Friulian language series: Gjenesi 18, visite di Sodome

The subject of which the eighteenth chapter of the book of Genesis treats is: la visite di Sodome (visit at Sodom).

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Verset 1

Vocabulary: comparî (to appear), il rôl (oak tree), intant che (whilst), jessi sentât (to be seated), fûr di (outside, out of), la tende (tent), la ore (hour, time), il plui (most), grant (great, big, large), cjalt (heat).

Il Signôr i comparì tal rôl di Mamre: the Lord appeared to him at the oak of Mamre.

Intant che al jere sentât fûr de tende: whilst he was sitting outside his tent. Jessi sentât means to be seated; sentâsi, on the other hand, means to sit down, to take a seat. Consider: mi soi sentât (I sat down); o jeri sentât (I was seated).

Su l’ore dal plui grant cjalt: at the time (hour) of the greatest heat. The Friulian for heat is the masculine cjalt; for cold (as a noun), it is the masculine frêt. Examples: il cjalt dal istât (the heat of summer); il frêt dal invier (the cold of winter). Cjalt and frêt are also used as adjectives meaning hot and cold. Examples: aghe frede (cold water); aghe cjalde (hot water); il moment plui cjalt de zornade (the hottest moment of the day). The Friulian for hour is the feminine ore. Supplemenatry examples: ce ore ise? (what time is it?); ca di une ore (one hour from now); za fa trê oris (three hours ago); cjaminâ par oris e straoris (to walk for hours and hours); a ce ore rivistu? (at what time do you arrive?); domandâ la ore (to ask for the time); par strade mi soi fermât dome che par domandâ la ore (when I was out, I stopped only to ask for the time).

Telling the time in Friulian. Ce ore ise?a son lis vot: what time is it? — it is eight o’clock. A ce ore rivistu?a lis vot: at what time do you arrive? — at eight o’clock. The feminine plural lis is used because oris is understood (lis {oris} vot). With one o’clock, the singular la is used: la une. When talking about the time, the feminine une and dôs are used to say one and two, never un or doi; this is because ore is a feminine noun. E je la une: it is one o’clock (it is one). A son lis dôs: it is two o’clock (it is two). A son lis trê: it is three o’clock (it is three). A lis cuatri: at four o’clock (at four). A lis cuatri e dîs: at ten past four (at four and ten). Lis cuatri e vincj: twenty past four (four and twenty). Lis cuatri e un cuart: quarter past four (four and a quarter). Lis cuatri e cuindis: four fifteen (four and fifteen). Lis sîs mancul dîs: ten to six (six less ten). Lis cinc e cincuante: five fifty (five and fifty). Lis sîs mancul un cuart: quarter to six (six less a quarter). Lis cinc e cuarantecinc: five forty-five (five and forty-five). A lis sîs mancul vincj: at twenty to six (at six less twenty). A lis cinc e cuarante: at five forty (at five and forty).

Mieze is the feminine form of mieç (half). A lis cuatri e mieze: at half past four (at four and a half). You can use di matine (in the morning) or sot sere (in the evening) to indicate morning and evening time, if the context has not made it clear. A lis siet di matine: at seven in the morning. A son lis siet sot sere: it is seven in the evening. In official style, hours 13 to 24 can be used; for instance: lis cuindis e cincuantecinc (15.55). The Friulian for midday, noon is the masculine misdì; for midnight, it is the feminine miezegnot. Al è misdì in pache: it is noon on the dot. A misdì in pache: at noon on the dot. Al è misdì mancul un cuart: it is a quarter to noon (it is noon less a quarter). A misdì e mieç: at half past noon (at noon and a half). A miezegnot e mieze: at half past midnight (at midnight and a half).

Other useful expressions: pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot (shortly before midnight [few minutes before midnight]); tor di misdì (about noon, towards noon); al vignarà tor siet (he will come at about seven); des cinc a lis vot sot sere (from five to eight in the evening). It is possible to drop the definite articles lis and la when telling the time: a cuatri (at four); a son cuatri e tredis (it is four thirteen); al è vignût a une (he came at one).

Versets 2-5

Vocabulary: alçâ (to raise, to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), trê (three), un om (man), il pît (foot), in pîts (standing), devant di (before, in front of), a pene che (so soon as), cori incuintri (to run up to), la jentrade (entrance), la tende (tent), butâsi (to throw oneself), par tiere (on the ground), butâsi par tiere (to take to the ground {in deference}), (to say), il paron (lord), preâ (to pray), ti prei (I pray you, please), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), no sta (do not), passâ dret (to pass over, to pass by), il famei (servant), cence (without), fermâsi (to come to a halt), lassâ (to let, to allow), puartâ (to bring, to take), un pôc di (a little, a bit of), la aghe (water), lavâ (to wash), podê (may, can, to be able), distirâsi (to lie down, to stretch out), sot di (under, below), un arbul (tree), (to go), cjoli (to take, to get), un toc di (a little, a bit of), il pan (bread), ristorâsi (to replenish oneself), prime di (before), lâ indevant (to continue [on one’s way]), par chel (for that reason), vignî (to come), chi (here), rispuindi (to respond), (to do, to make).

Verse 2: Alçant i vôi (lifting his eyes), al viodè trê oms (he saw three men) in pîts (standing [on foot (in feet)]) devant di lui (before him). Alçant is the present participle of the verb alçâ, meaning to raise, to lift. The plural of the masculine voli (eye) is voi, found here in variant spelling vôi. The Friulian for foot is the masculine pît; the plural pîts is pronounced pîs. One’s right foot is il pît dret; the left foot is il pît çamp. Related: The Friulian for finger is il dêt; the toes are called i dêts dal pît (fingers of the foot). The text of this verse continues: a pene che ju viodè (so soon as he saw them), ur corè incuintri (he ran up to them) de jentrade de tende (from the entrance of the tent) e si butà par tiere (and took to the ground). Abraham’s taking to the ground is to be understood as his going down to the ground in deference. Incuintri can be understood as meaning towards; ur corè incuintri (he ran up to them [unto them he ran towards]).

Verse 3: Abraham says: paron (my lord), ti prei (please), se tu mi âs a grât (if you have me in your favour), no sta passâ dret devant dal to famei (do not pass right before your servant) cence fermâti (with stopping in [without stopping yourself]).

Verse 4: Lassait che si us puarti un pocje di aghe (let a bit of water be brought to you [let that a bit of water be brought to you]): us lavarai i pîts (I will wash your feet [unto you I will wash the feet]) e o podarês distirâsi sot dal arbul (and you may [will be able] to lie down under the tree). Consider: un pôc di pan (a bit of bread); un pocje di aghe (a bit of water); pan is a masculine noun, whereas aghe is feminine. Consider also: si puarte (is brought); lassait che si puarti (let be brought).

Verse 5: O voi a cjoli un toc di pan (let me fetch a bit of bread [I go to take a bit of bread]) par che o podês ristorâsi (that you may replenish yourselves) prime di lâ indevant (before continuing on your way [before going forwards]). O voi (I go, I am going) must be taken literally and not as a sort of future tense; the sense of it is I am off at this very moment; I am going just now. Consider the following, using the verb studiâ (to study): o studiarai il polac (I will study Polish; I am going to study Polish [in the future]); o voi a studiâ il polac (I am off just now to study Polish). No esal par chel che o sês vignûts chi dal vuestri famei?: is it not for that reason that you have come here to your servant? I rispuinderin: they responded to him. The men say to Abraham: fâs ce che tu âs dit (do as you have said [do that which you have said]). Isal is the interrogative form of al è, and esal is a variant of isal. Observe: al è par chel che… (it is for that reason that…); isal par chel che…?, esal par chel che…? (is it for that reason that…?); no isal par chel che…?, no esal par chel che…? (is it not for that reason that…?).

Versets 6-12

Vocabulary: alore (then, so), lâ di corse (to rush off), la tende (tent), (to say), cjoli (to take), svelt (quick, quickly, fast), trê (three), un miezut di (a measure of), la farine (flour), la farine di flôr (fine flour), impastâ (to knead), messedâ (to blend, to mix), (to make, to do), la fuiace (flatbread, unleavened cake), po (then), cori (to run), la mandrie (herd), cjapâ (to take), il vidiel (calf), tenarut (tender), saurît (savoury, tasty), consegnâ (to give, to hand over), il famei (servant), spesseâ (to hasten, to hurry), preparâ (to prepare), la caglade (curd), il lat (milk), parecjâ (to prepare, to dress), meti (to put, to place), devant di (before, in front of), stâ in pîts (to be standing), dongje di (by, alongside), sot di (below, under), un arbul (tree), mangjâ (to eat), domandâ (to ask), dulà (where), la femine (wife), rispuindi (to respond), dentri (inside), dissal (he said), il forest (foreigner), tornâ (to return, to come back), un an (year), vignî (to come), la volte (time), il frut (boy), scoltâ (to listen), la jentrade (entrance), juste (scarcely, barely, just), daûr di (behind), vieli (old, aged), in là (beyond), dopomai che (it was long ago that), no… plui (no more), la robe (thing, matter), par chel (for that reason), ridi (to laugh), dibessôl (to oneself, on one’s own), propit (right, squarely), cumò (now), butâ vie (to take out, to carry away), vê di (must, to have to), tornâ a vê (to regain, to get back), la frescjece (freshness), la zovine (young woman), un om (man).

Verse 6: Alore Abram al lè di corse te tende di Sare: so Abraham rushed into Sarah’s tent. He instructs her: cjol svelte trê miezuts di farine di flôr (quick, take three measures of fine flour), impastile (knead it), messedile (blend it) e fâs trê fuiacis (and make three cakes [three flatbreads]). The second-person singular imperative forms of impastâ and messedâ are impaste and messede; when le is added (which stands in here for the feminine farine di flôr), the final e becomes i: impastile, messedile. Supplementary language: messedâ sâl e farine (to blend salt and flour); al è miôr no messedâ bire e vin (it is best not to mix beer and wine); impastâ aghe, farine e levan par fâ il pan (to knead water, flour and leaven to make bread).

Verse 7: Po Abram al corè là ch’e jere la mandrie (Abraham then ran to where the herd was) e al cjapà un vidiel tenarut e saurît (and took a tender and savoury calf); jal consegnà al famei (he put it into the charge of a servant [he handed it over (consigned it) to the servant]) che al spesseà a preparâlu (who hastened to prepare it). Jal is a contraction of i + lu (unto him + it), where lu stands in for the masculine vidiel.

Verse 8: Al cjolè la caglade (he took the curd), il lat (the milk), il vidiel che al veve parecjât (the calf that he had prepared) e al metè dut devant di lôr (and set the whole before them); lui al stave in pîts dongje di lôr (he stood [was standing] alongside them), sot dal arbul (beneath the tree), e lôr a mangjarin (and they ate).

Verse 9: Abraham is asked: dulà ese Sare, la tô femine? (where is your wife Sarah?). He says: e je dentri (she is inside), te tende (in the tent). Ise is the interrogative form of e je, and ese is a variant of it. Consider: e je dentri (she is inside); ise dentri?; ese dentri? (is she inside?); dulà ise?, dulà ese? (where is she?).

Verse 10: Dissal il forest: the stranger said; the outsider said. He says to Abraham: o tornarai chi di te (I will return here to you) l’an che al ven (next year [the year that is coming]); ta chê volte (at that time) Sare, la tô femine (your wife Sarah), e varà un frut (shall have a son [boy]). Sare e scoltave su la jentrade de tende, e e jere juste daûr di lui: Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent, and she was just behind him. E e jere: and she was; the first e means and, whereas the second is the atonic e meaning she.

Verse 11: Abram e Sare a jerin viei (Abraham and Sarah were old), in là cui agns (advanced in years [beyond with the years]), e Sare dopomai che (and it was long ago that Sarah) no veve plui lis sôs robis (had stopped having her monthly matters [was having her matters no more]). I have included monthly for clarity; the matters here referred to are Sarah’s menstruations. Viei is the plural of the adjective vieli (old).

Verse 12: Par chel Sare e ridè dibessole disint dentri di sè (Sarah therefore laughed to herself, thinking [saying within herself]): propit cumò (just now) che o soi di butâ vie (that I am to be carried away*) o varès di tornâ a vê (I am to regain [I would have to return to having]) la frescjece di une zovine (the youthfulness [freshness] of a young woman); e l’om al è vieli (and my husband [the man] is old). *That is to say, near death; the use of butâ vie here is quite impactful in the Friulian, for it is more often employed in the sense of to throw out, to discard. Consider: o ai butât vie i gjornâi vecjos (I threw the old newspapers away).

Versets 13-21

Vocabulary: (to say), parcè po (why then), ridi (to laugh), dentri di (inside, within), propit (truly, indeed), parturî (to bear, to give birth), dopo (after, following), vieli (old), alc (something, anything), podê (may, can, to be able), (to do, to make), un an (year), vignî (to come), la stagjon (season), tornâ (to return, to come back), la cjase (house), il frut (boy), dineâ (to deny), no… gran (not in the least), la pôre (fear), contindi (to refute, to contest), sì lafè (yes indeed), un om (man), jevâ sù (to arise, to get up), partî (to leave, to depart), di li (from there), rivâ (to arrive, to come), in viodude di (within sight of), cjaminâ (to walk), dutun cun (along with), saludâ (to see off), cemût (how), platâ (to conceal, to hide), la intenzion (intention), dal moment che (given that), deventarâ (to become), il popul (people), grant (great, big), fuart (strong, mighty), benedî (to bless), la gjernazie (bloodline), il mont (world), di fat (in point of fact), sielzi (to choose), insegnâ (to instruct), il fi (son), la int (people), la strade (way, road), just (just, righteous), lâ ben (to be right), dome (only, but), cussì (thus, so), rivâ a fâ (to be able to do, to manage to do), imprometi (to promise), joi (oh, ah, woe), il berli (outcry), cuintri di (against), il mâl (wrong, evil), volê (to want), lâ jù (to go down), viodi (to see), fin cassù (all the way up here), savê un dret (to know for sure).

Verse 13: To Abraham the Lord says: parcè po Sare àe ridût (why then did Sarah laugh), disint dentri di sè (saying to herself [within herself]): al sarès propit di ridi (it would be laughable indeed) che o parturissi dopo viele (that I should give birth so old [after (having become) old]). Aie is the interrogative form of e à, and àe is a variant thereof. Consider: e à (she has); e à ridût (she has laughed); aie ridût? (has she laughed?); parcè po aie ridût? (why then has she laughed?).

Verse 14: Esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ?: is there anything that God cannot do? L’an che al ven, di cheste stagjon, jo o tornarai in cjase tô e Sare e varà un frut: next year (the year that is coming), in this season, I will return to your house and Sarah shall have a son (boy).

Verse 15: Sare e dineà: Sarah denied it. Jo no ai ridût gran: I most certainly did not laugh. Vê pôre (to be afraid) translates literally as to have fear; Sarah, from fear, denies having laughed: parcè che e veve pôre (for she was afraid [for she was having fear]). Ma lui al contindè: sì lafè, che tu âs ridût: but he refuted: you most certainly did laugh.

Verse 16: I oms a jevarin sù (the men arose), a partirin di li (departed from there) e a rivarin in viodude di Sodome (and came within sight of Sodom). Abram al cjaminave dutun cun lôr par saludâju: Abraham walked with them (was walking along with them) to see them off.

Verses 17-18: Il Signôr al disè dentri di sè (the Lord said to himself [within himself]): cemût fasio a platâi a Abram (how can I conceal from Abraham [how do I do to conceal from Abraham]) ce che o ai intenzion di fâ (what I intend to do [that which I have the intention of doing]) dal moment che al deventarà un popul grant e fuart (given that he shall become a great and mighty nation [people]) e che in lui (and that by him) a saran benedidis dutis lis gjernaziis dal mont? (all the bloodlines of the world shall be blessed?). Fasio is the interrogative form of o fâs (I do). Consider: o fâs (I do); fasio? (do I do?); cemût fasio? (how do I do?; how am I to do?). The four forms of the adjective grant are: grant (masculine singular); grancj (masculine plural); grande (feminine singular); grandis (feminine plural). The four forms of the adjective fuart are: fuart (masculine singular); fuarts (masculine plural); fuarte (feminine singular); fuartis (feminine plural). Supplementary examples of the adjective fuart: un om une vore fuart (a very strong man); fuart tant che un taur (as strong as a bull); jessi fuart di panze (to have a big belly); e je fuarte di pet (she has a big bosom); un fumadôr fuart (a heavy smoker); spagnolets fuarts (strong cigarettes).

Verse 19: Di fat jo lu ai sielzût (I have, in point of fact, chosen him) par che ur insegni ai siei fîs (that he may instruct his children) e a la sô int dopo di lui (and his people after him) a cjaminâ pe strade dal Signôr (to walk in the way of the Lord) fasint ce che al è just (doing what is just) e che al va ben (and what is right); dome cussì il Signôr al rivarà a fâ par Abram (only thus shall the Lord come to do for Abraham) ce che i à imprometût (what he has promised him [that which he has promised to him]). Pe is a contraction of par + la. The four forms of the adjective just are: just (masculine singular); juscj (masculine plural); juste (feminine singular); justis (feminine plural). Consider the following: o insegni (I instruct); par che o insegni (in order that I may teach); in the first example, the presint indicatîf is used, whereas the second employs the coniuntîf presint following par che — both verb forms are identical, however. In the first-person singular of regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, the two forms are the same: o feveli (I speak); par che o feveli (in order that I may speak). The difference between the two becomes apparent in the third-person singular: al insegne; par che al insegni (he teaches; in order that he may teach); al fevele; par che al feveli (he speaks; in order that he may speak). Using the verb fevelâ, compare the presint indicatîf to the coniuntîf presint.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf — coniuntîf presint
Present indicative — present subjunctive

present indicative
present subjunctive
jo
o feveli
o feveli
tu
tu fevelis
tu fevelis
lui
al fevele
al feveli

e fevele
e feveli

o fevelìn
o fevelìn
vualtris
o fevelais
o fevelais
lôr
a fevelin
a fevelin

Compare now the coniuntîf presint to the coniuntîf imperfet.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive imperfect subjunctive
jo
o feveli o fevelàs
tu
tu fevelis tu fevelassis
lui
al feveli al fevelàs

e feveli e fevelàs

o fevelìn o fevelassin
vualtris
o fevelais o fevelassis
lôr
a fevelin a fevelassin

Verse 20: The Lord then says: joi (oh), ce grant che al è il berli cuintri di Sodome e Gomore (how great is the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah). Cetant mâl che a fasin: how wicked are their ways (so much wickedness that they commit [do]).

Verse 21: O vuei lâ jù (I will go down) a viodi (to see) se propit a àn fat o no dut chel mâl (whether or not they have committed all that wrong [if indeed they have done or not all that wrong]) che mi rive fin cassù il berli cuintri di lôr (for the outcry against them has come up to me [comes to me up here]); dome cussì o savarai un dret (only thus will I know for certain). O savarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb savê.

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: un om (man), partî (to depart, to leave), di li (from there), (to go), simpri (still, yet), denant di (before, in front of), alore (then, so), lâ dongje (to draw near, to approach), propit (truly, indeed), distinâ (to determine), netâ vie (to wipe out), il just (righteous person), il pecjadôr (sinner), salacor (perhaps), cincuante (fifty), la citât (city, town), fruçâ (to destroy), volê (to want), sparagnâ (to spare), in gracie di (thanks to, on account of), jessi a stâ (to dwell), dentri (inside, within), vê di fâ (must do), la part (deed, action), il gjenar (sort, kind), fâ murî (to kill), mai vie po (not so), judicâ (to judge), il mont (world), intîr (entire), tibiâ (to stamp out), la justizie (righteousness), prin (first), rispuindi (to respond), rivâ adore di (to manage to, to be able to), cjatâ (to find), jessi bon di (to be capable of, to be willing to), perdonâ (to forgive, to pardon).

Verse 22: I oms a partirin di li e a lerin a Sodome: the men departed from there and went to Sodom. Il Signôr al jere simpri denant di Abram: the Lord was yet before Abraham.

Verse 23: Alore Abram i lè dongje: Abraham then drew near to him. He says: âstu propit distinât di netâ vie (have you indeed determined to wipe out) il just dutun cul pecjadôr? (the righteous along with the sinner?). Pecjadôr is the Friulian for sinner; as for sin, it is the masculine pecjât. Examples: al è un pecjât (it is a sin); vivi tal pecjât (to live in sin).

Verse 24: Abraham continues: salacor ant sarà cincuante juscj in dute la citât (what if there are fifty righteous in all the city? [perhaps thereof will be fifty righteous in all the city]). He continues: âstu propit distinât di fruçâju (have you indeed determined to destroy them) e no tu vuelis sparagnâ la citât (and will you not spare the city) in gracie di chei cincuante juscj (for the sake of [thanks to] those fifty righteous) che a son a stâ dentri? (who dwell within?). Ant sarà (or a ’nt sarà) is a contraction of al + indi + sarà. Indi (of it, of them, thereof) is a formal written form. In the text, contracted forms of indi are preferred, which is also the usage of spoken language: if the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d changes to t; if the verb begins with a vowel, the d is maintained after the dropping of the final i. The initial i of indi drops when it is preceded by a vowel. (Note: Al first changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i. The same applies to nol: it first changes to no, meaning it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i.) What is described here pertains to standard Friulian spelling. In the Friulian Bible that you are reading, deviations from this standard can be found. As you progress, you will come to recognise them. Pronunciation note: Say the English word ring aloud; the ng sound at the end is the same sound made by ’nt. This means that a ’nt sounds like ang, and o ’nt sounds like ong. Int sounds like ing. (This is not the case for ’nd. For instance, a ’nd è sounds like andè.) Consider: a ’nd è (there is of it/them; there is thereof); a ’nt sarà (there will be of it/them; there will be thereof); lui a ’nd à (he has of it/them; he has thereof); lui no ’nd à (he has not of it/them; he has not thereof); o ’nd ai (I have of it/them; I have thereof); no tu ’nd âs (you do not have of it/them; you have not thereof); ind âstu? (have you of it/them?; have you thereof?); int vuelistu? (do you want of it/them?; do you want thereof?); o ’nt viôt (I see of it/them; I see thereof); o ’nt vuei trê (I want three of them; I want three thereof); us int doi cuatri (I give you four of them; I give you four thereof). Not so in Friulian: one must say, via the use of indi, I want two of them, I do not have any of it, etc. As an example, one does not say in Friulian us doi cuatri (as in the English I give you four); rather one says: us int doi cuatri (I give you four of them).

Verse 25: No tu âs di fâ une part dal gjenar (you must not do a deed of the sort), di fâ murî il just cul pecjadôr (that of killing [making die] the righteous along with the sinner). Mai vie po: not so; indeed not. Abraham asks: chel che al judiche il mont intîr (he who judges the entire world) al à di jessi propit lui (must it be he himself) a tibiâ la justizie par prin? (to stamp out righteousness first?).

Verse 26: The Lord responds to Abraham: se o rivi adore di cjatâ (if I am able to find) in dute Sodome (in all of Sodom) cincuante juscj (fifty righteous), o soi bon di perdonâi a la citât interie (I am willing to forgive the entire city [unto the entire city]) in gracie di lôr (for their sake [thanks to them]).

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: continuâ (to continue), il fiât (liver), fevelâ (to speak), il pulvin (dust), la cinise (ash), rivâ (to arrive, to come), cincuante (fifty), il just (righteous person), mancjâ (to be lacking), salacor (perhaps), cinc (five), sintîsi di (to be disposed to), splantâ (to destroy), di raspe (utterly), la citât (city, town), rispuindi (to respond), cjatâ (to find), corantecinc (forty-five; also cuarantecinc), tornâ a fâ (to do again), cjapâ la peraule (to speak up), (to say), vadì (suppose), corante (forty; also cuarante), ancje dome (even only), sparagnâ (to spare), cjapâse (to get angry, to become incensed), lassâ (to let, to allow), pò stâi che (it could be that), trente (thirty), cjastiâ (to punish), savê (to know), jessi (to be), sfaçât (impertinent, brazen), cussì (thus, so), forsit (maybe), vincj (twenty), fruçâ (to destroy), inrabiâsi (to get angy, to become infuriated), ultin (last), la volte (time), pussibil mo che (what then if), almancul (at least), dîs (ten), in gracie di (on account of, thanks to), finî (to finish, to end), tratâ cun (to converse with), lâsint (to depart, to go away), tornâ (to return, to go/come back), la cjase (house).

Verse 27: Al continuà Abram: Abraham continued. The masculine fiât is the Friulian for liver; it is used figuratively here in the sense of brazenness, boldness: o ai un bon fiât (I am brazen [I have real liver]) a fevelâi al gno Signôr (to speak to my Lord), jo che o soi pulvin e cinise (I who am dust and ash).

Verse 28: Ma, par rivâ a cincuante juscj (but to come to fifty righteous), ant mancjarà salacor cinc (five thereof will perhaps be lacking); for clarity: what if the fifty righteous should lack five? Par cinc di lôr ti sintaressistu di splantâ di raspe dute la citât?: for want of those five (for five of them), are you disposed (would you be disposed) to utterly destroy the entire city? Tu tu ti sintaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the reflexive sintîsi. The Lord replies: s’o cjati corantecinc juscj, no (not if I find forty-five righteous [if I find forty-five righteous, no]). S’o is a contraction of se + o; the uncontracted se o is also possible.

Verse 29: Abram al tornà a cjapâ la peraule: Abraham spoke up again ([returned to taking the word]). He says: vadì che ant sarà dome corante (what if there are but forty? [suppose that thereof will be but forty]). The Lord responds: s’and è ancje dome corante (should there even be but forty [if thereof are (is) even but forty]), ju sparagni (I will spare them [I spare them]).

Verse 30: Abraham says: che nol stedi a cjapâse il gno Signôr (let not my Lord become incensed) e che mi lassi dî (and may he allow me to say): pò stâi che s’int cjati trente (what if thirty are found? [could be that thereof thirty are found]). The Lord answers: cun trente no ju cjastii (if thirty are found [with thirty], I will not punish them [I punish them not]). Che nol stedi is used here to form a masculine, third-person singular negated imperative; consider: no sta fevelâ (do not speak; second-person singular); no stait a fevelâ (do not speak; second-person plural); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak); che nol stedi a fevelâ (let him not speak; may he not speak). Cjapâse (to get angry) is a contraction of cjapâ + si + le (to take + unto oneself + it). Following pò stâi che, the subjunctive is used. O cjastii is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb cjastiâ.

Verse 31: Abraham speaks again: o sai di jessi sfaçât (I know that I am impudent) a fevelâi cussì al gno Signôr (to speak to my Lord thus): ma forsit vincj s’int cjate (but what if twenty are found? [but maybe twenty thereof are found]). The Lord returns: s’and è ancje vincj (should there be even twenty [if thereof are (is) even twenty]) no ju fruci (I will not destroy them [I destroy them not]).

Verse 32: Abraham speaks one last time: che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (let not my Lord become infuriated) se o feveli pe ultime volte (if I speak for the last time): pussibil mo che no ’nt sedi almancul dîs? (what then if there are at least ten [possible now that thereof should be at least ten]?). The Lord says: in gracie di chei dîs (for the sake of those ten [thanks to those ten]), no ju fruçarai (I will not destroy them).

Verse 33: Finît di tratâ cun Abram (having finished conversing with Abraham), il Signôr s’indi lè (the Lord departed) e Abram al tornà a cjase sô (and Abraham returned to his place [returned home]).