Friulian language series: Gjenesi 18, visite di Sodome

The subject whereof the eighteenth chapter of the book of Genesis treats is: la visite di Sodome (visit at Sodom).

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Verset 1

Il Signôr i comparì tal rôl di Mamre (the Lord appeared to him at [in] the oak of Mamre), intant che al jere sentât (whilst he was seated) fûr de tende (outside the tent) su l’ore dal plui grant cjalt (at [on] the hour of the greatest heat).

Vocabulary: comparî (to appear), il rôl (oak), intant che (whilst), jessi sentât (to be seated), fûr di (outside), la tende (tent), la ore (hour), il plui (most), grant (great), cjalt (heat).

The Friulian for heat is the masculine cjalt; for cold (as a noun), it is the masculine frêt. Examples: il cjalt dal istât (the heat of summer); il frêt dal invier (the cold of winter). Cjalt and frêt are also used as adjectives meaning hot and cold. Examples: aghe frede (cold water); aghe cjalde (hot water); il moment plui cjalt de zornade (the hottest moment of the day).

The Friulian for hour is the feminine ore. Supplemenatry examples: ce ore ise? (what time is it?); ca di une ore (one hour hence); za fa trê oris (three hours ago); cjaminâ par oris e straoris (to walk for hours and hours); a ce ore rivistu? (at what time do you arrive?); domandâ la ore (to ask for the time).

Telling the time in Friulian

Ce ore ise?a son lis vot: what time is it? — it is eight o’clock. A ce ore rivistu?a lis vot: at what time do you arrive? — at eight o’clock. The feminine plural lis is used, for oris is understood (lis {oris} vot). With one o’clock, the singular la is used: la une. When telling the time, the feminine une and dôs are employed to say one and two, never un or doi, for ore is a feminine noun. E je la une: it is one {o’clock}. A son lis dôs: it is two {o’clock}. A son lis trê: it is three {o’clock}. A lis cuatri: at four {o’clock}. A lis cuatri e dîs: at ten past four [at four and ten]. Lis cuatri e vincj: twenty past four [four and twenty]. Lis cuatri e un cuart: quarter past four [four and a quarter]. Lis cuatri e cuindis: four fifteen [four and fifteen]. Lis sîs mancul dîs: ten to six [six less ten]. Lis cinc e cincuante: five fifty [five and fifty]. Lis sîs mancul un cuart: quarter to six [six less a quarter]. Lis cinc e cuarantecinc: five forty-five [five and forty-five]. A lis sîs mancul vincj: at twenty to six [at six less twenty]. A lis cinc e cuarante: at five forty [at five and forty].

Mieze is the feminine form of mieç (half). A lis cuatri e mieze: at half past four [at four and a half]. Di matine (in the morning) and sot sere (in the evening) may be employed to indicate morning and evening time, if the context has not made it clear. A lis siet di matine: at seven in the morning. A son lis siet sot sere: it is seven in the evening. In official style, hours 13 to 24 may be used; for instance: lis cuindis e cincuantecinc (15.55). The Friulian for midday is the masculine misdì; for midnight, it is the feminine miezegnot. Al è misdì in pache: it is noon on the dot. A misdì in pache: at noon on the dot. Al è misdì mancul un cuart: it is a quarter to noon [it is noon less a quarter]. A misdì e mieç: at half past noon [at noon and a half]. A miezegnot e mieze: at half past midnight [at midnight and a half].

Other useful expressions: pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot (few minutes before midnight); tor di misdì (round noon); al vignarà tor siet (he will come round seven); des cinc a lis vot sot sere (from five to eight in the evening). It is possible to drop the definite articles lis and la when telling the time: a cuatri (at four); a son cuatri e tredis (it is four thirteen); al è vignût a une (he came at one).

Versets 2-5

Vocabulary: alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), trê (three), un om (man), il pît (foot), in pîts (standing), devant di (before), a pene che (so soon as), cori incuintri (to run unto), la jentrade (entrance), la tende (tent), butâsi par tiere (to cast oneself to the ground), (to say), il paron (lord), preâ (to pray), vê a grât (to have in one’s favour), no sta (do not), passâ dret (to pass over), il famei (servant), cence (without), fermâsi (to halt oneself), lassâ (to let), puartâ (to bear), un pôc di (a bit of), la aghe (water), lavâ (to wash), podê (to be able), distirâsi (to lie oneself down), sot di (under), un arbul (tree), (to go), cjoli (to take), un toc di (a bit of), il pan (bread), ristorâsi (to replenish oneself), prime di (before), indevant (forwards), vignî (to come), chi (hither), rispuindi (to respond), (to do).

Verse 2: Alçant* i vôi (lifting his eyes), al viodè trê oms (he saw three men) +in pîts+ devant di lui (standing before him). A pene che ju viodè (so soon as he saw them), ur corè incuintri (he ran unto them) de jentrade de tende (from the entrance of the tent) e si butà par tiere (and cast himself to the ground). — *Alçant is the present participle of the verb alçâ (to lift). +The Friulian for foot is the masculine pît; its plural pîts is pronounced pîs. As for in pîts (literally, in feet), this may be read as standing.

Verse 3: Al disè (he said): paron, ti prei ({my} lord, I pray you), se tu mi âs a grât (if you have me in your favour), no sta passâ dret devant dal to famei (pass not over before your servant) cence fermâti (without halting yourself).

Verse 4: Lassait che si us puarti *un pocje di aghe* (let that a bit of water may be borne unto you): +us lavarai i pîts+ (I will wash your feet) e o podarês distirâsi sot dal arbul (and you will be able to lie yourself down under the tree). — *Consider the following two examples: un pocje di aghe (a bit of water), but un pôc di pan (a bit of bread). Aghe is a feminine noun, whereas pan is feminine. +Taken apart: us (unto you) lavarai (I will wash) i pîts (the feet), which is to say, I will wash your feet.

Verse 5: *O voi* a cjoli un toc di pan (I am going {just now} to take a bit of bread) par che o podês ristorâsi (that you may replenish yourselves) prime di lâ indevant (before going forwards); no esal+ par chel (is it not for that {reason}) che o sês vignûts chi (that you have come hither) dal vuestri famei? (unto your servant?). I rispuinderin (they responded): fâs ce che tu âs dit (do that which you have said). — *O voi (I go; I am going) must be taken literally and not as a future time construction. Consider the difference between the following two instances, which employ the verb studiâ (to study): o studiarai il polac; o voi a studiâ il polac. The first expresses future time (I will study Polish; I am going to study Polish); the second expresses present time (I am going {just now} to study Polish), as in the speaker is heading off to study at the moment of the utterance. O voi a studiâ il polac never expresses the English I am going to study Polish {next month, next year…}. +Esal (or isal) is the interrogative form of al è.

Versets 6-12

Vocabulary: alore (then), lâ di corse (to rush off), la tende (tent), (to say), cjoli (to take), svelt (smart), trê (three), un miezut di (a measure of), la farine (flour), la farine di flôr (fine flour), impastâ (to knead), messedâ (to blend), (to make), la fuiace (cake), po (then), cori (to run), la mandrie (herd), cjapâ (to take), il vidiel (calf), tenarut (tender), saurît (savoury), consegnâ (to consign), il famei (servant), spesseâ (to hurry along), preparâ (to prepare), la caglade (curd), il lat (milk), parecjâ (to dress), meti (to put), devant di (before), stâ in pîts (to stand), sot di (under), un arbul (tree), mangjâ (to eat), domandâ (to ask), dulà (where), la femine (wife), rispuindi (to respond), dentri (inside), dissal (he said), il forest (foreigner), tornâ (to return), un an (year), vignî (to come), la volte (time), il frut (male child), scoltâ (to listen), la jentrade (entrance), juste (just), daûr di (behind), vieli (old), in là (beyond), dopomai che (it was long ago that), no… plui (no more), la robe (matter), par chel (therefore), ridi (to laugh), dibessôl (on one’s own), propit cumò (just now), butâ vie (to cast forth), vê di (to have to), tornâ a vê (to regain), la frescjece (freshness), la zovine (young woman), un om (man).

Verse 6: Alore Abram al lè di corse (then Abraham rushed off) te tende di Sare (into Sarah’s tent) e i disè (and said to her): cjol svelte trê miezuts di farine di flôr (take smart three measures of fine flour), impastile* (knead it), messedile* (blend it) e fâs trê fuiacis (and make three cakes). — *Of impastâ and messedâ, the second-person singular imperative forms are impaste and messede; before the addition of le (which stands in for the feminine farine di flôr), the final e becomes i: impastile, messedile.

Verse 7: Po Abram al corè là ch’e jere la mandrie (then Abraham ran to where the herd was) e al cjapà un vidiel tenarut e saurît (and took a tender and savoury calf); jal* consegnà al famei (he consigned it to the servant) che al spesseà a preparâlu (who hurried along to prepare it). — *Jal is a contraction of i + lu (unto him + it), where lu stands in for the masculine vidiel.

Verse 8: Al cjolè la caglade (he took the curd), il lat (the milk), il vidiel che al veve parecjât (the calf which he had dressed) e al metè dut devant di lôr (and put all before them); lui al stave in pîts dongje di lôr (he stood alongside them), sot dal arbul (under the tree), e lôr a mangjarin (and they ate).

Verse 9: I domandarin (they asked him): dulà ese* Sare, la tô femine? (where is your wife Sarah?). Ur rispuindè (he responded to them): e je dentri, te tende (she is inside, in the tent). — *Ese (or ise) is the interrogative form of e je.

Verse 10: Dissal il forest (the foreigner said): o tornarai chi di te *l’an che al ven* (I will return hither to you the coming year); ta chê volte (at [in] that time) Sare, la tô femine, e varà un frut (your wife Sarah shall have a male child). Sare e scoltave su la jentrade de tende (Sarah was listening at [on+] the entrance of the tent), e e jere juste daûr di lui (and she was just behind him). — *L’an che al ven: literally, the year which comes or is coming. +Friulian expresses at the entrance as su la jentrade (literally, on the entrance). Another example: su la puarte, which, depending on the context, translates literally as on the door or on the gate, the meaning whereof is at the door or at the gate.

Verse 11: Abram e Sare a jerin viei* (Abraham and Sarah were old), in là cui agns (beyond with years), e Sare dopomai che (and it was long ago that Sarah) no veve plui lis sôs robis+ (would have her matters no more). — *Viei: masculine plural of vieli (old). +Robis (matters) is employed euphemistically for menstruations.

Verse 12: Par chel Sare e ridè dibessole (therefore Sarah laughed on her own) disint dentri di sè (saying within herself): propit cumò che o soi di butâ vie (just now that I am to be cast forth) o varès di tornâ a vê (I ought to regain) la frescjece di une zovine (the freshness of a young woman); e l’om al è vieli (and the man is old).

Versets 13-21

Vocabulary: (to say), parcè po (why then), ridi (to laugh), dentri di sè (within oneself), propit (just), parturî (to bear), dopo (after), vieli (old), alc (anything), podê (can), (to do), un an (year), vignî (to come), la stagjon (season), tornâ (to return), la cjase (house), il frut (male child), dineâ (to deny), no… gran (not in the least), la pôre (fear), contindi (to contend), sì lafè (yes indeed), un om (man), jevâ sù (to arise), partî (to depart), di li (thence), rivâ (to arrive), in viodude di (in sight of), cjaminâ (to walk), dutun cun (together with), saludâ (to see off), cemût (how), platâ (to hide), la intenzion (intention), dal moment che (given that), deventâ (to become), il popul (people), grant (great), fuart (mighty), benedî (to bless), la gjernazie (line), il mont (world), di fat (in fact), sielgi (to select), insegnâ (to instruct), il fi (son), la int (people), la strade (way), just (just), lâ ben (to be good), dome (but), cussì (so), rivâ a (to be able to), imprometi (to promise), joi (woe), il berli (outcry), cuintri di (against), cetant che (how much), il mâl (ill), volê (to will), lâ jù (to go down), viodi (to see), se propit (if indeed), fin cassù (as far as up here), savê un dret (to know for certain).

Verse 13: Ma il Signôr i disè a Abram (but the Lord said to Abraham): parcè po Sare àe* ridût (why then has Sarah laughed), disint dentri di sè (saying within herself): al sarès propit di ridi (it would be just laughable) che o parturissi dopo viele? (that I should bear after {having become} old?). — *Àe (or aie) is the interrogative form of e à.

Verse 14: Esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ?: is there anything which God cannot do? L’an che al ven (the coming year), di cheste stagjon (in this season), jo o tornarai in cjase tô (I will return [in]to your house) e Sare e varà un frut (and Sarah shall have a male child).

Verse 15: Sare e dineà (Sarah denied): jo no ai ridût gran (I did not laugh in the least) disè (she said), parcè che e veve pôre (for she had fear), ma lui al contindè (but he contended): sì lafè, che tu âs ridût (yes indeed you laughed).

Verse 16: I oms a jevarin sù (the men arose), a partirin di li (departed thence) e a rivarin in viodude di Sodome (and arrived in sight of Sodom). Abram al cjaminave dutun cun lôr (Abraham walked together with them) par saludâju (to see them off).

Verses 17-18: Il Signôr al disè dentri di sè (the Lord said within himself): cemût fasio* a platâi a Abram (how do I hide from Abraham) ce che o ai intenzion di fâ (that which I have the intention of doing) dal moment che al deventarà (given that he shall become) un popul grant e fuart (a great and mighty people) e che in lui (and that in him) a saran benedidis dutis lis gjernaziis dal mont? (all the lines of the world shall be blessed?). — *Fasio is the interrogative form of o fâs (I do). Consider: o fâs (I do); fasio? (do I?); cemût fasio? (how do I?).

Verse 19: Di fat jo lu ai sielzût (in fact I have selected him) par che ur insegni* ai siei fîs (that he may instruct his children) e a la sô int dopo di lui (and his people after him) a cjaminâ pe+ strade dal Signôr (to walk in the way of the Lord) fasint ce che al è just¬ (doing that which is just) e che al va ben (and which is good); dome cussì il Signôr al rivarà a fâ par Abram (but so shall the Lord be able to do for Abraham) ce che i à imprometût (that which he has promised to him). — *Consider the following: o insegni (I instruct); par che o insegni (that I may instruct). In the first example, the presint indicatîf is used, whereas the second employs the coniuntîf presint following par che; both verb forms are identical, however. In the first-person singular of regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, the two forms are the same: o feveli (I speak); par che o feveli (that I may speak). The difference between the two is apparent in the third-person singular: al insegne; par che al insegni (he instructs; that he may instruct); al fevele; par che al feveli (he speaks; that he may speak). Using the verb fevelâ, compare the presint indicatîf to the coniuntîf presint; these conjugations are presented below side-by-side in the first table. +Pe is a contraction of par + la. ¬For information, the four forms of the adjective just are: just (masculine singular); juscj (masculine plural); juste (feminine singular); justis (feminine plural).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf — coniuntîf presint
Present indicative — present subjunctive

present indicative
present subjunctive
jo
o feveli
o feveli
tu
tu fevelis
tu fevelis
lui
al fevele
al feveli

e fevele
e feveli

o fevelìn
o fevelìn
vualtris
o fevelais
o fevelais
lôr
a fevelin
a fevelin

Compare moreover the coniuntîf presint to the coniuntîf imperfet, both of which are now presented below.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive

present subjunctive imperfect subjunctive
jo
o feveli o fevelàs
tu
tu fevelis tu fevelassis
lui
al feveli al fevelàs

e feveli e fevelàs

o fevelìn o fevelassin
vualtris
o fevelais o fevelassis
lôr
a fevelin a fevelassin

Verse 20: Alore il Signôr al disè (then the Lord said): joi (woe), ce grant che al è il berli (how great is the outcry) cuintri di Sodome e Gomore (against Sodom and Gomorrah). Cetant mâl che a fasin: how much ill they do.

Verse 21: O vuei lâ jù a viodi (I will go down to see) se propit a àn fat o no dut chel mâl (if indeed they have or have not done all that ill) che mi rive fin cassù il berli cuintri di lôr (for the outcry against them arrives unto me as far as up here); dome cussì *o savarai* un dret (only so will I know for certain). — *O savarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb savê.

Versets 22-26

Vocabulary: un om (man), partî (to depart), di li (thence), (to go), simpri (ever), denant di (before), alore (then), lâ dongje (to go alongside), propit (indeed), distinâ (to determine), netâ vie (to clean away), il just (just man), il pecjadôr (sinner), salacor (perhaps), cincuante (fifty), la citât (city), fruçâ (to smite), volê (to will), sparagnâ (to spare), in gracie di (thanks to), jessi a stâ (to dwell), dentri (within), vê di (to have to), la part (part), il gjenar (sort), murî (to die), mai vie po (surely not), judicâ (to judge), il mont (world), intîr (entire), tibiâ (to downtrod), la justizie (justice), prin (first), rispuindi (to respond), rivâ adore di (to be able to), cjatâ (to find), jessi bon di (to be capable of), perdonâ (to pardon).

Verse 22: I oms a partirin di li (the men departed thence) e a lerin a Sodome (and went to Sodom). Il Signôr al jere simpri denant di Abram: the Lord was ever before Abraham.

Verse 23: Alore Abram i lè dongje (then Abraham went alongside him) e i disè (and said to him): âstu propit distinât di netâ vie il just (have you indeed determined to clean away the just man) dutun cul pecjadôr? (together with the sinner?).

Verse 24: Salacor *ant sarà* cincuante juscj (perhaps there are [will be] fifty just men) in dute la citât (in all the city). Âstu propit distinât di fruçâju (have you indeed determined to smite them) e no tu vuelis sparagnâ la citât (and will you not spare the city) in gracie di chei cincuante juscj (thanks to those fifty just men) che a son a stâ dentri? (who dwell within?). — *Ant sarà (or a ’nt sarà) is a contraction of al + indi + sarà. Indi (thereof) is a formal written form. In this verse, the use of indi is used to create a wording equivalent to the English there are; in other contexts, indi is rendered thereof. The text of this Bible generally prefers contracted forms of indi, which is also the usage of spoken language. Contraction is so performed: If the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d is changed to t; if the verb begins with a vowel, the final i again drops but the d is maintained. As for the initial i of indi, it drops when preceded by a vowel. (Note: The atonic al, for its part, first changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i of indi. The same applies to nol: it first changes to no, wherefore it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i of indi.) The reader must be prepared to encounter variations in the way contractions are spelt, especially with regard to the placement of apostrophes; for instance, the contraction ant is employed in this verse, but it may also appear as a ’nt. Consider now examples: a ’nd è (there is thereof); a ’nt sarà (there will be thereof); lui a ’nd à (he has thereof); lui no ’nd à (he has not thereof); o ’nd ai (I have thereof); no tu ’nd âs (you have not thereof); ind âstu? (have you thereof?); int viodistu? (see you thereof?); o ’nt viôt (I see thereof); o ’nt doi trê (I give three thereof); us int doi cuatri (I give to you four thereof).

Verse 25: No tu âs di fâ une part dal gjenar (you must not do a part of the sort), di fâ murî il just cul pecjadôr (to make the just man die with the sinner). Mai vie po: surely not. Chel che al judiche il mont intîr (he who judges the entire world) al à di jessi propit lui (must it be he himself) a tibiâ la justizie par prin? (to downtrod justice first?).

Verse 26: I rispuindè il Signôr (the Lord responded to him): se o rivi adore di cjatâ (if I am able to find) in dute Sodome (in all {of} Sodom) cincuante juscj (fifty just men), o soi bon di *perdonâi a la citât interie* (I am capable of pardoning the entire city) in gracie di lôr (thanks to them). — *Perdonâi a la citât interie: literally, to pardon unto the entire city.

Versets 27-33

Vocabulary: continuâ (to continue), bon (good), il fiât (liver), fevelâ (to speak), il pulvin (dust), la cinise (ash), rivâ (to arrive), cincuante (fifty), il just (just man), mancjâ (to lack), salacor (perhaps), cinc (five), sintîsi di (to be disposed to), splantâ (to unplant), di raspe (utterly), la citât (city), rispuindi (to respond), cjatâ (to find), corantecinc (forty-five), tornâ a cjapâ (to take again), la peraule (word), (to say), vadì (suppose), corante (forty), dome (but), sparagnâ (to spare), cjapâse (to take it unto oneself), lassâ (to let), pò stâi che (it may be that), trente (thirty), cjatâsi (to be found), cjastiâ (to punish), savê (to know), jessi (to be), sfaçât (impudent), cussì (so), forsit (perhaps), vincj (twenty), fruçâ (to smite), inrabiâsi (to become angered), ultin (last), la volte (time), pussibil (possible), almancul (at least), dîs (ten), in gracie di (thanks to), finî (to finish), tratâ cun (to converse with), lâsint (to leave), tornâ (to return), la cjase (house).

Verse 27: Al continuà Abram (Abraham continued): o ai un bon fiât (I am brazen [have a good liver]) a fevelâi al gno Signôr (to speak to my Lord), jo che o soi pulvin e cinise (I who am dust and ash).

Verse 28: Ma, par rivâ a cincuante juscj (but to arrive at fifty just men), ant mancjarà salacor cinc (five thereof will perhaps lack): par cinc di lôr (for {want of the} five of them) ti sintaressistu (would you be disposed) di splantâ* di raspe dute la citât? (to unplant utterly all the city?). I rispuindè (he responded to him): s’o+ cjati corantecinc juscj, no (if I find forty-five just men, no). — *Regarding my rendering of splantâ as to unplant, see the notes at Gjenesi 13:10. +S’o is a contraction of se + o. The uncontracted se o is also possible.

Verse 29: Abram al tornà a cjapâ la peraule (Abraham spoke up [took up the word] again) e al disè (and said): vadì che ant sarà dome corante (suppose there are [will be] but forty), e i rispuindè (and he responded to him): s’and è ancje dome corante (if there are also but forty), ju sparagni (I {will} spare them).

Verse 30: Dissal Abram (Abraham said): *che nol stedi a* cjapâse il gno Signôr (may not my Lord become angered [take it unto himself]) e che mi lassi dî (and may he let me say): pò stâi che s’int cjati trente (it may be that thirty are found), e i rispuindè (and he responded to him): cun trente no ju cjastii+ (for want of the thirty [with thirty] I punish them not). — *Che nol stedi a is used to form a negated imperative of the masculine, third-person singular. Consider these examples: no sta fevelâ (speak not; second-person singular); no stait a fevelâ (speak not; second-person plural); no stin a fevelâ (let us not speak); che nol stedi a fevelâ (may he not speak). +O cjastii is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb cjastiâ.

Verse 31: Dissal (he said): o sai di jessi sfaçât (I know that I am impudent) a fevelâi cussì al gno Signôr (to speak so to my Lord): ma forsit vincj s’int cjate (but perhaps twenty are found), e i rispuindè (and he responded to him): s’and è ancje vincj (if there are also {but} twenty) no ju fruci (I smite them not).

Verse 32: Dissal (he said): che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (may not my Lord become angered) se o feveli pe ultime volte (if I speak for the last time): pussibil mo che no ’nt sedi almancul dîs? (now is it possible that there may be at least ten?), e i rispuindè (and he responded to him): in gracie di chei dîs (thanks to those ten), no ju fruçarai (I will not smite them).

Verse 33: Finît di tratâ cun Abram (having finished conversing with Abraham), il Signôr s’indi lè (the Lord left) e Abram al tornà a cjase sô (and Abraham returned to his house).