Friulian language series: Gjenesi 19, Sodome e Gomore

You continue now to further your understanding of the Friulian language by studying the nineteeth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la distruzion des citâts di Sodome e di Gomore (the destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 19

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 19. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

You read that Lot’s visitors, the angels, arrived at Sodom at dusk; the Friulian here for at dusk or at nightfall is sul imbrunî. As a verb, imbrunî means to get dark; the root of this verb is the adjective brun meaning dark, dark brown. In sul imbrunî, imbrunî is to be taken as a noun: upon the darkening; that is, at dusk, at nightfall.

The verb rivâ means to arrive; a rivarin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç. The Friulian for angel is l’agnul; its plural form is i agnui.

You will remember from Gjenesi 18:1 that the expression jessi sentât means to be seated. You read that Lot was seated at the gate of the city; in this verse, the gate of the city is expressed as la puarte de citât, where la puarte is the Friulian for door, gate.

A pene che means as soon as. In the text, a pene che ju viodè is the Friulian for as soon as he saw them. You will perhaps remember that jevâ sù means to get up, to arise. As soon as Lot saw the angels, he got up: al jevà sù, and he went to meet them: ur lè incuintri. In this last expression, incuintri can be understood as towards; ur lè incuintri can be taken literally as unto them he went towards; that is, he went to meet them.

Lot then put his face to the ground in deference: si butà cu la muse par tiere. You saw this gesture expressed in Gjenesi 17:3 as si butà cul cjâf par tiere. Whereas il cjâf means head, la muse means face.

Verset 2

You have seen before that ti prei can be used in the sense of I pray you, I beg you, I ask of you, etc.; it can also be taken simply as meaning please. In this verse, you have its plural equivalent: us prei. Remember that il paron means ruler, master; as a term of address and in this context, it finds its equivalent as (my) lord. Us prei, parons can be understood as meaning I pray you, my lords, or please, my lords.

Vignît is the second-person plural imperative of the verb vignî. Vignît a passâ la gnot, then, means come spend the night. The verb passâ (to pass) is used in the sense of to spend in the expression passâ la gnot (to spend the night). Lot also tells them to come wash their feet: vignît a lavâsi i pîts. As for where they can spend the night and wash their feet, he tells them: là di me ([over there] at my place).

Lot then tells them that they can continue on their way in the morning: doman a buinore (tomorrow morning) o larês pal vuestri destin (you shall continue on [go] to your destination). Note that buinore is composed of buine + ore; that is, good + hour, where good is to be understood as meaning early. Friulian words for destination are la destinazion and il destin. O larês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ.

Learn the following: la buinore (morning), la sere (evening), doman (tomorrow), îr (yesterday), vuê a buinore (this morning), doman a buinore (tomorrow morning), îr a buinore (yesterday morning), doman di sere (tomorrow evening), îr di sere (yesterday evening), passantdoman (the day after tomorrow), îr l’altri (the day before yesterday), usgnot (this evening, tonight), usgnot passade (last night), daspò misdì (this afternoon), doman daspò misdì (tomorrow afternoon). Friulian presents variants on these expressions; only a few will be mentioned a few here. In the expressions above, a buinore can be replaced with di matine; for example, doman di matine (tomorrow morning), vuê di matine (this morning). The Friulian for afternoon can also be expressed as daspò gustât (literally, after having lunched); for example, tor trê daspò gustât (or tor trê daspò misdì) means around three in the afternoon.

Supplementary examples: il cors al tache doman (the course starts tomorrow; tacâ, to start); si viodìn doman (we shall see each other tomorrow; literally, we see each other tomorrow); passâ la buinore in biblioteche (to spend the morning at the library; la biblioteche, library); no soi nassût îr (I was not born yesterday); o soi tornât a cjase vuê a buinore a cinc (I returned home this morning at five).

You will remember having first encountered la buinore and la sere at the beginning of your study: e passà une sere e une buinore: prime zornade, from Gjenesi 1:5.

The angels decline and respond by saying where they will instead spend the night: o passarìn la gnot su la place (we shall spend the night in the square). O passarìn is the first-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb passâ. The Friulian la place is a town square.

Verset 3

The verb sfuarçâ means to force, to press. Lot pressed (or urged) the angels until they accepted: ju sfuarçà fin che a lerin cun lui (he pressed them until they went with him) e a jentrarin cjase sô (and they entered his house).

La cene is the Friulian for supper. The expression preparâ di cene means to prepare supper, to make supper. In the text, you read ur preparà di cene, which you will understand as he made supper for them. A few more related examples: mangjâ di cene (to eat supper); fâ di cene (to eat supper); vignît, e je ore di cene (come, it is supper time); la Ultime Cene (Last Supper). It would be good to also learn the following: la gulizion (breakfast); il gustâ (lunch, dinner; that is, the midday meal); fâ di gulizion (to eat breakfast); vignît a gustâ, che al è pront (come eat lunch, for it is ready).

You read that Lot baked unleavened bread for them: ur fasè cuei pan cence levan (he baked unleavened bread for them; literally, unto them he made bake [or caused to bake] bread without yeast) e a mangjarin (and they ate). The verb cuei means to cook, to bake, as does fâ cuei. The Friulian for yeast is il levan; unleavened bread, then, is called pan cence levan (bread without yeast).

Verset 4

No sooner had they gone to sleep than the men of Sodom surrounded the house. In simplified form, you read: no jerin nancjemò no lâts a durmî (they had not even gone off to sleep) che i oms de citât (that the men of the city) a cerclarin la cjase (encircled the house). From this, learn the following: durmî (to sleep), lâ a durmî (to go to bed, to go off to sleep), cerclâ (to encircle, to surround).

You will remember that la int means people. A young person is un zovin; an old person is un vieli. In the text, you find: dai zovins sù sù fint ai vielis (both young and old; literally, from the youths all the way up to the elderly). You also read: dut il popul (all the people) cence gjavâdint un (without omitting one of them); that is, all the people to the last man.

The verb gjavâ means to remove, to take out, to extract; you will remember this verb from Gjenesi 2:21, when God removed a rib from Adam: i gjavà une cueste des sôs. In the current verse, it is better taken as meaning to omit: cence / gjavâdint / un (without / omitting of them / one).

Verset 5

Recall that the verb clamâ means to call; you find it at the beginning of this verse in the third-person plural of the passât sempliç, along with the verb in the same: a clamarin Lot e i diserin (they called Lot and said to him).

This verse continues with an interrogative: indulà sono i oms (where are the men) che a son vignûts usgnot (who came tonight) culì di te (to your place)? A son is, of course, the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb jessi. The interrogative form of a son is sonoa son: they are; indulà sono: where are they.

Meninusai fûr means bring them out to us. The verb here is menâ (to lead, to bring). Its second-person singular imperative form is mene (bring); when nus (to us) is added, the final e of mene becomes i: meninus (bring to us). The ai ending stands in for i oms (the men) and means them: meninusai (bring to us them; that is, bring them to us). Fûr, you will remember, means out: meninusai fûr (bring to us them out; that is, bring them out to us). Learn these four forms: meninusal (bring him to us), meninusai (bring them to us; masculine them), meninuse (bring her to us), meninuses (bring them to us; feminine them).

The men of Sodom continue: che o vin voe di cognossiju (for we want to know them). You have seen before that the expression vê voie di (you find the variant voe in the text) means to want to, to long to, to desire to. It translates literally as to have desire to; la voie is the Friulian for desire, will, longing. Cognossi is to be taken here as meaning to know in a carnal sense.

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: vignî fûr (to come out), l’antîl (doorpost, door frame), sierâ (to shut, to close), daûr di sè (behind himself), no stait a (do not; negated imperative, second-person plural), sintî (to hear), cognossi (to know; in a carnal sense), parê (to seem), tocjâ (to touch), cirî (to look for, to seek), il sotet (shelter, refuge).

You read that Lot came out to the door: al vignì fûr sul antîl. The Friulian antîl refers to the frame of an entrance; that is, a door frame. Al vignì fûr sul antîl can be taken in the sense of he came out to the entrance; he came out to the door. The text follows with sierade la puarte daûr di sè, which you can understand as the door (having been) shut behind him. The past participle and adjective sierât means shut, closed; in feminine form, it is sierade.

Lot addresses the men of Sodom as fradis miei (my brothers). He tells them not to commit a wrong: no stait a fâ chel tant (do not do such a thing). You will recall that no sta, no stait a and no stin a are used to created negated commands: no sta copâ (do not kill; second-person singular); no stait a mangjâ (do not eat; second-person plural); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak; first-person plural).

Lot then offers his daughters to the Sodomites. He says: sintît mo (hear now), jo o ai dôs fiis (I have two daughters) che no àn ancjemò cognossût om (who have not yet known man). Sintît is the second-person plural imperative of the verb sintî. You will have noticed that its form is similar to vignît seen previously, which is the second-person plural imperative of the verb vignî. The verb cognossi is used here in the sense of to know carnally; that is, to have sexual relations.

Lot continues: us es doi (I give them to you), fasêtjur ce che us pâr (do unto them as you please; do with them as you like). The Friulian for the direct object them, when feminine, is lis; when preceded by us (unto you), it takes the form es. Not only does the feminine plural lis change, so too do lu (masculine singular), le (feminine singular) and ju (masculine plural): us al doi (I give him/it to you; masculine singular); us ai doi (I give them to you; masculine plural); us e doi (I give her/it to you; feminine singular); us es doi (I give them to you; feminine plural). Note that al, ai, e, es are the same as the endings seen in meninusal, meninusai, meninuse, meninuses, from the notes at verse 5 above.

As for fasêt, this is the second-person plural infinitive of the verb fâ. You find it in the text as part of fasêtjur, meaning do unto them. Note that a j has been inserted between fasêt and ur. Another example: fevelaitjur (speak to them).

You will remember that the sense of ce che us pâr is that which you like, whatever pleases you. Al pâr is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb parê, which literally means to seem.

Lot tells the Sodomites not to touch his visitors: ma chescj oms no stait a tocjâju (but these men, do not touch them); he explains that they have sought refuge with him: parcè che a son vignûts a cirî sotet in cjase mê (because they have come to seek shelter at my house).

Verset 9

Vocabulary: berlâ (to shout), cessâsi (to move oneself back), il forest (away, foreign region), pratindi di fâ (to presume to do; also expressed as pretindi di fâ), il judiç (judge), fâ di judiç (to act as judge), poben (well now, well then), piês (worse), incjantonâ (to press, to urge), svissinâsi (to approach, to come near; also expressed as svicinâsi), butâ jù (to tear down).

The Sodomites shouted at Lot: chei altris a berlarin (the others shouted). The verb berlâ is related to the masculine noun berli, which you have already encountered and whose meaning is shout, outcry. Chei altris (the others; the other men) refers to the men of Sodom and is used to distinguish between them and Lot. They shouted that Lot was to stand back from the door: cessiti (move back; stand back).

The Sodomites continue by saying: viodêtlu alì (look at him there), al è rivât dal forest (he has come [arrived] from away) e cumò al pratindarès di fâ di judiç (and now he would presume to act as judge). Viodêt is the second-person plural imperative of the verb viodi. Il forest in this verse refers to the area outside the city. Al pratindarès is the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb pratindi.

The Sodomites threaten to do more harm to Lot than to his visitors: poben (well then), cumò ti fasarìn a ti (now we shall do to you) piês (worse) che no a lôr (than to them). A few supplementary examples of piês include: lâ di mâl in piês (to go from bad to worse); piês che mai (worse than ever); o soi piês di îr (I am worse than yesterday); piês di cussì no si pues (it cannot get any worse).

The men of Sodom pressed Lot (that is, they urged him): lu incjantonarin (they pressed him; they urged him), and they drew near in order to break the door: si svissinarin (they approached; they drew near) par butâ jù la puarte (in order to tear down the door).

Verset 10

Review: slungjâ (to extend, to stretch out), inclostrâ la puarte (to bar the door). Lot’s visitors stretched out their arms: a slungjarin i braçs; pulled Lot into the house: a tirarin dentri Lot in cjase; and barred the door: a inclostrarin la puarte.

Verset 11

Chei che a jerin di fûr (those who were outside) refers to the Sodomites who were outside the door.

The angels cast a blindness upon the Sodomites so as to render them unable to find the door: ju incearin (they dazzled them) di fâur viodi lis tarlupulis (so as to make them see visions). The verb inceâ means to dazzle, to blind. Une tarlupule is a vision or hallucination; viodi lis tarlupulis can be taken as meaning to see visions, to hallucinate. The eyes of all Sodomites were thus afflicted, young and old: dal plui piçul al plui grant (literally, from the youngest [smallest] to the oldest [biggest]).

Recall that the expression rivâ a fâ means to manage to do, to succeed in doing, or simply to be able to do. In mût che means so that. You read: in mût che no rivarin a cjatâ la puarte (so that they could not find the door).

Versets 12-13

The angels tell Lot to take his family and leave the city, for it will be destroyed. They ask him: âstu ancjemò cualchidun culì? (have you yet anybody here?). The Friulian for somebody, anybody is cualchidun. The sense of this question is whom else (from your family) have you here?; by this question, Lot is asked if he has yet any kin in the city. This becomes clear through the text that follows: tiei fîs, tôs fiis (your sons, your daughters), dute la tô parintât (all your kin) che tu âs in citât (that you have in the city), mene fûr ducj di chi (bring them all out of here). The Friulian la parintât means kin, relatives.

Recall that the verb disfâ can be used in the sense of to destroy, to take apart. The angels tell Lot that they are about to destroy the city: nô o stin par disfâ chest lûc (we are about to destroy this place). You have here the expression stâ par fâ, meaning to be about to do, to be going to do. The Friulian il lûc means place, site.

The reason for the coming destruction is because the outcry against the Sodomites is too great: il berli al è masse grant, and this outcry reaches the Lord: il berli al rive fint al Signôr. The thirteenth verse ends with another expression for to destroy, which you have also already met: fâ fûr. You read: il Signôr nus à mandâts (the Lord has sent us) a fâju fûr (to destroy them). The verb mandâ means to send; you find its past participle accorded in the masculine plural here, to agree with nus preceding it.

Verset 14

In the notes for Gjenesi 14:12, you saw that il zinar is the Friulian for son-in-law. In the current verse, you find the spelling ginar rather than zinar. You also find it accompanied by the adjective deventant, meaning future. You read: Lot al lè a visâ i ginars deventants (Lot went to inform his future sons-in-law; his sons-in-law to be). The verb visâ means to inform. The future sons-in-law were to marry his daughters: i ginars deventants, che a vevin di cjoli sôs fiis (the future sons-in-law, who were to take his daughters).

Lot tells the sons-in-law to be quick: svelts, and to leave the place: bandonait chest paîs (abandon this place; get out of this place). You will recognise here the adjective svelt (fast, quick), accorded in the masculine plural, and the verb bandonâ (to abandon, to leave). You first encountered this verb in Gjenesi 2:24, where you read: par chel l’om al bandone so pari e sô mari.

You now learn yet another verb for to destroy, which is fiscâ. You read: Diu al sta par fiscâ la citât (God is about to destroy the city).

The expression dî par ridi means to speak in jest. (Recall that the verb ridi means to laugh.) The sons-in-law did not believe Lot was serious when he spoke: a croderin che al disès par ridi (they believed that he was speaking in jest). A croderin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb crodi. Following crodi, you find the subjunctive; because it is question of past time in this sentence, the coniuntîf imperfet, or imperfect subjunctive, is used: al disès (masculine, third-person singular). If this sentence had been in present time, it would have read: a crodin che al disi par ridi (they believe that he is speaking in jest), where the verb is conjugated in the coniuntîf presint, or present subjunctive. Compare: al dîs (he says); a crodin che al disi (they believe that he says); a croderin che al disès (they believed that he was saying).

On the Friulian verb conjugations page, you will find links to different conjugations of the verbs and crodi. Their coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations are now added below, in side-by-side format.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o disi
o disès
tu disis
tu disessis
al disi
al disès

e disi
e disès

o disìn
o disessin
o disês
o disessis
a disin
a disessin

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o crodi
o crodès
tu crodis
tu crodessis
al crodi
al crodès

e crodi
e crodès

o crodìn
o crodessin
o crodês
o crodessis
a crodin
a crodessin

Verset 15

Il cricâ dal dì refers to the moment of the day when the sun begins to rise; that is, dawn, sunrise, daybreak. Sul cricâ dal dì, then, means at dawn, at sunrise, etc. Contrast this expression with the one encountered in the first verse of the chapter: sul imbrunî (at dusk, at nightfall). The expression sul cricâ dal dì will perhaps remind you of the English at the crack of dawn; indeed, as a verb, the sense of cricâ is to crack, to crackle. For example, la glace e criche means the ice is cracking.

The verb pocâ means to urge, to press; i agnui a pocarin Lot, then, means the angels urged Lot. The text continues with disintji (saying to him), which is the present participle disint (saying) followed by i (unto him), with a j inserted between. What they said was: sù po (get up; up you get), followed by the instruction that he gather his wife and two daughters, using the expression cjapâ sù (to take, to gather).

In the remainder of the verse, restâ sot translates literally as to remain under; that is, to remain under the coming brimstone and fire to be rained down (see verse 24) — or, better, to be swallowed up by it. The Friulian il cjastic (or cjastì) means punishment. You read: se no tu vûs restâ sot (if you do not wish to remain under) ancje tu (you as well) tal cjastic de citât (in the punishment of the city); that is, if you as well do not wish to be swallowed up (swept away, etc.) in the punishment of the city.

Verset 16

Lot dithers, so the angels lead him out of the city themselves. You read: e par vie che no si decideve (and because he was indecisive). You will remember that par vie che means due to the fact that, given that. The verb here is the reflexive decidisi, meaning to make up one’s mind, to come to a decision. You can take no si decideve in the sense of he was hesitating, he was lingering, he was not acting.

The angels take Lot by the hand, along with his wife and daughters; you find the expression cjapâ par man, meaning to take by the hand. The Friulian il boncûr means mercy, grace. You read: pal boncûr che il Signôr al veve vût par lui (out of the mercy that the Lord had had for him). Remember that pal is a contraction of par + il. You can understand pal boncûr as meaning out of the mercy, by way of the grace.

The angels lead him out of the city: lu faserin jessî (they made him leave [go out]) e lu compagnarin fûr de citât (and they accompanied him out of the city). The two verbs here are jessî (to go out, to exit) and compagnâ (to accompany).

Verset 17

One of the angels urges Lot not to remain in the valley but to flee instead to the mountain for safety. This verse begins: intant che lu menavin fûr (as they were leading him out), un al disè (one said to him).

The verb riscjâ means to risk; in this verse, you find it as part of the expression riscjâ la vite (to risk one’s life). You will remember that the verb scjampâ means to flee, to escape. You read: scjampe (flee), che culì tu riscjis la vite (for here you risk your life).

The text follows with two negated commands: no sta mai voltâti indaûr (do not ever turn round) and no sta fermâti in te valade (do not stop in the valley). The verb voltâ means to turn; voltâsi, then, means to turn oneself. As for indaûr, it means back, behind. The expression voltâsi indaûr translates literally as to turn oneself back; that is, to turn round (and, by extension, to look back, to look behind oneself).

The angel tells Lot to escape to the mountain for safety: scjampe su la mont (flee to the mountain), che senò tu restis sot (otherwise you will be swallowed up; literally, for otherwise you remain under). Senò means otherwise; literally, if not (se + no).

Versets 18-20

You now encounter the opposite of ti prei, which is ti prei di no, meaning I pray not, please do not, please no, etc. Ti prei di no, paron: please no, my lord.

The expression vê a grât (to have in one’s [good] graces, to have in one’s favour) has been encountered a number of times; Lot says: tu âs vût a grât il to famei (you have had your servant in your favour; that is, you have been gracious to your servant). He continues: tu âs mostrât il to boncûr (you have shown your grace) tai miei confronts (towards me) salvantmi la vite (by saving my life). The expression tai miei confronts means with respect to me, as regards me, towards me. You will have recognised salvant (saving) as being the present participle of the verb salvâ (to save).

Lot says that he will not be able to reach the mountain before the calamity strikes: jo no rivarai a scjampâ (I shall not manage to flee) fin su la mont (atop the mountain) prime che al capiti il flagjel (before the calamity occurs). The verb capitâ means to occur, to happen. It is found used here in the present subjunctive because it follows the expression prime che, which requires it. Al capite means it occurs; prime che al capiti means before it occurs. Il flagjel is the Friulian for calamity, curse.

Lot points out a nearby town and asks to flee there. He says: ve cheste citât (there is that town), che e je a un salt di chi (which is nearby; which is not far from here). The Friulian il salt means jump, hop; a un salt di chi can be taken literally as at a jump from here, at a hop from here, where the idea of something being a jump or hop away means that it is very close indeed. Related to il salt is the verb saltâ, meaning to jump. Lots asks to go to this town for safety: par metimi a salvament (in order to get myself to safety). The Friulian il salvament means safety, rescue. Metisi a salvament, then, translates literally as to put oneself in safety, to put oneself in rescue; that is, to get oneself to safety.

Lot uses the expression une robe di nuie: you will have understood that this translates literally as a thing of nothing. Une robe di nuie can be used to describe something of small proportions or of little importance — a trifle. For example, you might downplay a problem or request by referring to it as une robe di nuie. Lot describes the nearby town as une robe di nuie; by this, he means that it is a very small place.

Recall that the interrogative no ese is a variant of no ise. E je une robe di nuie. No ese (no ise) une robe di nuie?

The verb lassâ means to let, to allow; lassimi, then, means let me, allow me. The second-person singular imperative of the verb lassâ is lasse, and the final e changes to i when mi is added. You read: lassimi scjampâ alì (let me flee there), che o puedi salvâmi (that I may save myself). O puedi is the first-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb podê.

Verset 21

The angel tells Lot that he will do him the favour of sparing the small, nearby town. You find the expression fâ la gracie di, meaning to make the concession of, to do the favour of. More precisely, you read: ti fâs ancjemò cheste gracie (I shall grant you even this favour).

The Friulian che functions here as would the English of which: sparagnâ la citât che tu fevelis (to spare the town of which you speak).

In its entirety, this verse is to be taken as follows: ti fâs ancjemò cheste gracie (I shall grant you even this favour), di sparagnâ la citât che tu fevelis (that of sparing the town of which you speak).

Verset 22

You have encountered the verb spesseâ (to hurry, to rush) once before; you first saw it in Gjenesi 18:7, when you read: al spesseà a preparâlu, in reference to the calf that had been slaughtered for the angels. In the current verse, Lot is told: spessee (hurry), va jù svelt e salviti (go down quickly and save yourself). Spessee is the second-person singular imperative of spesseâ. In salviti, you have another example of the final e of the second-person singular imperative (salve) changing to i when ti is added (salviti).

The angel continues by telling Lot: che no pues fâ nuie (for I cannot do anything) fintremai che no tu sês rivât là jù (until you have arrived down there).

You read that the town was named Zoar; this name means small and refers to Lot’s comment about size in verse 20.

Versets 23-24

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah takes place. It occurred just as the sun was rising and Lot was entering Zoar: juste cuant che al jevave il soreli su la tiere (just as the sun was rising upon the earth) e che Lot al stave jentrant a Zoar (and as Lot was entering Zoar). The verb jevâ, as you have seen, means to rise. Note how the Friulian repeats the use of che in the second clause to keep it connected to cuant che (when, as) in the first.

The Friulian for to rain is plovi; the expression fâ plovi, then, means to make (it) rain, to cause to rain. God made brimstone (that is, sulphur) and fire rain down upon the cities: il Signôr al fasè plovi dal cîl (the Lord made rain down from the heaven) sore di Sodome e di Gomore (upon Sodom and Gomorrah) solfar e fûc (brimstone and fire). The Friulian il solfar means sulphur, brimstone; for fire, the Friulian is il fûc. The destruction by sulphurous fire was an act of God: al saltave fûr dal Signôr (it came forth from the Lord).

Verset 25

The verb savoltâ means to turn upsidedown; in the context of this verse, it can be taken as meaning to overthrow. As for di fonde fûr, this means completely, through and through. You read: al savoltà di fonde fûr (he completely overthrew) chestis citâts e dute la valade (these cities and all the valley). He destroyed all the people: dute la int, and the plants: lis plantis. The Friulian for plant is la plante.

Verset 26

Recall the expression voltâsi indaûr, met in verse 17, meaning to turn round. You read that Lot’s wife looked back: si voltà indaûr a cjalâ (she turned round to look). Because she looked back, she became a pillar of salt: e deventà une colone di sâl. The Friulian for salt is il sâl. Une colone is a column or pillar.

Versets 27-28

Abraham gets up early in the morning and sees that Sodom and Gomorrah have gone up in smoke. This verse begins: jevât denant dì ([having] arisen early; literally, [having] arisen before day), Abram al rivà tal puest (Abraham arrived at the place) che si jere fermât (where he had stood [stopped]) denant dal Signôr (before the Lord).

Abraham looks in the direction of the cities: al cjalà jù (he looked down) de bande di Sodome e di Gomore (in the direction of Sodom and Gomorrah). You will remember the Friulian noun la bande, meaning side. De bande di can be understood as meaning in the direction of, towards.

The Friulian for smoke is il fum. In this verse, you find the related une fumarisse, referring to a cloud of smoke; it came forth from the ground: e vignive sù de tiere. Compagn che can be taken as meaning as though, as if; you read: compagn ch’e fos stade une fornâs (as though it had been a furnace). Note that compagn che is followed by the imperfect subjunctive here. The Friulian la fornâs means furnace.

Below, in side-by-side format, are the coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations of the verb jessi.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o sedi
o fos
tu sedis
tu fossis
al sedi
al fos

e sedi
e fos

o sedin
o fossin
o sedis
o fossis
a sedin
a fossin

Recall that an alternative form exists in the present subjunctive: o sei, tu seis, al sei, e sei, o sein, o seis, a sein.

Verset 29

The verb splantâ is used here in the sense of to destroy.

The expression visâsi di, encountered once before, means to remember; you first found this expression in Gjenesi 8:1, where you read: Diu si visà di Noè. In the current verse, you read: cuant che Diu al splantà lis citâts de valade (when God destroyed the cities of the valley), si visà di Abram (he remembered Abraham).

The remainder of this verse contains usages studied in the notes above. Recall that jessi a stâ means to dwell, to live.

Verset 30

Lot leaves Zoar and goes to live on the mountain with his two daughters; the reason is given: no si sintive sigûr a Zoar (he did not feel [was not feeling] safe in Zoar). The Friulian adjective sigûr means sure, safe. As for the reflexive verb sintisi, it means to feel.

Lot went to live in a cave: si sistemà intun landri. The Friulian for cave is il landri; the reflexive sistemâsi, on the other hand, can be taken in context as meaning to settle.

Verset 31

La plui grande and la seconde refer to Lot’s daughters: la plui grande (the elder); la seconde (the second; that is, the younger). La plui grande i disè a la seconde: the elder said to the younger.

Recall that in là cui agns means advanced in years, on in years; that is, elderly, old. You read: nestri pari al è in là cui agns (our father is advanced in years).

In the remainder of the verse, the first daughter continues: chi no ’nd è oms (here there are no men) di podê lâ cun lôr (with whom to be able to go; literally, to be able to go with them) come che a fasin ducj (as all do). The verb is used here in the euphemistic sense of to have sexual intercourse.

Verset 32

You read: anìn (come), din di bevi vin a nestri pari (let us give wine to drink to our father). Anìn is an interjection meaning come, come on, get to. As for din, this is the first-person plural imperative of the verb dâ. Learn these three imperative forms: da (give; second-person singular); dait (give; second-person plural); din (let us give; first-person plural). The Friulian for wine is il vin, and the verb bevi means to drink; bevi vin, then, means to drink wine.

Recall that o lin is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb lâ. The text of the verse continues: po o lin a durmî cun lui (then we shall go to sleep with him; literally, then we go to sleep with him). The verb durmî means to sleep; the expression lâ a durmî cun means to (go to) sleep with; that is, to have sex with. Example: e je lade a durmî cun chel (she went to sleep with him; that is, she had sex with him).

By sleeping with their father, says the elder daughter, they will maintain life through him: cussì o varìn une semence (we shall thus have offspring [seed]) almancul di nestri pari (at least from our father).

Verset 33

Ta chê sere stesse means on that same evening. You have now seen a number of examples of where ta is used before chest or chel and its variants: ta chê sere stesse (on that same evening); ta chê volte (at that time); ta chê stesse dì (on that same day); ta chês tieris (in those lands); ta chei timps (in those times); ta chest mont (in this world).

A derin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb dâ: i derin di bevi vin a lôr pari (they gave wine to drink to their father). You then read that the elder lay with (had sexual intercourse with) her father: si distirà daprûf di so pari. You will perhaps recall having encountered the reflexive distirâsi when you read the following, in Gjenesi 18:4, related to Lot’s visitors: o podarês distirâsi sot dal arbul. Distirâsi means to stretch oneself out, to lie oneself down. Distirâsi daprûf di translates literally as to lie down next to; as used in the current verse, it is to be taken as meaning to lie with, in the sense of to have sexual intercourse with. Si distirà daprûf di so pari, then, means she lay with her father.

Lot did not perceive a thing: no si inacuargè di nuie (he did not notice anything), ni cuant che jê e lè a durmî (neither when she went to sleep) ni cuant che jê e tornà a jevâ (nor when she arose again). The reflexive inacuarzisi di means to take notice of.

Verset 34

You saw in the notes at verse 2 that doman means tomorrow; in the current verse, you now find tal indoman, meaning the following day, the next day. You also saw in the notes at verse 2 that usgnot passade means last night; you now encounter this usage in the text of the current verse.

The past participle of the verb durmî is durmît. You read: usgnot passade o ai durmît cun gno pari (last night I slept with our father). The elder sister now encourages the younger to do the same: fasìnlu bevi ancje usgnot (let us make him drink tonight as well). Of the verb fâ, review these three imperative forms: fâs (do, make; second-person singular); fasêt (do, make; second-person plural); fasìn (let us do, make; first-person plural).

Tu tu vâs means you go. In this verse, you encounter tu vâs tu. By placing the tonic (or stressed) tu at the end, emphasis is given to you, as in last night I went with him, now tonight you go with him.

Midiant di means by way of, through. Midiant di nestri pari: by way of our father.

Verset 35

Zovin means young; the younger daughter is referred to here as la plui zovine.

Rather than daprûf di, as found in verse 33, you now find the synonymous dongje di. Si distirà dongje di lui: she lay with him; literally, she lay down next to him.

Verset 36

You first encountered cjapâ sù (to conceive, to get pregnant) in Gjenesi 4:1, when you read that Eve had conceived a son: chê e cjapà sù e e parturì Cain. In the current verse, you read: a cjaparin sù di lôr pari (they conceived by their father).

Versets 37-38

In dì di vuê means today, at present (literally, in the day of today). D’in dì di vuê, then, means of today, of the present. I moabits d’in dì di vuê: the Moabites of today. This could also be expressed in Friulian as i moabits dal dì di vuê.

You read that both daughters gave birth; parturî un frut means to give birth to a son, to give birth to a boy. The first named her son Moab: i metè non Moab (she named him Moab), and the second named her son Benammi: i metè non Ben-Ami (she named him Benammi). Moab was the father of the Moabites: il pari dai moabits. Benammi was the father of the sons of Ammon: il pari dai fîs di Amon.