Friulian language series: Gjenesi 19, Sodome e Gomore

The nineteenth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of the destruction of the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah: la distruzion des citâts di Sodome e di Gomore.

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Read Gjenesi 19

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Verset 1

Vocabulary: doi (two), un agnul (angel), rivâ (to arrive, to come), sul imbrunî (at nightfall), jessi sentât (to be seated), la puarte (door, gate), la citât (city, town), la puarte de citât (city gate), a pene che (so soon as), viodi (to see), jevâ sù (to get up, to arise), lâ incuintri (to go to greet, to go to meet), butâsi par tiere (to take to the ground), la muse (face).

I doi agnui a rivarin a Sodome sul imbrunî: the two angels arrived in Sodom at nightfall. The masculine agnul means angel; its plural form is agnui. A rivarin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of rivâ. At the root of imbrunî is the adjective brun, meaning dark, dark brown. As a verb, imbrunî means to get dark, to darken; used as a noun, it can be taken as darkening: sul imbrunî (upon the darkening; that is, at nightfall). Lot al jere sentât su la puarte de citât: Lot was sitting in the city gate (Lot was seated at [on] the gate of the city). The feminine puarte means door or gate; with reference to a city, it is taken as gate.

The sense of incuintri, as part of lâ incuintri, is towards. Lâ incuintri can be understood as meaning to go to meet, to go to greet. You read: a pene che ju viodè (so soon as he saw them), Lot al jevà sù (Lot rose) e ur lè incuintri (and went to greet them [and went out to (towards) them]) e si butà cu la muse par tiere (and went down with  his face to the ground [and threw himself with his face on the ground]). Butâsi par tiere can be rendered a number of different ways, including to throw oneself to the ground, to take to the ground, to go down to the ground; in this context, it describes an act of deference.

Verset 2

Vocabulary: (to say), preâ (to pray), il paron (lord), vignî (to come), passâ (to pass), la gnot (night), passâ la gnot (to spend the night), lavâ (to wash), il pît (foot), lavâsi i pîts (to wash one’s feet), là di me (at my place), doman (tomorrow), la buinore (morning), doman a buinore (tomorrow morning), (to go), il distin (destination), rispuindi (to respond), la place ([city] square), su la place (in the square).

Ur disè: he said to them. Lot extends his hospitality: us prei (please [I pray you]), parons ([my] lords), vignît a passâ la gnot (come to spend the night) e a lavâsi i pîts (and to wash your feet) là di me (at my place) e doman a buinore (and tomorrow morning) o larês pal vuestri distin (you may be on your way [you will head (go) for your destination]). Us prei (literally, I pray you; second-person plural) can be taken as meaning please; its second-person singular equivalent is ti prei (I pray you; please). Vignît is the second-person plural imperative of the verb vignî. The verb passâ means to pass; it takes the sense of to spend in passâ la gnot (to spend the night). The plural pîts is pronounced pîs. In o larês pal vuestri distin, o larês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ, whereas pal is a contraction of par + il.

The angels decline Lot’s offer: ma lôr i rispuinderin (but they responded to him): no, o passarìn la gnot su la place (no, we will spend the night in the square). O passarìn is the first-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb passâ.

Learn the following related usages: la buinore (morning); la sere (evening); doman (tomorrow); îr (yesterday); vuê a buinore (this morning); doman a buinore (tomorrow morning); îr a buinore (yesterday morning); doman di sere (tomorrow evening); îr di sere (yesterday evening); passantdoman (the day after tomorrow); îr l’altri (the day before yesterday); usgnot (this evening, tonight); usgnot passade (last night); daspò misdì (this afternoon); doman daspò misdì (tomorrow afternoon). Friulian presents variants on these expressions; only a few will be mentioned here. A buinore can be replaced with di matine; for instance, doman di matine (tomorrow morning); vuê di matine (this morning). In addition to daspò misdì, the Friulian for afternoon can be expressed as daspò gustât (literally, after having lunched); for instance, tor trê daspò gustât (or tor trê daspò misdì) means at about three in the afternoon.

Supplementary examples: il cors al tache doman (the course starts tomorrow; tacâ, to start); si viodìn doman (we will see [we see] each other tomorrow); passâ la buinore in biblioteche (to spend the morning at the library; la biblioteche, library); no soi nassût îr (I was not born yesterday); o soi tornât a cjase vuê a buinore a cinc (I returned home this morning at five).

Verset 3

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), sfuarçâ (to press, to urge), fin che (until), lâ cun (to go with), jentrâ (to go in, to enter), la cjase (house), preparâ (to prepare, to make), la cene (supper), fâ cuei (to bake, to cook), il pan (bread), cence (without), il levan (leaven), mangjâ (to eat).

Alore lui ju sfuarçà fin che a lerin cun lui e a jentrarin cjase sô: so he pressed them until they went with him and entered his house. Ur preparà di cene: he prepared supper for them. Preparâ di cene is to be understood as meaning to prepare supper, to make supper. Related usages: mangjâ di cene (to eat supper); fâ di cene (to eat supper); vignît, e je ore di cene (come, it is supper time); la Ultime Cene (Last Supper). Learn also: la gulizion (breakfast); fâ di gulizion (to eat breakfast); il gustâ (lunch, dinner; that is, the midday meal); vignît a gustâ, che al è pront (come eat lunch, for it is ready).

Ur fasè cuei pan cence levan e a mangjarin: he baked unleavened bread (bread without leaven) for them and they ate.

Versets 4-5

Vocabulary: nancjemò (not yet), lâ a durmî (to go off to sleep, to head off to bed), un om (man), la citât (city), la int (people), il zovin (young man), il vieli (old man), di… sù sù fint a (not only… but also, both… and… alike),  il popul (people), cence (without), gjavâ (to omit, to exclude), cerclâ (to encircle, to surround), la cjase (house), clamâ (to call), (to say), indulà (where), vignî (to come), usgnot (tonight), culì (here), menâ fûr (to bring out), la voe (will, want; also voie), cognossi (to know).

Verse 4: The Sodomites surround the house: no jerin nancjemò no lâts a durmî (they had not yet gone off to sleep) che i oms de citât (when the men of the city), la int di Sodome (the people of Sodom), dai zovins sù sù fint ai vielis (young and old alike [from the young men all the way up to the old men]), dut il popul cence gjavâdint un (all the people without omitting one thereof), a cerclarin la cjase (surrounded the house). Observe: gjavâ (to omit), gjavâdint un (to omit one thereof).

Verse 5: A clamarin Lot e i diserin (they called Lot and said to him): indulà sono i oms (where are the men) che a son vignûts usgnot culì di te? (who came here tonight to your place?). Observe: a son (they are); sono? (are they?; interrogative form); indulà sono? (where are they?). The Sodomites continue: meninusai fûr (bring them out to us), che o vin voe di cognossiju (for we want to know them). Cognossi (to know) is to be taken here in its carnal sense; that is, to be intimate. The imperative meninusai fûr means bring them out to us; the verb in question is menâ (to bring, to lead). Of menâ, the second-person singular imperative is mene (bring); when nus (unto us) is added, the final e of mene becomes i: meni-nus (bring-unto us). The ai ending means them and stands in for the plural i oms (the men): meni-nus-ai (bring-unto us-them; that is, bring them to us). Fûr means out, forth: meni-nus-ai / fûr (bring-unto us-them / out; that is, bring them out to us). Observe the following: meninusal (bring him to us); meninusai (bring them to us; masculine them); meninuse (bring her to us); meninuses (bring them to us; feminine them).

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: vignî fûr (to come out), l’antîl (door jamb), sierâ (to shut, to close), la puarte (door), daûr di sè (behind oneself), (to say), preâ (to pray), il fradi (brother), no stait a (do not), fâ chel tant (to commit such an act), sintî (to hear), mo (now, then), dôs (two), la fie (daughter), ancjemò (yet, still), cognossi (to know), un om (man), (to give), (to do, to make), parê (to seem), tocjâ (to touch), parcè che (because, for), vignî (to come), cirî (to look for, to seek), il sotet (shelter, refuge), la cjase (house).

Verses 6-7: Lot al vignì fûr sul antîl (Lot came out to the entrance [door jamb]) e, sierade la puarte daûr di sè (and, having shut the door behind him), ur disè (said to them): us prei, fradis miei (please, my brothers), no stait a fâ chel tant (do not commit such an act). No sta, no stait a and no stin a are used to created negated commands. Examples: no sta copâ (do not kill; second-person singular); no stait a mangjâ (do not eat; second-person plural); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak; first-person plural).

Verse 8: Lot offers his daughters: sintît mo (listen [hear] now): jo o ai dôs fiis (I have two daughters) che no àn ancjemò cognossût om (who have not yet known man). Friulian has a masculine and feminine form for two: doi (masculine); dôs (feminine). Examples: doi oms (two men); dôs feminis (two women); doi fîs (two sons); dôs fiis (two daughters). Lot continues: us es doi (I will give [I give] them to you): fasêtjur (do unto them) ce che us pâr (as you please [that which seems to you]), ma chescj oms (but these men) no stait a tocjâju (do not touch them), parcè che a son vignûts a cirî sotet (for they have come to seek shelter) in cjase mê (in my house). The Friulian for the direct object them, when feminine, is lis; if preceded by us (unto you), it takes the form es; that is, us + lis = us es. Not only does the feminine plural lis change, so too does the masculine singular lu (us + lu = us al), the feminine singular le (us + le = us e) and the masculine plural ju (us + ju = us ai). Observe: us al doi (I give him/it to you); us e doi (I give her/it to you); us ai doi; us es doi (I give them to you). Note that al, ai, e, es are the same as the endings seen in meninusal, meninusai, meninuse, meninuses, encountered in the notes at the fifth verse. As for fasêt, this is the second-person plural imperative of the verb fâ; you find it in the text as part of fasêtjur, meaning do unto them, with a j inserted between fasêt and ur. Another example: fevelaitjur (speak to them). Ce che us pâr (literally, that which seems to you; the sense of this is that which seems good to you; that which seems right to you) can be taken as meaning as you please, whatever you like, as you see fit.

Versets 9-11

Vocabulary: berlâ (to shout), cessâsi (to stand back), viodi (to see, to behold), alì (there), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il forest (foreign land), cumò (now), pratindi (to presume, to be bent on; also pretindi), il judiç (judge), fâ di judiç (to act as judge), poben (well now, well then), piês (worse), incjantonâ (to corner), svissinâsi (to approach, to draw near; also svicinâsi), butâ jù (to tear down), la puarte (door), un om (man), slungjâ (to extend, to stretch out), il braç (arm), tirâ dentri (to pull in), la cjase (house), inclostrâ (to bar), jessi di fûr (to be outside), inceâ (to dazzle), la tarlupule (vision, hallucination), piçul (little, small; young), grant (big, large; old), in mût che (so that), rivâ a cjatâ (to be able to find, to manage to find).

Verse 9: Chei altris a berlarin: the others shouted; chei altris refers to the Sodomites. Cessiti: stand back. Viodêtlu alì: just look at him (behold him there). Viodêt is the second-person plural imperative of the verb viodi. Al è rivât dal forest e cumò al pratindarès di fâ di judiç: he has arrived from away and now he presumes (would presume) to act the judge. Al pratindarès is the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb pratindi. Il forest refers to a foreign territory (in this context, it refers to an area outside Sodom); rivâ dal forest can be taken here as meaning to arrive from away, to arrive from outside the city (in a contemporary context, it can also be taken as to arrive from abroad). The Sodomites continue: poben, cumò ti fasarin a ti piês che no a lôr: well then, we will now deal worse with you (do worse to you) than with them. Supplementary examples of piês: lâ di mâl in piês (to go from bad to worse); piês che mai (worse than ever); o soi piês di îr (I am worse than yesterday); piês di cussì no si pues (it cannot get any worse). Lu incjantonarin, lui Lot, e si svissinarin par butâ jù la puarte: they cornered Lot (they cornered him — Lot, that is) and drew near to tear down the door.

Verse 10: Ma i oms a slungjarin i braçs (but the men stretched out their arms), a tirarin dentri Lot in cjase (pulled Lot into the house) e a inclostrarin la puarte (and barred the door). The men in question here are Lot’s visitors.

Verse 11: Chei che a jerin di fûr, po (as for those who were outside), ju incearin (they dazzled them) di fâur viodi lis tarlupulis (as to make them have visions [see visions]), dal plui piçul al plui grant (young and old alike [from the youngest to the oldest]), in mût che no rivarin a cjatâ la puarte (so that they could not find the door). Chei che a jerin di fûr (those who were outside) refers to the Sodomites. Une tarlupule is the sight of a thing that is not there. Viodi lis tarlupulis can be understood as meaning to see things, to have visions, to hallucinate; fâ viodi lis tarlupulis, then, is to be taken as to cause to see things, to cause to have visions, to cause to hallucinate. The adjectives piçul and grant mean, respectively, small and large; when used in reference to age, they are to be taken as meaning young and old: il plui piçul (the youngest); il plui grant (the oldest, the eldest).

Versets 12-14

Vocabulary: (to say), un om (man), ancjemò (yet, still), cualchidun (anybody, someone), culì (here), il fi (son), la fie (daughter), la parintât (kin), la citât (city), menâ fûr (to bring out), di chi (from here), stâ par (to be about to), disfâ (to destroy), il lûc (place, site), parcè che (because, for), il berli (outcry), rivâ (to arrive, to come), fint a (as far as, up to), cuintri di (against), masse (too, overly, excessively), grant (great), mandâ (to send), fâ fûr (to kill), (to go), visâ (to warn), il ginar (son-in-law; also zinar), deventant (future), vê di (must, to have to), cjoli (to take), svelt (quick), bandonâ (to leave), il paîs (area, region), fiscâ (to destroy), ma (but), crodi (to believe), dî par ridi (to speak in jest).

Verse 12: I diserin i oms a Lot (the men said to Lot): âstu ancjemò cualchidun culì? (have you yet anybody here?); by this question, the men mean to ask Lot whether or not he has anybody dear to him yet in the city. They continue: tiei fîs, tôs fiis (your sons, your daughters), dute la tô parintât (all your kin) che tu âs in citât (that you have in the city), mene fûr ducj di chi (bring them all out of here).

Verse 13: Nô o stin par disfâ chest lûc (we are about to destroy this place), parcè che il berli (for the outcry) che al rive fint al Signôr (that reaches the Lord) cuintri di lôr (against them) al è masse grant (is far too great), e il Signôr nus à mandâts a fâju fûr (and the Lord has sent us to kill them). The past participle of mandâ is accorded in the masculine plural as mandâts, to agree with the masculine plural nus preceding it.

Verse 14: Lot al lè a visâ i ginars deventants, che a vevin di cjoli sôs fiis: Lot went to warn his future sons-in-law who were to take his daughters; the sense of che a vevin di cjoli sôs fiis is who were to marry his daughters. Lot says: svelts (quick)dissal (he said)bandonait chest paîs (leave this area), parcè che Diu al sta par fiscâ la citât (for God is about to destroy the city). Ma i ginars deventants a croderin che al disès par ridi: but the sons-in-law believed that he was speaking in jest. The verb ridi means to laugh; dî par ridi is to be taken as meaning to speak in jest (literally, to say in order to laugh). A croderin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb crodi. Following crodi, you find the subjunctive; because it is question of past time in this sentence, the coniuntîf imperfet, or imperfect subjunctive, is used: al disès (masculine, third-person singular). If this sentence had been in present time, it would have read: a crodin che al disi par ridi (they believe that he is speaking in jest), where the verb is conjugated in the coniuntîf presint, or present subjunctive. Observe: al dîs (he says); a crodin che al disi (they believe that he says); a croderin che al disès (they believed that he was saying). On the Friulian verb conjugations page, you will find links to different conjugations of the verbs and crodi. Their coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations are now presented below, in side-by-side format.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o disi
o disès
tu disis
tu disessis
al disi
al disès

e disi
e disès

o disìn
o disessin
o disês
o disessis
a disin
a disessin

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o crodi
o crodès
tu crodis
tu crodessis
al crodi
al crodès

e crodi
e crodès

o crodìn
o crodessin
o crodês
o crodessis
a crodin
a crodessin

Versets 15-17

Vocabulary: il cricâ dal dì (daybreak), un agnul (angel), pocâ (to press, to urge), (to say), sù po (up then, up now), cjapâ sù (to take up), la femine (wife), la fie (daughter), cun te (with you), volê (to want), restâ (to remain, to be left), sot (under, below), ancje (also, too), il cjastic (punishment), la citât (city), par vie che (given that, because), decidisi (to be resolute, to come to a decision), no decidisi (to hesitate), un om (man), cjapâ par man (to take by the hand), dutun cun (along with), il boncûr (compassion), jessî (to go out), compagnâ (to accompany), fûr di (outside), intant che (whilst, as), menâ fûr (to bring out), scjampâ (to flee), culì (here), riscjâ (to risk), la vite (life), no sta (do not), mai (never), voltâsi indaûr (to turn oneself round), fermâsi (to stop oneself), la valade (valley), la mont (mount, mountain), senò (otherwise).

Verse 15: The verb cricâ means to crack, to crackle; for instance: la glace e criche (the ice is cracking). Il cricâ dal dì (the ‘cracking’ of the day) refers to daybreak. Consider: sul cricâ dal dì (at daybreak); sul imbrunî (at nightfall; verse 1). The text of this verse begins: sul cricâ dal dì, i agnui a pocarin Lot disintij (at daybreak, the angels urged Lot, saying to the him). Disintji (saying to him) is the present participle disint (saying) followed by i (unto him), with a j inserted between. The angels say: sù po (up then), cjape sù la tô femine (take up your wife) e lis tôs dôs fiis (and your two daughters) che a son cun te (who are with you), se no tu vûs restâ sot (lest you be swallowed up [if you do not want to remain under]) ancje tu (you as well) tal cjastic de citât (in the punishment of the city). Restâ sot translates literally as to remain under; that is, to remain under the coming brimstone and fire to be rained down.

Verse 16: E par vie che no si decideve (and because he was hesitating), i oms lu cjaparin par man (the men took him by the hand) dutun cu la sô femine e cu lis sôs dôs fiis (along with his wife and two daughters), pal boncûr che il Signôr al veve vût par lui (in the [by the] compassion that the Lord had had for him). Pal is a contraction of par + il. Lu faserin jessî e lu compagnarin fûr de citât: they made him leave (go out) and accompanied him out of the city.

Verse 17: Intant che lu menavin fûr, un al disè: as they were bringing him out, one said; un (one) is to be understood as meaning one of the men. One of them said: scjampe (flee), che culì tu riscjis la vite (for here you risk your life). He continues: no sta mai voltâti indaûr (do not ever look behind you [do not ever turn yourself round]) e no sta fermâti in te valade (and do not stop [stop yourself] in the valley); scjampe su la mont (flee to the mountain), che senò tu restis sot (otherwise you will be swallowed up [for otherwise you remain under]). Regarding restâ sot, see the notes at verse 15. Observe the following: voltâ (to turn); voltâsi (to turn oneself); voltâsi indaûr (to turn oneself round [behind]); voltâti indaûr (to turn yourself round); no sta voltâti indaûr (do not turn yourself round); no sta mai voltâti indaûr (do not ever turn yourself round; never turn yourself round).

Versets 18-20

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), preâ (to pray), il paron (lord), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), il famei (servant), mostrâ (to show), il boncûr (compassion), tai confronts di (towards, in regard to), salvâ (to save), la vite (life), dome che (but), rivâ a scjampâ (to be able to flee, to manage to flee), la mont (mount, mountain), prime che (before), capitâ (to happen, to occur), il flagjel (calamity), e alore (and so), restâ (to remain, to be left), sot (under, below), ve (there is, here is), la citât (city, town), a un salt di chi (very close, nearby), metisi a salvament (to take refuge), la robe (thing, matter), nuie (nothing), lassâ (to let, to allow), alì (there), podê (can, to be able), salvâsi (to save oneself).

Verse 18: Lot ur rispuindè (Lot responded to them): ti prei di no, paron (please no, my lord). Observe: preâ (to pray); ti prei (I pray you; please); preâ di no (to pray that it not be so); ti prei di no (I pray you that it not be so; please no).

Verse 19: Lot says: tu âs vût a grât il to famei (you have had your servant in your favour) e tu âs mostrât il to boncûr (and you have shown your compassion) tai miei confronts (towards me) salvantmi la vite (by saving my life [saving the life unto me]). He continues: dome che (but) jo no rivarai a scjampâ fin su la mont (I will not be able to flee all the way to the mountain) prime che al capiti il flagjel (before the calamity strikes [occurs]), e alore o restarai sot ancje jo (and so I too will be swallowed up [will remain under]).

Verse 20: Ve cheste citât (look at that town [here is this town; behold this town]), che e je a un salt di chi (which is nearby [which is at a hop from here]) par metimi a salvament (where I can take refuge [as to put myself in rescue]), e e je une robe di nuie (and it is a trifle [and it is a thing of nothing]). The masculine salt means jump, hop; a un salt di chi can be taken literally as at a hop from here. Une robe di nuie (literally, a thing of nothing) is used to describe the small proportions or little importance of a thing — a trifle. For instance, you might downplay a problem or request by referring to it as une robe di nuie, or you might describe a very tiny object in the same way. Lot continues: lassimi scjampâ alì (let me flee there)no ese une robe di nuie? (is it not a trifle?)che o puedi salvâmi (that I may save myself). The interrogative no ese is a variant of no ise, from the feminine, third-person singular e je of the presint indicatîf. O puedi is the first-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb podê.

Versets 21-29

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), fâ la gracie di (to make the concession of), ancjemò (yet, also), sparagnâ (to spare), la citât (town, city), fevelâ (to speak), spesseâ (to hurry, to make haste), lâ jù (to go down), svelt (quick), salvâsi (to save oneself), podê (can, to be able), nuie (nothing), fintremai che (until), rivâ (to arrive, to come), là jù (down there), par chel (therefore, for this reason), meti non (to name), juste cuant che (just as), jevâ (to rise), il soreli (sun), la tiere (earth, land), jentrâ (to enter, to go in), plovi (to rain), il cîl (heaven, sky), sore di (upon), il solfar (sulphur, brimstone), il fûc (fire), saltâ fûr (to come forth), savoltâ (to overthrow), di fonde fûr (completely, utterly), la valade (valley), la int (people), la plante (plant), la femine (wife), voltâsi indaûr (to turn oneself round), cjalâ (to look), deventâ (to become), la colone (column, pillar), il sâl (salt), jevât (arisen), denant dì (in the early morning), il puest (place), fermâsi (to stop oneself), denant di (before), de bande di (towards), viodi (to see), la fumarisse (smoke cloud), vignî sù (to come up), compagn (identical, just like), la fornâs (furnace), cussì (thus, so), splantâ (to destroy), visâsi di (to remember), salvâ (to save), il flagjel (calamity), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

Verse 21: The Lord says to Lot: ti fâs ancjemò cheste gracie, di sparagnâ la citât che tu fevelis: I will make you this concession also, that of sparing the town of which you speak.

Verse 22: The Lord continues: spessee (hurry), va jù svelt (go there [go down] quickly) e salviti (and save yourself), che no pues fâ nuie (for I cannot do anything) fintremai che no tu sês rivât là jù (until you have arrived there [down there]). Spessee is the second-person singular imperative of spesseâ. Before ti is added to the second-person singular imperative salve, the final e changes to i: salvâ (to save); salve (save); salviti (save yourself). Al è par chel che i àn metût a la citât il non di Zoar: it is for this reason that the town was named Zoar (that they put the name of Zoar unto the town).

Verse 23: Juste cuant che al jevave il soreli (just as the sun was rising) su la tiere (upon the earth) e che Lot al stave jentrant a Zoar (and as Lot was entering Zoar). Note the repetition of che, which serves to keep Lot al stave jentrant a Zoar connected to juste cuant che: juste cuant che […] e che Lot al stave jentrant a Zoar.

Verse 24: Il Signôr al fasè plovi (the Lord made rain down) dal cîl (from the heaven) sore di Sodome e di Gomore (upon Sodom and Gomorrah) solfar e fûc (sulphur and fire) che al saltave fûr dal Signôr (which came forth [was coming forth] from God). For clarity: the Lord rained down sulphur and fire upon Sodom and Gomorrah from the Lord out of heaven. Plovi means to rain; fâ plovi, then, means to cause to rain, to make rain down: fâ plovi solfar e fûc (to make sulphur and fire rain down).

Verse 25: Al savoltà di fonde fûr chestis citâts (he completely overthrew these cities) e dute la valade (and all the valley), cun dute la int des citâts e lis plantis (along with all the people and plants).

Verse 26: Ma la femine di Lot si voltà indaûr a cjalâ (but Lot’s wife looked back [but the wife of Lot turned herself round to look]) e e deventà une colone di sâl (and she became a pillar of salt).

Verse 27: Jevât denant dì (having arisen in the early morning [before day]), Abram al rivà tal puest (Abraham came to the place) che si jere fermât denant dal Signôr (where he had stood [had stopped himself] before the Lord).

Verse 28: E al cjalà jù de bande di Sodome e di Gomore (and he looked down towards Sodom and Gomorrah) e di dute la valade (and all the valley) e al viodè une fumarisse (and he saw a smoke cloud) ch’e vignive sù de tiere (rising from the earth [that was coming up from the earth]), compagn ch’e fos stade une fornâs (as though it were a furnace). Compagn che is followed here by the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi. Following the notes for verse 29, you will find, in side-by-side format, the coniuntîf presint and coniuntîf imperfet conjugations of jessi.

Verse 29: Cussì (thus), cuant che Diu al splantà lis citâts de valade (when God destroyed the cities of the valley), si visà di Abram (he remembered Abraham) e al salvà Lot dal flagjel (and saved Lot from the calamity) cuant che al savoltà di fonde fûr lis citâts (when he completely overthrew the cities) là che al jere a stâ Lot (where Lot dwelt [was dwelling]).

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive
imperfect subjunctive
o sedi
o fos
tu sedis
tu fossis
al sedi
al fos

e sedi
e fos

o sedin
o fossin
o sedis
o fossis
a sedin
a fossin

An alternative form exists in the present subjunctive: o sei, tu seis, al sei, e sei, o sein, o seis, a sein.

Versets 30-38

Vocabulary: partî (to leave, to depart), lâ a stâ (to go dwell), la mont (mount, mountain), la fie (daughter), sintîsi (to feel), sigûr (safe, sure), sistemâsi (to settle), il landri (cave), grant (big, large; old), (to say), secont (second), il pari (father), in là cui agns (advanced in years), un om (man), podê (can, to be able), anìn (come, go to), (to give), bevi (to drink), il vin (wine), e po (and then), durmî (to sleep), lâ a durmî cun (to go to sleep with), cussì (thus, so), la semence (seed), almancul (at least), la sere (evening), stes (same), distirâsi (to lie), daprûf di (alongside), inacuargisi (to notice; also inacuarzisi), nuie (nothing), ni… ni (neither… nor), jevâ (to get up, to arise), tal indoman (the next day), usgnot passade (last night), usgnot (tonight), midiant di (by way of), zovin (young), dongje di (alongside), cjapâ sù (to take up), prin (first), parturî (to bear), il frut (boy, child), meti non (to name), d’in dì di vuê (of today), il fi (son).

Verse 30: Lot al partì di Zoar (Lot departed from Zoar) e al lè a stâ (and went to dwell) su la mont (in [on] the mountain) cu lis dôs fiis (with his two daughters), parcè che no si sintive sigûr a Zoar (because he did not feel [was not feeling] safe in Zoar). Si sistemà intun landri, lui e lis dôs fiis: he settled in a cave, he and his two daughters.

Verse 31: La plui grande i disè a la seconde: the older said to the younger (second); the feminine forms la plui grande and la seconde are used here because they refer to the daughters of Lot. The older daughter says: nestri pari al è in là cui agns (our father is advanced in years) e chi (and here) no ’nd è oms di podê lâ cun lôr (there are no men with whom to lie [there are no men to be able to go with them]) come che a fasin ducj (as all do). is to be taken here in the sense of to be intimate.

Verse 32: Anìn (come), din di bevi vin (let us give wine to drink) a nestri pari (to our father) e po (and then) o lin a durmî cun lui (we will go [we go] to sleep with him), cussì o varìn une semence (we will thus have offspring [seed]) almancul di nestri pari (at least by way of [from] our father). Din is the first-person plural imperative of the verb dâ. Learn the following imperatives: da (give; second-person singular); dait (give; second-person plural); din (let us give; first-person plural). O lin (we go) is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb lâ. The verb durmî means to sleep; lâ a durmî cun translates literally as to go to sleep with; that is, to be intimate with. Supplementary example: e je lade a durmî cun chel (she went to sleep with him).

Verse 33: E ta chê sere stesse (and on [in] that same evening) i derin di bevi vin (they gave wine to drink) a lôr pari (to their father) e la plui grande si distirà daprûf di so pari (and the older lay with [alongside] her father), che no si inacuargè di nuie (who did not notice a thing [who did not notice anything; who noticed nothing), ni cuant che jê e lè a durmî (either when she lay down [went to sleep]) ni cuant che jê e tornà a jevâ (or when she got back up). A derin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb .

Verse 34: Tal indoman (the next day), la plui grande i disè a la seconde (the older said to the younger [second]): usgnot passade (last night) o ai durmît cun gno pari (I slept with our father); fasìnlu bevi ancje usgnot (let us make him drink tonight too) e tu vâs tu a durmî cun lui (and [now] you go to sleep with him), e cussì ancje nô o varìn une semence midiant di nestri pari (and so we too will have offspring [seed] by way of our father).

Verse 35: E i faserin bevi vin a lôr pari ancje chê sere (and they made their father drink wine that evening too [and unto their father they made drink wine also that evening]) e la plui zovine si distirà dongje di lui (and the younger lay with [alongside] him), che no si inacuargè ni cuant che jê e lè a durmî ni cuant che e jevà (who did not notice either when she went to sleep or when she arose; who noticed neither when she went to sleep nor when she arose).

Verse 36: Lis dôs fiis di Lot a cjaparin sù di lôr pari: the two daughters of Lot conceived (took up) by their father.

Verse 37: Un moabit is a Moabite. You read: la prime e parturì un frut (the first bore a son [boy]) e i metè non Moab (and she named him Moab [and she put unto him the name Moab]), che al sarès il pari dai moabits d’in dì di vuê (he is the father of the Moabites of today [who would be the father of the Moabites of today]). D’in dì di vuê can also be expressed as dal dì di vuê (literally, of the day of today): i moabits dal dì di vuê.

Verse 38: Ancje la seconde e parturì un frut (the younger [second] also bore a son) e i metè non Ben-Ami (and she named him Ben-Ammi [and she put unto him the name Ben-Ammi), che al sarès il pari dai fîs di Amon d’in dì di vuê (he is the father of the sons of Ammon of today [who would be the father of the sons of Ammon of today]).