Friulian language series: Gjenesi 18, visite di Sodome

The subject whereof the eighteenth chapter of the book of Genesis treats is: la visite di Sodome (the visit at Sodom).

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 18

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 18. An archived version of the text is found here.

Verset 1

Il Signôr i comparì tal rôl di Mamre (the Lord appeared unto him at the oak of Mamre), intant che al jere sentât (whilst he was seated) fûr de tende (outside the tent) su l’ore dal plui grant cjalt (on the hour of the greatest heat).

Vocabulary: comparî (to appear), il rôl (oak), intant che (whilst), jessi sentât (to be seated), fûr di (outside), la tende (tent), la ore (hour), il plui (most), grant (great), cjalt (heat).

The Friulian for heat is the masculine cjalt; for cold (as a noun), it is the masculine frêt. Examples: il cjalt dal istât (the heat of summer); il frêt dal invier (the cold of winter). Cjalt and frêt are also used as adjectives meaning hot and cold. Examples: aghe frede (cold water); aghe cjalde (hot water); il moment plui cjalt de zornade (the hottest moment of the day).

The Friulian for hour is the feminine ore. Supplemenatry examples: ce ore ise? (what time is it?); ca di une ore (one hour hence); za fa trê oris (three hours ago); cjaminâ par oris e straoris (to walk for hours and hours); a ce ore rivistu? (at what time arrivest thou?); domandâ la ore (to ask for the time).

Telling the time in Friulian

Ce ore ise?a son lis vot: what time is it? — it is eight o’clock. A ce ore rivistu?a lis vot: at what time arrivest thou? — at eight o’clock. The feminine plural lis is used, for oris is understood (lis {oris} vot). With one o’clock, the singular la is used: la une. When telling the time, the feminine une and dôs are employed to say one and two, never un or doi, for ore is a feminine noun. E je la une: it is one {o’clock}. A son lis dôs: it is two {o’clock}. A son lis trê: it is three {o’clock}. A lis cuatri: at four {o’clock}. A lis cuatri e dîs: at ten past four. Lis cuatri e vincj: twenty past four. Lis cuatri e un cuart: quarter past four. Lis cuatri e cuindis: four fifteen. Lis sîs mancul dîs: ten unto six. Lis cinc e cincuante: five fifty. Lis sîs mancul un cuart: quarter unto six. Lis cinc e cuarantecinc: five forty-five. A lis sîs mancul vincj: at twenty unto six. A lis cinc e cuarante: at five forty.

Mieze is the feminine form of mieç (half). A lis cuatri e mieze: at half past four. Di matine (in the morning) and sot sere (in the evening) may be employed to indicate morning and evening time, should the context not have made it clear. A lis siet di matine: at seven in the morning. A son lis siet sot sere: it is seven in the evening. In official style, hours 13 to 24 may be used; for instance: lis cuindis e cincuantecinc (15.55). The Friulian for midday is the masculine misdì; for midnight, it is the feminine miezegnot. Al è misdì in pache: it is midday on the dot. A misdì in pache: at midday on the dot. Al è misdì mancul un cuart: it is a quarter unto midday. A misdì e mieç: at half past midday. A miezegnot e mieze: at half past midnight.

Other useful expressions: pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot (few minutes before midnight); tor di misdì (round midday); al vignarà tor siet (he will come round seven); des cinc a lis vot sot sere (from five unto eight in the evening). It is possible to drop the definite articles lis and la when telling the time: a cuatri (at four); a son cuatri e tredis (it is four thirteen); al è vignût a une (he came at one).

Versets 2-5

Vocabulary: alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), trê (three), un om (man), il pît (foot), in pîts (standing), devant di (before), a pene che (so soon as), cori incuintri (to run unto), la jentrade (entrance), la tende (tent), butâsi par tiere (to cast oneself unto the ground), (to say), il paron (lord), preâ (to pray), vê a grât (to have in favour), no sta (do not), passâ dret (to pass over), il famei (servant), cence (without), fermâsi (to halt oneself), lassâ (to let), puartâ (to bear), un pôc di (a bit of), la aghe (water), lavâ (to wash), podê (to be able), distirâsi (to lie oneself down), sot di (under), un arbul (tree), (to go), cjoli (to take), un toc di (a bit of), il pan (bread), ristorâsi (to replenish oneself), prime di (before), indevant (forwards), vignî (to come), chi (hither), rispuindi (to respond), (to do).

Verse 2: Alçant* i vôi (in lifting his eyes), al viodè trê oms (he saw three men) +in pîts+ devant di lui (standing before him). A pene che ju viodè (so soon as he saw them), ur corè incuintri (he ran unto them) de jentrade de tende (from the entrance of the tent) e si butà par tiere (and cast himself unto the ground). — *Alçant is the present participle of the verb alçâ (to lift). +The Friulian for foot is the masculine pît; its plural pîts is pronounced pîs. As for in pîts (literally, in feet), this may be read as standing.

Verse 3: Al disè (he said): paron, ti prei ({my} lord, I pray thee), se tu mi âs a grât (if thou have me in favour), no sta passâ dret devant dal to famei (pass not over before thy servant) cence fermâti (without halting thyself).

Verse 4: Lassait che si us puarti *un pocje di aghe* (let that a bit of water may be borne unto you): +us lavarai i pîts+ (I shall wash your feet) e o podarês distirâsi sot dal arbul (and ye will be able to lie yourselves down under the tree). — *Consider the following two examples: un pocje di aghe (a bit of water), but un pôc di pan (a bit of bread). Aghe is a feminine noun, whereas pan is feminine. +Taken apart: us (unto you) lavarai (I shall wash) i pîts (the feet), which is to say, I shall wash your feet.

Verse 5: *O voi* a cjoli un toc di pan (I am going {just now} to take a bit of bread) par che o podês ristorâsi (that ye may replenish yourselves) prime di lâ indevant (before going forwards); no esal+ par chel (is it not for that) che o sês vignûts chi (why ye are come hither) dal vuestri famei? (unto your servant?). I rispuinderin (they responded unto him): fâs ce che tu âs dit (do that which thou hast said). — *O voi (I go; I am going) must be taken literally and not as a future time construction. Consider the difference between the following two instances, which employ the verb studiâ (to study): o studiarai il polac; o voi a studiâ il polac. The first expresses future time (I shall study Polish; I am going to study Polish); the second expresses present time (I am going {just now} to study Polish), as in the speaker is heading off to study at the very moment of his utterance. O voi a studiâ il polac never expresses the English I am going to study Polish {next month, next year…}. +Esal (or isal) is the interrogative form of al è.

Versets 6-12

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to go), di corse (runningly), la tende (tent), (to say), cjoli (to take), svelt (smart), trê (three), un miezut di (a measure of), la farine (flour), la farine di flôr (fine flour), impastâ (to knead), messedâ (to blend), (to make), la fuiace (cake), po (then), cori (to run), la mandrie (herd), cjapâ (to take), il vidiel (calf), tenarut (tender), saurît (savoury), consegnâ (to consign), il famei (servant), spesseâ (to hurry along), preparâ (to prepare), la caglade (curd), il lat (milk), parecjâ (to dress), meti (to put), devant di (before), stâ in pîts (to stand), sot di (under), un arbul (tree), mangjâ (to eat), domandâ (to ask), dulà (where), la femine (wife), rispuindi (to respond), dentri (inside), dissal (he said), il forest (foreigner), tornâ (to return), un an (year), vignî (to come), une volte (one time), il frut (male child), scoltâ (to hearken), la jentrade (entrance), juste (just), daûr di (behind), vieli (old), in là (beyond), dopomai che (it was long ago that), no… plui (no more), la robe (matter), par chel (therefore), ridi (to laugh), dibessôl (on one’s own), propit (squarely), cumò (now), butâ vie (to cast forth), vê di (to have to), tornâ a vê (to regain), la frescjece (freshness), la zovine (young woman), un om (man).

Verse 6: Alore Abram al lè di corse (then Abraham went runningly) te tende di Sare (into Sarah’s tent) e i disè (and said unto her): cjol svelte trê miezuts di farine di flôr (take smart three measures of fine flour), impastile* (knead it), messedile* (blend it) e fâs trê fuiacis (and make three cakes). — *Of impastâ and messedâ, the second-person singular imperative forms are impaste and messede; before the addition of le (which stands in for the feminine farine di flôr), the final e becomes i: impastile, messedile.

Verse 7: Po Abram al corè là ch’e jere la mandrie (then Abraham ran thither where the herd was) e al cjapà un vidiel tenarut e saurît (and took a tender and savoury calf); jal* consegnà al famei (he consigned it unto the servant) che al spesseà a preparâlu (who hurried along to prepare it). — *Jal is a contraction of i + lu (unto him + it), where lu stands in for the masculine vidiel.

Verse 8: Al cjolè la caglade (he took the curd), il lat (the milk), il vidiel che al veve parecjât (the calf which he had dressed) e al metè dut devant di lôr (and put all before them); lui al stave in pîts dongje di lôr (he stood alongside them), sot dal arbul (under the tree), e lôr a mangjarin (and they ate).

Verse 9: I domandarin (they asked him): dulà ese* Sare, la tô femine? (where is thy wife Sarah?). Ur rispuindè (he responded unto them): e je dentri, te tende (she is inside, in the tent). — *Ese (or ise) is the interrogative form of e je.

Verse 10: Dissal il forest (the foreigner said): o tornarai chi di te l’an che al ven (I shall return hither unto thee the year which cometh); ta chê volte (in that time) Sare, la tô femine, e varà un frut (thy wife Sarah will have a male child). Sare e scoltave su la jentrade de tende (Sarah was hearkening at* the entrance of the tent), e e jere juste daûr di lui (and she was just behind him). — *Friulian expresses at the entrance as su la jentrade (literally, on the entrance). Another example: su la puarte, which, depending on the context, translates literally as on the door or on the gate, the meaning whereof is at the door or at the gate.

Verse 11: Abram e Sare a jerin viei* (Abraham and Sarah were old), in là cui agns (beyond with years), e Sare dopomai che (and it was long ago that Sarah) no veve plui lis sôs robis+ (would have her matters no more). — *Viei is the masculine plural of vieli (old). +Robis (matters) is employed euphemistically for menstruations.

Verse 12: Par chel Sare e ridè dibessole (therefore Sarah laughed on her own) disint dentri di sè (in saying inside herself): propit cumò che o soi di butâ vie (squarely now that I am to be cast forth) o varès di tornâ a vê (I ought to regain) la frescjece di une zovine (the freshness of a young woman); e l’om al è vieli (and the man is old).

Versets 13-21

Vocabulary: (to say), parcè po (why then), ridi (to laugh), dentri di sè (inside oneself), propit (squarely), parturî (to bear), dopo (after), vieli (old), alc (something), podê (can), (to do), un an (year), vignî (to come), la stagjon (season), tornâ (to return), la cjase (house), il frut (male child), dineâ (to deny), no… gran (not in the least), la pôre (fear), contindi (to contend), sì lafè (aye indeed), un om (man), jevâ sù (to arise), partî (to depart), di li (thence), rivâ (to arrive), in viodude di (in sight of), cjaminâ (to walk), dutun cun (together with), saludâ (to see off), cemût (how), platâ (to hide), la intenzion (intention), dal moment che (since), deventâ (to become), il popul (people), grant (great), fuart (mighty), benedî (to bless), la gjernazie (line), il mont (world), di fat (in fact), sielgi (to select), insegnâ (to instruct), il fi (son), la int (people), la strade (way), just (just), lâ ben (to be good), dome (but), cussì (so), rivâ a (to be able to), imprometi (to promise), joi (woe), il berli (outcry), cuintri di (against), cetant che (how much), il mâl (ill), volê (to will), lâ jù (to go down), viodi (to see), fin cassù (so far as up hither), savê un dret (to know for certain).

Verse 13: Ma il Signôr i disè a Abram (but the Lord said unto Abraham): parcè po Sare àe* ridût (why then hath Sarah laughed), disint dentri di sè (in saying inside herself): al sarès propit di ridi (it would be squarely laughable) che o parturissi dopo viele? (that I should bear after {having become} old?). — *Àe (or aie) is the interrogative form of e à.

Verse 14: Esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ?: is there something which God cannot do? L’an che al ven (the year which cometh), di cheste stagjon (in this season), jo o tornarai in cjase tô (I shall return into thy house) e Sare e varà un frut (and Sarah will have a male child).

Verse 15: Sare e dineà (Sarah denied): jo no ai ridût gran (I laughed not in the least) disè (she said), parcè che e veve pôre (for she had fear), ma lui al contindè (but he contended): sì lafè, che tu âs ridût (aye indeed, thou didst laugh).

Verse 16: I oms a jevarin sù (the men arose), a partirin di li (departed thence) e a rivarin in viodude di Sodome (and arrived in sight of Sodom). Abram al cjaminave dutun cun lôr (Abraham walked together with them) par saludâju (to see them off).

Verses 17-18: Il Signôr al disè dentri di sè (the Lord said inside himself): cemût fasio* a platâi a Abram (how am I to hide from Abraham) ce che o ai intenzion di fâ (that which I have intention of doing) dal moment che al deventarà (since he will become) un popul grant e fuart (a great and mighty people) e che in lui (and that in him) a saran benedidis dutis lis gjernaziis dal mont? (all the lines of the world will be blessed?). — *Fasio is the interrogative form of o fâs (I do). Consider: o fâs (I do); fasio? (do I?); cemût fasio? (how do I?).

Verse 19: Di fat jo lu ai sielzût (in fact I have selected him) par che ur insegni* ai siei fîs (that he may instruct his children) e a la sô int dopo di lui (and his people after him) a cjaminâ pe+ strade dal Signôr (to walk in the way of the Lord) fasint ce che al è just¬ (in doing that which is just) e che al va ben (and which is good); dome cussì il Signôr al rivarà a fâ par Abram (but so will the Lord be able to do for Abraham) ce che i à imprometût (that which he hath promised him). — *Consider the following: o insegni (I instruct); par che o insegni (that I may instruct). In the first example, the presint indicatîf is used, whereas the second employs the coniuntîf presint following par che; both verb forms are identical, however. In the first-person singular of regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, the two forms are the same: o feveli (I speak); par che o feveli (that I may speak). The difference between the two is apparent in the third-person singular: al insegne; par che al insegni (he instructeth; that he may instruct); al fevele; par che al feveli (he speaketh; that he may speak). Using the verb fevelâ, compare the presint indicatîf to the coniuntîf presint; these conjugations are presented in side-by-side format in the first table below. +Pe is a contraction of par + la. ¬For information, the four forms of the adjective just are: just (masculine singular); juscj (masculine plural); juste (feminine singular); justis (feminine plural).

Presint indicatîf — coniuntîf presint
Present indicative — present subjunctive

present indicative
present subjunctive
o feveli
o feveli
tu fevelis
tu fevelis
al fevele
al feveli

e fevele
e feveli

o fevelìn
o fevelìn
o fevelais
o fevelais
a fevelin
a fevelin

Compare moreover the coniuntîf presint to the coniuntîf imperfet, both of which are now presented below.

Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive imperfect subjunctive
o feveli o fevelàs
tu fevelis tu fevelassis
al feveli al fevelàs

e feveli e fevelàs

o fevelìn o fevelassin
o fevelais o fevelassis
a fevelin a fevelassin

Verse 20: Alore il Signôr al disè (then the Lord said): joi (woe), ce grant che al è il berli (how great is the outcry) cuintri di Sodome e Gomore (against Sodom and Gomorrah). Cetant mâl che a fasin: how much ill they do.

Verse 21: O vuei lâ jù a viodi (I will go down to see) se propit a àn fat o no dut chel mâl (if squarely they have or have not done all that ill) che mi rive fin cassù il berli cuintri di lôr (for the outcry against them arriveth unto me so far as up hither); dome cussì *o savarai* un dret (only so shall I know for certain). — *O savarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb savê.

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: un om (man), partî (to depart), di li (thence), (to go), simpri (ever), denant di (before), alore (then), lâ dongje (to go alongside), propit (squarely), distinâ (to destine), netâ vie (to clean away), il just (just man), il pecjadôr (sinner), salacor (perhaps), cincuante (fifty), la citât (city), fruçâ (to smite), volê (to will), sparagnâ (to spare), in gracie di (thanks unto), jessi a stâ (to dwell), dentri (inside), vê di (to have to), la part (part), il gjenar (sort), murî (to die), mai vie po (surely not), judicâ (to judge), il mont (world), intîr (entire), tibiâ (to downtrod), la justizie (justice), prin (first), rispuindi (to respond), rivâ adore di (to be able to), cjatâ (to find), jessi bon di (to be capable of), perdonâ (to pardon).

Verse 22: I oms a partirin di li (the men departed thence) e a lerin a Sodome (and went unto Sodom). Il Signôr al jere simpri denant di Abram: the Lord was ever before Abraham.

Verse 23: Alore Abram i lè dongje (then Abraham went alongside him) e i disè (and said unto him): âstu propit distinât di netâ vie il just (hast thou squarely destined to clean away the just man) dutun cul pecjadôr? (together with the sinner?).

Verse 24: Salacor *ant sarà* cincuante juscj (perhaps there will be fifty just men) in dute la citât (in all the city). Âstu propit distinât di fruçâju (hast thou squarely destined to smite them) e no tu vuelis sparagnâ la citât (and wilt thou not spare the city) in gracie di chei cincuante juscj (thanks unto those fifty just men) che a son a stâ dentri? (who dwell inside?). — *Ant sarà (or a ’nt sarà) is a contraction of al + indi + sarà. Indi (thereof) is a formal written form. In this verse, the use of indi is used to create a wording equivalent to the English there are; in other contexts, indi is rendered thereof. The text of this Bible generally prefers contracted forms of indi, which is also the usage of spoken language. Contraction is so performed: When the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d is changed to t; when the verb begins with a vowel, the final i again drops but the d is maintained. As for the initial i of indi, it drops when preceded by a vowel. (Note: The atonic al, for its part, first changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i of indi. The same applies to nol: it first changes to no, wherefore it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i of indi.) The reader must be prepared to encounter variations in the way contractions are spelt, especially with regard to the placement of apostrophes; for instance, the contraction ant is employed in this verse, but it may also appear as a ’nt. Consider now examples: a ’nd è (there is thereof); a ’nt sarà (there will be thereof); lui a ’nd à (he hath thereof); lui no ’nd à (he hath not thereof); o ’nd ai (I have thereof); no tu ’nd âs (thou hast not thereof); ind âstu? (hast thou thereof?); int viodistu? (seest thou thereof?); o ’nt viôt (I see thereof); o ’nt doi trê (I give three thereof); us int doi cuatri (I give you four thereof).

Verse 25: No tu âs di fâ une part dal gjenar (thou must not do a part of the sort), di fâ murî il just cul pecjadôr (to make the just man die with the sinner). Mai vie po: surely not. Chel che al judiche il mont intîr (that one who judgeth the entire world) al à di jessi propit lui (must it be squarely he himself) a tibiâ la justizie par prin? (to downtrod justice first?).

Verse 26: I rispuindè il Signôr (the Lord responded unto him): se o rivi adore di cjatâ (if I be able to find) in dute Sodome (in all Sodom) cincuante juscj (fifty just men), o soi bon di perdonâi a la citât interie (I am capable of pardoning the entire city) in gracie di lôr (thanks unto them).

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: continuâ (to continue), bon (good), il fiât (liver), fevelâ (to speak), il pulvin (dust), la cinise (ash), rivâ (to arrive), cincuante (fifty), il just (just man), mancjâ (to lack), salacor (perhaps), cinc (five), sintîsi di (to be disposed to), splantâ (to unplant), di raspe (utterly), la citât (city), rispuindi (to respond), cjatâ (to find), corantecinc (forty-five), tornâ a cjapâ (to take again), la peraule (word), (to say), vadì (suppose), corante (forty), dome (but), sparagnâ (to spare), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), lassâ (to let), pò stâi che (it may be that), trente (thirty), cjatâsi (to be found), cjastiâ (to punish), savê (to know), jessi (to be), sfaçât (impudent), cussì (so), forsit (perchance), vincj (twenty), fruçâ (to smite), inrabiâsi (to become angered), ultin (last), une volte (one time), pussibil (possible), almancul (at least), dîs (ten), in gracie di (thanks unto), finî (to finish), tratâ cun (to converse with), lâsint (to leave), tornâ (to return), la cjase (house).

Verse 27: Al continuà Abram (Abraham continued): o ai un bon fiât (*I have a good liver*) a fevelâi al gno Signôr (to speak unto my Lord), jo che o soi pulvin e cinise (I who am dust and ash). — *as in I am brazen

Verse 28: Ma, par rivâ a cincuante juscj (but to arrive at fifty just men), ant mancjarà salacor cinc (five thereof will perhaps lack): par cinc di lôr (for {want of the} five of them) ti sintaressistu (wouldest thou be disposed) di splantâ* di raspe dute la citât? (to unplant utterly all the city?). I rispuindè (he responded unto him): s’o+ cjati corantecinc juscj, no (if I find forty-five just men, nay). — *Regarding my rendering of splantâ as to unplant, see the notes at Gjenesi 13:10. +S’o is a contraction of se + o. The uncontracted se o is also possible.

Verse 29: Abram al tornà a cjapâ la peraule (Abraham took the word again) e al disè (and said): vadì che ant sarà dome corante (suppose there will be but forty), e i rispuindè (and he responded unto him): s’and è ancje dome corante (if there be also but forty), ju sparagni (I {shall} spare them).

Verse 30: Dissal Abram (Abraham said): *che nol stedi a* cjapâse il gno Signôr (may not my Lord take it unto himself) e che mi lassi dî (and may he let me say): pò stâi che s’int cjati trente (it may be that thirty be found), e i rispuindè (and he responded unto him): cun trente no ju cjastii+ (with thirty I punish them not). — *Che nol stedi a is used to form a negated imperative of the masculine, third-person singular. Consider these examples: no sta fevelâ (speak not; second-person singular); no stait a fevelâ (speak not; second-person plural); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak); che nol stedi a fevelâ (may he not speak). +O cjastii is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb cjastiâ.

Verse 31: Dissal (he said): o sai di jessi sfaçât (I know that I am impudent) a fevelâi cussì al gno Signôr (to speak so unto my Lord): ma forsit vincj s’int cjate (but perchance twenty be found), e i rispuindè (and he responded unto him): s’and è ancje vincj (if there be also {but} twenty) no ju fruci (I smite them not).

Verse 32: Dissal (he said): che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (may not my Lord become angered) se o feveli pe ultime volte (if I speak for the last time): pussibil mo che no ’nt sedi almancul dîs? (is it possible then that there be at least ten?), e i rispuindè (and he responded unto him): in gracie di chei dîs (thanks unto those ten), no ju fruçarai (I shall not smite them).

Verse 33: Finît di tratâ cun Abram (in having finished conversing with Abraham), il Signôr s’indi lè (the Lord left) e Abram al tornà a cjase sô (and Abraham returned unto his house).