi à fat lâ par ca e par là (so when God made me wander [so when God made me go over here and over there]), lontan de mê famee (far from my family), i ai dit (I said to her): tu âs di fâmi chest plasê (you are to show [do] me this kindness): par dut là che o rivarìn (whatever place we come to [everywhere that we will come]), tu âs di dî simpri (you are to always say) che jo o soi to fradi (that I am your brother).

Verse 14: Alore Abimelec al cjolè besteam minût e grant (Abraham then took sheep and oxen [small and large livestock]), fameis e siervis (male and female servants), e ju ufrì a Abram (and offered them to Abraham) e i tornà Sare, la sô femine (and restored his wife Sarah to him).

Verse 15: Abimelech says to Abraham: culì tu âs di fâ cont di jessi a cjase tô (account yourself at home here [here you are to account as being at your home]). Va a stâ là che ti plâs miôr: go dwell wherever you prefer (go to dwell where it pleases you best).

Verse 16: To Sarah, Abimelech says: ve chi mil tocs d’arint par to fradi (here are one thousand pieces of silver for your brother). Review: How to count in Friulian. He continues: a saran par te (they will be for you) come un vêl (as a veil) sui vôi di dute la tô int (before [upon] the eyes of all your people), in mût che nissun no ti fasi cjacaris (lest chatter should be spoken of you [that nobody may chatter (may make chatter) about you]). The coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations of the verb are presented alongside one another below.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o fasi
o fasès
tu fasis
tu fasessis
al fasi
al fasès

e fasi
e fasès

o fasìn
o fasessin
o fasês
o fasessis
a fasin
a fasessin

Verse 17: Abram al preà Diu (Abraham prayed God) e Diu al vuarì Abimelec (and God healed Abimelech), la sô femine (his wife) e lis sôs siervis (and his maidservants), che a poderin tornâ a vê fruts (who were able to bear children again).

Verse 18: Di fat Diu al veve fatis deventâ sterpis (God had, in fact, rendered [made become] barren) dutis lis feminis de cjase di Abimelec (all the women of the house of Abimelech) par colpe di Sare (on account of Sarah), femine di Abram (wife of Abraham).