Friulian language series: Gjenesi 18, visite di Sodome

You now continue your study of the Friulian language by examining the totality of chapter 18 of the book of Genesis, or Gjenesi 18, where the subject is la visite di Sodome (visit of Sodom; that is, visit at Sodom).

In the notes for verse 1 below, you learn how to tell the time in Friulian. In the notes for verse 24, you begin taking a closer look at using the Friulian indi and its variations ind, int, ’nd and ’nt. You will compare three conjugations of the verb fevelâ in the notes for verse 19: the present indicative, present subjunctive and imperfect subjunctive.

This is a very lengthy post indeed; chapter 18 is challenging in terms of language. You will continue to make good progress in your study of Friulian with it, however. You will encounter usages in this chapter that will undoubtedly take more time to master than the time required to simply study this chapter.

When you come across usages that remain unclear to you even after having studied them here, let them go for now. In language learning, certain usages take longer to assimilate than others, and this is entirely normal.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

Verset 1

You will remember that the Friulian il rôl means oak. The text tells you that the Lord appeared unto Abraham by the oak of Mamre.

As for the expression jessi sentât, it means to be seated.

intant che al jere sentât fûr de tende
while he was seated outside of the tent

Whereas jessi sentât means to be seated, the reflexive verb sentâsi means to sit (oneself) down.

mi soi sentât
o jeri sentât
I sat down
I was seated

God appeared su l’ore dal plui grant cjalt (at the time of the greatest heat). The Friulian noun for heat is il cjalt; for cold(ness), it is il frêt. Cjalt and frêt can also be used as adjectives meaning hot and cold.

aghe frede
aghe cjalde

cold water
hot water

il moment plui cjalt de zornade
the hottest moment of the day

il cjalt dal Istât
the heat of summer

il frêt dal Invier
the cold of winter

The expression su l’ore di translates literally as on the hour of; you can understand it as meaning at the time of. The Friulian word for hour, which is l’ore (or la ore), is a good word to learn better. The following examples are taken from the Grant Dizionari Bilengâl Talian-Furlan (GDBtf):

ce ore ise?
what time is it?

ca di une ore
in one hour (from now)
(literally, here from one hour)

za fa trê oris
three hours ago

cjaminâ par oris e straoris*
to walk for hours and hours

a ce ore rivistu?
at what time do you arrive?

domandâ la ore
to ask for the time

par strade mi soi fermât dome che par domandâ la ore
when I was out, I stopped only to ask for the time
(par strade, in the street)

*This may have reminded you of another usage already seen: strabon (excellent), from the root bon (good).

Before moving on to the next verse, I shall leave you with some examples of telling the time in Friulian.

ce ore ise?
a son lis vot
what time is it?
it is eight o’clock

a ce ore rivistu?
a lis vot

at what time do you arrive?
at eight o’clock

The reason the feminine plural lis is used is because oris is understood (lis [oris] vot). With one o’clock, the singular la is used.

When talking about the time, the feminine une and dôs are used to say one and two, never un or doi. This is because ore is a feminine noun.

1.00 — 13.00
e je la une

it is one o’clock

2.00 — 14.00
a son lis dôs
it is two o’clock

3.00 — 15.00
a son lis trê

it is three o’clock

4.00 — 16.00
a lis cuatri
at four o’clock

4.10 — 16.10
a lis cuatri e dîs
at ten past four

4.20 — 16.20
lis cuatri e vincj

twenty past four

4.15 — 16.15
lis cuatri e un cuart
lis cuatri e cuindis

quarter past four
four fifteen

5.50 — 17.50
lis sîs mancul dîs

lis cinc e cincuante

ten to six
five fifty

5.45 — 17.45
lis sîs mancul un cuart

lis cinc e cuarantecinc

quarter to six
five forty-five

5.40 — 17.40
a lis sîs mancul vincj
a lis cinc e cuarante
at twenty to six
at five forty

Mieze is the feminine form of mieç.

4.30 — 16.30
a lis cuatri e mieze
at half past four

You can use di matine or sot sere to indicate morning and evening time, if the context has not made it clear.

a lis siet di matine
at seven in the morning

a son lis siet sot sere
it is seven in the evening

In official style, the hour numbers from 13 to 24 can be used; for example: lis cuindis e cincuantecinc (15.55).

The Friulian for midday, noon is il misdì; for midnight, it is la miezegnot.

al è misdì in pache 12.00
it is noon on the dot

a misdì in pache 12.00
at noon on the dot

al è misdì mancul un cuart 11.45
it is a quarter to noon

a misdì e mieç 12.30
at half past noon

a miezegnot e mieze 24.30
at half past midnight

Other useful expressions include:

pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot
shortly before midnight
(literally, few minutes before midnight; il minût, minute)

tor di misdì
around noon

al vignarà tor siet
he will come around seven

des cinc a lis vot sot sere
from five to eight in the evening

Finally, know that it is possible to drop the definite articles lis and la when telling time.

a cuatri
at four

a son cuatri e tredis
it is four thirteen

al è vignût a une
he came at one

Verset 2

Abraham looks up and sees three men standing before him.

alçant i vôi
looking up
raising his eyes
(literally, raising the eyes)

al viodè trê oms
he saw three men

in pîts devant di lui
standing in front of him
(literally, in feet in front of him)

Alçant is the present participle of the verb alçâ, meaning to raise.

The Friulian for foot is il pît. In pîts literally means in feet (that is, on [the] feet), which you can understand as meaning standing. Pîts sounds like pîs; the pronunciation of the t drops in the plural.

You right foot is called il pît dret; the left foot is il pît çamp. The Friulian for finger is il dêt; the toes are called i dêts dal pît (fingers of the foot).

The expression a pene che means as soon as.

a pene che ju viodè
as soon as he saw them

In Gjenesi 14:14, you saw that ur corè daûr (from cori daûr) meant he pursued them, he ran after them. In the current verse, you find ur corè incuintri (from cori incuintri), meaning he ran up to them. Incuintri can be understood here as meaning towards.

The text tells you that Abraham ran up to them de jentrade de tende (from the entrance of the tent). You will remember that butâsi par tiere means to take to the ground (in deference).

Verset 3

You will remember that il paron, depending on the context, can mean master, ruler, leader, boss, etc. Abraham uses the term paron here as a term of respect; it is seen rendered in English Bibles as my Lord.

paron, ti prei
my Lord, I pray you
my Lord, please

You will remember that ti prei (from the verb preâ) means I pray you, I beg you, I beseech you; it can often simply be translated as please in colloquial English.

You have already seen the expression vê a grât (to be pleased with, to have in one’s good graces); in Gjenesi 4:4, you read il Signôr al vè a grât Abêl (the Lord was pleased with Abel). In the current verse, you read:

se tu mi âs a grât
if you are pleased with me
(more literally, if you have me in your [good] graces, if you have me in your favour)

You find a new example now of creating a negated command using no sta:

no sta passâ dret devant dal to famei
do not pass right in front of your servant

cence fermâti
without stopping
(literally, without stopping yourself)

Verset 4

Lassait is the second-person plural imperative form of the verb lassâ (to let).

lassait che si us puarti un pocje di aghe
let that a bit of water be brought to you
let that one bring you a bit of water

In the above, un pocje di aghe means a bit of water, a little water. Us here means to you. Si puarte equates to the it is brought or one brings of English; it is found here in subjunctive form (si puarti), which is required after the expression lassâ che (to let that, to allow that).

The verb lavâ means to wash. As for the reflexive verb distirâsi, it means to lie oneself down, to stretch oneself out and, by extension, to relax oneself, to rest oneself.

us lavarai i pîts
I shall wash your feet

o podarês distirâsi
you will be able to rest
(literally, you will be able to stretch yourselves out, you will be able to lie yourselves down)

sot dal arbul
under the tree

O podarês is the second-person plural, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb podê.

You see here that distirâsi is the second-person plural infinitive form (to lie yourselves down). The second-person singular infinitive form is distirâti (to lie yourself down).

tu podarâs distirâti
o podarês distirâsi
you will be able to lie yourself down
you will be able to lie yourselves down

The first-person singular infinitive form is distirâmi.

o voi a distirâmi un moment
I am going to lie myself down for a moment
(or simply, I am going to lie down for a moment)

Verset 5

In this verse, you encounter the Friulian for a piece of bread: un toc di pan.

o voi a cjoli un toc di pan
I am going to get a piece of bread

par che o podês ristorâsi
so that you can replenish yourselves

prime di lâ indevant
before continuing on
(literally, before going forward)

You will remember that the verb cjoli means to take, to get.

The reflexive verb ristorâsi here conveys the sense of regaining one’s strength via food; that is, to replenish oneself. As for prime di, it means before: prime di lâ indevant (before moving on, before going forward, etc.). You saw another example of prime di in the notes for verse 1: pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot (few minutes before midnight, shortly before midnight).

In o voi a cjoli un toc di pan, o voi means I am going in the physical sense of getting up and going off. It is not to be understood as the future tense (as in, for example, the English I am going to study Slovenian next year). O voi a cjoli un toc di pan should be understood in the sense of I am heading off now to get a piece of bread. The same applies to o voi a distirâmi un moment seen at the end of the notes for the previous verse; it should be understood in the sense of I am heading off now to lie down for a moment.

You have seen before that isal is the interrogative form of al è. In the text, you find the variant esal instead: no esal? (is it not?).

no esal par chel
is it not for that reason

che o sês vignûts
that you came

chi dal vuestri famei?
here to your servant(’s place)?

You see that the verb vignî has taken the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim. Remember that the past participle in this case must agree in gender and number with its subject: o sês vignûts (you came; plural).

With verbs of movement, chi di and li di can be used to convey what English does with place.

vignî chi dal vuestri famei
to come [here] to your servant’s (place)

cori li dal barbe
to run over [there] to one’s uncle’s (place)

You will probably have been able to guess that a rispuinderin is the third-person plural, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb rispuindi.

i rispuinderin
they responded to him
they answered him

The visitors say: fâs ce che tu âs dit (do what you have said).

Verset 6

The expression lâ di corse means to run off, to hurry off, to rush away, etc.

Abram al lè di corse te tende
Abraham rushed off into the tent

Un miezut di means a measure of. The Friulian for flour is la farine; as for la farine di flôr found in the text, this can be understood as fine flour.

cjol svelte trê miezuts di farine di flôr
get quickly three measures of fine flour
take quickly three measures of fine flour

The adjective svelt means quick, fast.

une cjaminade svelte
a brisk walk, fast walk

al cjamine simpri svelt
he always walks fast

The remainder of this verse presents more new usages: impastâ (to knead), messedâ (to blend, to mix), la fuiace (flatbread, focaccia). Abraham tells Sarah: impastile (knead it), messedile (blend it), fâs trê fuiacis (make three flatbreads).

The second-person singular imperative forms of impastâ and messedâ are impaste and messede; when le is added, the final e becomes i: impastile, messedile. Le stands in for la farine di flôr.

Related usages to learn from the GDBtf:

messedâ sâl e farine
to blend salt and flour
(il sâl, salt)

al è miôr no messedâ bire e vin
it is better to not mix beer and wine
(miôr, better; la bire, beer; il vin, wine)

impastâ aghe, farine e levan par fâ il pan
to knead water, flour and yeast to make bread
(il levan, yeast; il pan, bread)

Verset 7

In this verse, you read that Abraham takes a calf to have it prepared as food. The Friulian for calf is il vidiel. The text tells you that the calf was tenarut (tender) and saurît (savoury, tasty).

Abram al corè là ch’e jere la mandrie
Abraham ran there where the herd was
(that is, Abraham rushed off to the herd)

al cjapà un vidiel tenarut e saurît
he took a tender and savoury calf

The verb consegnâ means to deliver, to give. It is cognate with the English to consign.

jal consegnà al famei
he gave it to the servant

In the above, jal is a contraction of i + lu, where lu stands in for il vidiel.

i consegnà al famei
jal consegnà al famei
he gave to the servant
he gave it to the servant

The verb spesseâ means to hurry, to rush. The Friulian for to prepare is preparâ.

al spesseà a preparâlu
he hurried to prepare it

Verset 8

Abraham takes la caglade (curd), il lat (milk) and il vidiel (calf); the verb parecjâ means to prepare, to dress: il vidiel che al veve parecjât (the calf that he had prepared). He offers these things to the men: al metè dut devant di lôr (he put everything before them).

You will remember from the second verse above that in pîts can be understood as meaning standing. Here, you find in pîts as part of the expression stâ in pîts (to be standing).

lui al stave in pîts dongje di lôr
he was standing near them

Al stave is the masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb stâ.

You read that Abraham was standing near the men under the tree: sot dal arbul, and that the men ate: lôr a mangjarin. A mangjarin is the third-person plural, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb mangjâ.

Verset 9

Just as you saw above that the interrogative form esal is a variant of isal, you find in this verse the variant interrogative form ese for ise.

al è
isal?, esal?

e je
ise?, ese?

dulà ese Sare, la tô femine?
where is Sarah, your wife?

You will note that both domandâ and rispuindi take an indirect object here:

i domandarin
they asked (to) him

ur rispuindè
he responded to them

When asked where his wife is, Abraham responds:

e je dentri, te tende
she is inside, in the tent

Verset 10

Recall that un forest is a foreigner or stranger. In this verse, you have another example in this verse of chi di:

o tornarai chi di te
I shall return here to you

l’an che al ven
next year
(literally, the year that comes)

In other contexts, o tornarai chi de te could be translated as I shall come back to your place, I shall come back to your house, etc.

You have seen a number of times now that ta chê volte means at that time. The man tells Abraham that, in one year’s time, Sarah will have a boy: e varà un frut.

Sarah, who was listening at the opening of the tent, overheard what was said:

Sare e scoltave su la jentrade de tende
Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent

e e jere juste daûr di lui
and she was just behind him

E scoltave is the feminine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb scoltâ (to listen). You will notice that at the entrance is expressed here in Friulian as su la jentrade (literally, on the entrance).

Verset 11

The adjective vieli means old. Its four forms are vieli (masculine singular), viei (masculine plural), viele (feminine singular), vielis (feminine plural).

a jerin viei
they were old

in là cui agns
on in years
advanced in years

Dopomai che means it was long ago that.

The Friulian expression vê lis sôs robis means, of a woman, to be on one’s period, to get one’s period; that is, to be menstruating. Very literally, it translates as to have one’s things.

dopomai che no veve plui lis sôs robis
it was long ago that she was no longer having her periods
(that is, she stopped getting her periods long ago)

o ai lis mês robis
I am on my period

Verset 12

Sarah finds the idea that she should give birth to a son incredible.

par chel
for that reason

Sare e ridè dibessole
Sarah laughed to herself

The verb ridi means to laugh. Dibessôl, which you have already come across in your reading, means alone, to oneself. Perhaps you will remember having encountered it in Gjenesi 2:18, when you read: nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl (it is not good that the man be on his own). The feminine form, which you find in the current verse, is dibessole.

The text then tells you that Sarah said something to herself: disint dentri di sè (saying to herself; literally, saying within herself). Disint is the present participle of the verb dî.

Sarah continues:

propit cumò che o soi di butâ vie
just now that I am to be taken out

o varès di tornâ a vê la frescjece di une zovine
I am to have again the freshness of a young woman

e l’om al è vieli!
and my husband is old!

The expression butâ vie translates literally as to throw away.

o ai butât vie lis scovacis
I threw the garbage out
I threw the rubbish away
(lis scovacis, rubbish, garbage)

You will remember the following two expressions: vê di (to have to) and tornâ a (to return to, to go back to). In the text, o varès di tornâ a vê translates literally as I would have to return to having; that is, I am (supposed) to have again. O varês (I would have) is the first-person singular, condizionâl presint conjugation of the verb vê.

Sarah quips that she is supposed to somehow reacquire the freshness of a young woman: la frescjece di une zovine. The Friulian for freshness is la frescjece. A young male is un zovin; a young female is une zovine.

Verset 13

You find the interrogative form àe here, from the feminine, third-person singular, presint indicatîf of the verb vê. This is a variant of aie.

e à
aie?, àe?

The past participle of the verb ridi (to laugh) is ridût.

parcè po Sare àe ridût?
why now did Sarah laugh?

e à ridût
aie ridût?, àe ridût?
she laughed, she has laughed
did she laugh, has she laughed?

God paraphrases what Sarah said to herself:

al sarès propit di ridi
it would be just laughable

che o parturissi dopo viele
that I should give birth so old

Verset 14

You will remember that al è can be used in the sense of there is. Its interrogative form, then, is isal or esal. Alc means something.

esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ?
is there something that God cannot do?

al pues, al pò
nol pues, nol pò
he can
he cannot

Al pues and al pò are variants of each other.

Di cheste stagjon is synonymous with the already encountered in cheste stagjon, from Gjenesi 17:21.

The sense of jo o tornarai in cjase tô is similar to that of jo o tornarai chi di te (see verse 10 above). It literally means I shall return to your house.

Verset 15

Sarah tries to hide the fact that she laughed — not that such a thing could be hidden from God, of course. The verb dineâ means to deny.

Sare e dineà
Sarah denied

Gran can be understood as meaning (not) at all.

jo no ai ridût gran
I did not laugh at all

Another example: no mi plâs gran (I do not like it at all). The verb here is plasê (to please, to be pleasing); al plâs is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf. No mi plâs gran can be understood literally as meaning it is not pleasing to me at all. To simply say I like it and I do not like it, you can use mi plâs and no mi plâs, which translate literally as it is pleasing to me and it is not pleasing to me.

Sarah denied having laughed because she was afraid: e veve pôre (literally, she had fear, she was having fear). You will recall that the Friulian for to be afraid is vê pôre (to have fear). Pôre is a feminine noun: la pôre.

God calls Sarah out on her denial:

ma lui al contindè
but he refuted
but he contested

The verb in the above is contindi, meaning to refute, to contest.

sì lafè che tu âs ridût
you most certainly did laugh
of course you laughed

Sì lafè che can be understood as meaning certainly, absolutely, of course.

Verset 16

The men got up: a jevarin sù; the expression here is jevâ sù (literally, to rise up). They left the spot where they were: a partirin di li (literally, they left from there); the verb partî means to leave. They faced Sodom: a rivarin in viodude di Sodome (literally, they arrived in the view of Sodom); la viodude means view, sight.

Abraham walked with them: al cjaminave dutun cun lôr, to bid them farewell: par saludâju. You will remember that dutun cun means along with. The verb saludâ is cognate with the English to salute; it is used, depending on the context, in the sense of to greet (to say hello) or to send off (to say good-bye). A couple examples from the GDBtf:

saludâ un amì cun afiet
to greet a friend with affection

mi saludave cu la man dal tren
he waved good-bye to me from the train

Versets 17-18

God speaks to himself; you find the expression dî dentri di sè, which you have seen a number of times now. He says:

cemût fasio a platâi a Abram
how do I hide from Abraham

ce che o ai intenzion di fâ
what I plan to do

In the above, you encounter again the interrogative usage cemût fasio a, which you first saw in the notes for Gjenesi 15:8. This translates literally as how do I do to. The sense of it is how can I, how do I go about, how can I manage to.

o fâs
cemût fasio?
I do
how do I do?

The verb platâ means to hide (something). You have in fact already encountered this verb before, but in its reflexive form platâsi (to hide oneself). Perhaps you will recall it, for example, from Gjenesi 3:8, when you read the following about Adam and Eve: a lerin a platâsi (they went to hide themselves).

In this verse, you find platâ used as follows: platâi a Abram ce che o ai intenzion di fâ. Platâi translates here as to hide from him. Note that it does not mean to hide (oneself) from him, but to hide (something) from him, namely: ce che o ai intenzion di fâ (that which I intend to do). The expression vê intenzion di fâ means to intend to do, to plan to do, to plan on doing, etc. The Friulian for intention is la intenzion; this expression translates literally as to have intention to do.

Dal moment che is to be understood here as meaning given that.

You read that Abraham will become a great and strong people, using the adjectives grant (great) and fuart (strong). For your reference, here are the four forms of both adjectives:

grant (masculine singular), grancj (masculine plural), grande (feminine singular), grandis (feminine plural)

fuart (masculine singular), fuarts (masculine plural), fuarte (feminine singular), fuartis (feminine plural)

Below, you will find some good examples of using the adjective fuart; the examples are taken from the GDBtf. You will see that fuart can translate as more than just strong:

un om une vore fuart
a very strong man

fuart tant che un taur
as strong as a bull
(il taur, bull)

jessi fuart di panze
to have a big belly
(la panze, belly)

jessi fuarte di pet
to have a big chest
(il pet, chest; obviously it is question here of a woman because the feminine fuarte is used)

un fumadôr fuart
a heavy smoker
(fumâ, to smoke; il fumadôr, smoker)

spagnolets fuarts
strong cigarettes
(il spagnolet, cigarette)

The text continues; you read that, in Abraham, all the nations of the world will be blessed.

in lui a saran benedidis
in him will be blessed

dutis lis gjernaziis dal mont
all the progenies of the world
(that is, all the nations, peoples of the world)

Benedidis (blessed) is in feminine plural form to agree with lis gjernaziis. In standard spelling, the four forms of this adjective are:

benedet (masculine singular), benedets (masculine plural), benedete (feminine singular), benedetis (feminine plural)

Verset 19

Di fat can be understood as meaning in fact, indeed. You will recall that the verb sielzi means to choose, to select. Its past participle is sielzût.

jo lu ai sielzût
I have chosen him

The verb insegnâ means to teach.

o insegni
par che o insegni
I teach
so that I may teach

In the first above, you have the presint indicatîf; in the second, following par che, you have the coniuntîf presint. Both forms are the same here, however. This is the case with verbs taking the ending â in their infinitive form.

o feveli
par che o feveli
I speak
so that I may speak

The forms would not be the same in the third-person:

al insegne
par che al insegni
he teaches
so that he may teach

al fevele
par che al feveli
he speaks
so that he may speak

Using the verb fevelâ, compare the presint indicatîf to the coniuntîf presint.

Presint indicatîf — coniuntîf presint
Present indicative — present subjunctive

present indicative
present subjunctive
o feveli
o feveli
tu fevelis
tu fevelis
al fevele
al feveli

e fevele
e feveli

o fevelìn
o fevelìn
o fevelais
o fevelais
a fevelin
a fevelin

Compare now the coniuntîf presint to the coniuntîf imperfet.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive imperfect subjunctive
o feveli o fevelàs
tu fevelis tu fevelassis
al feveli al fevelàs

e feveli e fevelàs

o fevelìn o fevelassin
o fevelais o fevelassis
a fevelin a fevelassin

Return now to the text. You read:

par che ur insegni ai siei fîs
so that I may teach to his sons

e a la sô int dopo di lui
and to his people after him

a cjaminâ pe strade dal Signôr
to walk in the path of the Lord

You will remember that pe is a contraction of par + la.

The text continues:

fasint ce che al è just
doing that which is just, righteous

e che al va ben
and which is good

Fasint is the present participle of the verb fâ.

You will remember the expression lâ ben from Gjenesi 1, where you saw, for example: Diu al viodè che la lûs e leve ben (God saw that the light was good).

In fasint ce che al è just e che al va ben, you see that the che of ce che is repeated in the second clause; this keeps it connected to ce che in the first.

In the remainder of this verse, you find the verb imprometi, meaning to promise. Another way to say to promise is prometi.

dome cussì
only thus

il Signôr al rivarà a fâ
will the Lord manage to do

par Abram
by Abraham

ce che i à imprometût
that which he has promised to him

For your reference, here are the four forms of the adjective just:

just (masculine singular), juscj (masculine plural), juste (feminine singular), justis (feminine plural)

Verset 20

Joi is an interjection meaning oh, alas, etc. As for il berli, this is the Friulian noun for shout, yell, (out)cry. Related to this is the verb berlâ, meaning to shout, to yell, to cry out.

ce grant che al è il berli
how great is the outcry

cuintri di Sodome e Gomore
against Sodom and Gomorrah

God says that they commit much evil: cetant mâl (so much evil) che a fasin (that they do).

Verset 21

From this verse, you will need to know the following usages: lâ jù (to go down), propit (really), se… o no (whether…. or not, if… or not), fin cassù (all the way up here), savê un dret (to know for sure, to find something out).

o vuei lâ jù
I want to go down

se a àn fat o no dut chel mâl
if they committed all that evil or not
whether they committed all that evil or not

(literally, if they did or not all that evil)

You know that the verb rivâ means to arrive; you can understand it more in the sense of to reach in this verse: mi rive fin cassù il berli cuintri di lôr (the outcry against them reaches me all the way up here).

dome cussì o savarai un dret
only thus shall I know for sure
only thus shall I find something out

O savarai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb savê.

Verset 22

This verse should not present any particular difficulties to you. You have two third-person plural, passât sempliç conjugations: a partirin (they left) and a lerin (they went). Denant di, you will recall, means before, in front of. Simpri can be understood as meaning still here.

Verset 23

The expression lâ dongje can be understood as meaning to draw near, to approach.

Abram i lè dongje
Abraham drew near to him

As for the expression distinâ (or destinâ) di fâ, it means to destine to do, to decide to do, to set out to do, etc.

You will perhaps recall having already encountered the verb netâ; you first saw it in Gjenesi 7, when you read: o netarai de face de tiere dut ce che o ai fat (I shall eliminate from the face of the earth all that I have made). The verb netâ means to clean, but it can also be used in the sense of to clean away, to do away with, to get rid of, especially when used in the expression netâ vie, as found in the current verse.

âstu propit distinât di netâ vie
have you really destined to do away with
have you indeed set out to eliminate

netâ vie il just dutun cul pecjadôr
to do away with the just along with the sinner
to eliminate the righteous along with the sinner

The Friulian for sinner is il pecjadôr. As for sin, the Friulian is il pecjât. Some examples: al è un pecjât (it is a sin), vivi tal pecjât (to live in sin).

Verset 24

You will remember that salacor means perhaps, maybe, suppose. You will also remember that al è can mean there is. Its simple future form is al sarà.

salacor ant sarà cincuante juscj
suppose there will be fifty of them (who are) righteous
perhaps there will be fifty of them (who are) righteous

in dute la citât
in all the city

In the above, ant (or a ’nt) is a contraction of al + indi (of it, of them).

a ’nt sarà cincuante
there will be fifty of them

salacor a ’nt sarà cincuante juscj
suppose there will be fifty of them (who are) righteous

Indi, you will recall, is the full written form. In formal written language, indi can be used in all situations. The use of the Bible follows spoken usage with regards to indi, however. In spoken language, if the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d changes to t; if the verb begins with a vowel, the d is maintained. The initial i of indi drops when it is preceded by a vowel.

Note: In the above examples (you will see more below), al first changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i. The same applies to nol; it first changes to no, meaning it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i.

I should also point out that what is described here pertains to standard Friulian spelling. In the Friulian Bible that you are reading, you will sometimes find small deviations from this standard. As you progress, you will be able to recognise them.

A note now about pronunciation: Say the English word ring aloud. That ng sound at the end is the same sound made by nt. This means that int sounds like ing, a ’nt sounds like ang, and o ’nt sounds like ong.

a ’nd è
there is (some) of it

a ’nt sarà

there will be (some) of it

lui a ’nd à
he has (some) of it
he has (some) of them

lui no ’nd à
he has not (any) of it
he has not (any) of them

o ’nd ai
I have (some) of it
I have (some) of them

no tu ’nd âs
you do not have (any) of it
you do not have (any) of them

ind âstu?
have you (any) of it?
have you (any) of them?

int vuelistu?
do you want (any) of it?
do you want (any) of them?

o ’nt viôt
I see (some) of it
I see (some) of them

o ’nt vuei trê
I want three of them

us int doi cuatri
I give you four of them

Above, I mentioned that the full indi can always be used in formal written language. As examples, the spoken o ’nd ai could be expressed formally as o indi ai in written language. A ’nd à could be written as al indi à.

Note that, in English, it is possible to say I want two, I do not have any, etc., without including of it, of them. You cannot do this in Friulian. In Friulian, you must say, via the use of indi, I want two of them, I do not have any of it, etc. For example, you cannot say in Friulian us doi cuatri basing yourself on the English I give you four; you must say us int doi cuatri (I give you four of them).

Indi is a topic that certainly deserves an entire post unto itself. I shall bear this in mind for a future post. For now, the above should at least help you to start gaining your bearings.

This verse continues with the verb fruçâ, which you will remember means to crush. In the context of this verse, you can understand it as meaning to destroy.

âstu propit distinât di fruçâju?
have you really destined to destroy them?
have you really resolved to crush them?

Abraham asks if God will not spare the city because of the fifty righteous who may live there. The Friulian verb for to spare is sparagnâ. You will remember that in gracie di means thanks to, because of.

sparagnâ la citât
to spare the city

in gracie di chei cincuante juscj
because of those fifty (who are) righteous

You will also recall that jessi a stâ means to live, to dwell, to reside.

chei cincuante juscj che a son a stâ dentri
those fifty (who are) righteous who live there
(literally, those fifty righteous who live inside [it])

Verset 25

You can understand the expression fâ une part as meaning to do a deed. Dal gjenar means of the sort; il gjenar is the Friulian for genre, kind.

Abraham says to God:

no tu âs di fâ une part dal gjenar
you must not do a deed of the sort

di fâ murî il just cul pecjadôr
to kill the righteous with the sinner

Take note that to kill is expressed in the above as fâ murî. The literal meaning of fâ murî is to make die. This is not the only way that you have seen to kill expressed; you will remember the verb copâ.

The interjection mai vie po can be understood as meaning absolutely not.

In the remainder of the verse, you will need to learn or review the following usages: judicâ (to judge), intîr (entire), tibiâ (to tread upon, to infringe upon), la justizie (justice), par prin (first of all).

chel che al judiche il mont intîr
he who judges the entire world

al à di jessi propit lui
does it have to be precisely him
(that is, does it really have to be him)

a tibiâ la justizie par prin?
to be the first to infringe upon justice?

Verset 26

God explains that if he can find fifty righteous in Sodom, he will spare the entire city. You will recall that rivâ adore di fâ means to manage to do, to succeed in doing. The Friulian verb cjatâ means to find.

se o rivi adore di cjatâ
if I manage to find

The expression jessi bon di fâ can be understood as meaning to be capable of doing. As for perdonâ, this is the Friulian for to forgive, to pardon.

In the last verse, you saw the masculine intîr, meaning entire; in the current verse, you find its feminine form interie.

o soi bon di perdonâi a la citât interie
I am capable of forgiving the entire city

Note that Friulian says to forgive something to someone.

Verset 27

Il fiât is the Friulian name for the liver. In this verse, this noun is used to describe having the nerve (literally, liver) to do something:

o ai un bon fiât a fevelâi al gno Signôr
I have a lot of nerve to speak to my Lord

jo che o soi pulvin e cinise
me who is dust and ash

You will remember that the Friulian for dust is il pulvin; you now also encounter the word for ash, ashes: la cinise.

la cinise dal spagnolet
cigarette ashes

la cinise dal zigar
cigar ashes

An ashtray is called un cinisâr.

Verset 28

There are a number of new usages in this verse. Learn or review the following: mancjâ (to be missing, to lack), sintîsi (to be disposed), splantâ di raspe (to eradicate, to destroy).

par rivâ a cincuante juscj
to arrive at fifty righteous

ant mancjarà salacor cinc
there will lack of them perhaps five

That is, perhaps there will be only forty-five righteous.

par cinc di lôr
for five of them

ti sintaressistu di splantâ di raspe dute la citât?
would you be disposed to destroy the entire city?

Tu tu ti sintaressis is the second-person singular, condizionâl presint conjugation of the reflexive verb sintîsi. Sintîsi di fâ can be understood as meaning to be disposed to do.

It would be useful to take a moment to look at the verb sintî. There are many uses to this verb; one of them is to hear. (Others are to feel, to smell, to taste.) O sint is its first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation.

o sint che al larà dut ben
I hear that everything will go well

fevele a fuart che no ti sint
speak up because I cannot hear you
(literally, speak up because I do not hear you)

More examples of the verb sintî will have to come in new posts.

This verse ends with God’s response:

s’o cjati corantecinc juscj, no
if I find forty-five righteous, no
not if I (can) find forty-five righteous

S’o is a contraction of se + o.

You will remember that the spelling corante has been preferred in the Bible. The standard is cuarante.

Verset 29

You can understand tornâ a cjapâ la peraule as meaning to speak again (literally, to return to taking the word, to take the word again). As for vadì che, it can be understood as what if, suppose.

In this verse, you have more examples of indi (of it, of them).

vadì che ant sarà dome corante
suppose there will be only forty of them

a ’nt sarà
= al indi sarà
there will be of them

s’and è ancje dome corante
if there are even only forty of them

s’and è
= se al indi è
if there is of them

ju sparagni
I shall spare them
(literally, I spare them)

Verset 30

Cjapâse means to get angry. The se ending is a contraction of si + le. You might understand cjapâse as literally meaning to take it (anger) upon oneself.

che nol stedi a cjapâse il gno Signôr
may my Lord not get angry

Whereas no sta is used to give a negated command in the second-person singular, che nol stedi is used for the third-person singular.

no sta cjapâte
do not get angry

che nol stedi a cjapâse
let him not get angry
may he not get angry

You will remember that the verb lassâ means to let, to allow. Lassâ dî, then, means to let say, to allow to say.

che mi lassi dî
may he allow me to say

Pò stâi che is synonymous with vadì che; that is, suppose, what if.

pò stâi che s’int cjati trente
suppose that thirty of them are found
suppose that one finds thirty of them

The verb cjastiâ means to punish.

o cjastii
I punish

no ju cjastii
I do not punish them

Note that the i in the root of the verb is maintained before the i of the first-person singular.

o cjastii

Verset 31

The Friulian sfaçât means brazen, impertinent.

o sai di jessi sfaçât
I know that I am brazen

a fevelâi cussì al gno Signôr
to speak thus to my Lord

Note in the above how Friulian expresses I know that I am: o sai di jessi (literally, I know to be).

o sai di jessi malât
I know that I am ill

al sa di jessi fuart
he knows that he is strong

New examples of indi:

forsit vincj s’int cjate
maybe twenty of them are found
maybe one finds twenty of them

s’and è ancje vincj
if there are even twenty of them

no ju fruci
I shall not destroy them
(literally, I do not destroy them; from the verb fruçâ)

Verset 32

You now find another usage meaning to get angry: inrabiâsi. This verse begins in the same format as verse 30.

Pe ultime volte means for the last time.

You can understand pussibil mo che as being synonymous with vadì che and pò stâi che. It is followed by the subjunctive here (che no ’nt sedi).

pussibil mo che no ’nt sedi almancul dîs?
suppose there are at least ten of them?
might it not be possible there are at least ten of them?

in gracie di chei dîs
because of those ten

Verset 33

You read that God finishes speaking with Abraham; God leaves, and Abraham returns to his place.

Tratâ cun can be understood as meaning to deal with.

il Signôr s’indi lè
the Lord left
the Lord went off

You will remember that lâsint means to go away, to go off, to leave.

The use of indi is a complicated one. If it is still unclear to you (and understandably so), I might recommend that you not burden yourself too heavily at this point with trying to master it. The examples in this post will have at least raised your awareness; as you progress in your study of Friulian, its use will start to become clearer to you.