Continue now your study by examining the totality of chapter 18 of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la visite di Sodome (visit of Sodom; that is, visit at Sodom). This is a very lengthy post; chapter 18 is challenging in terms of language. That said, you will continue to make good progress in your study of Friulian with it. You will, however, encounter usages that will undoubtedly take more time to master than the time required to study this chapter.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.
Read Gjenesi 18
Rceall that the Friulian il rôl means oak. You read that the Lord appeared unto Abraham by the oak of Mamre. Comparî: to appear. As for the expression jessi sentât, it means to be seated.
intant che al jere sentât fûr de tende
while he was seated outside the tent
Whereas jessi sentât means to be seated, the reflexive verb sentâsi means to sit (oneself) down.
mi soi sentât
I sat down
o jeri sentât
I was seated
God appeared su l’ore dal plui grant cjalt (at the time of the greatest heat). The Friulian for heat is il cjalt; for cold(ness), it is il frêt. Cjalt and frêt can also be used as adjectives meaning hot and cold. For example:
il moment plui cjalt de zornade
the hottest moment of the day
il cjalt dal istât
the heat of summer
il frêt dal invier
the cold of winter
The expression su l’ore di translates literally as on the hour of; you can understand it as meaning at the time of. The Friulian for hour, which is l’ore (or la ore), is a good word to know better. More examples include:
ce ore ise?
what time is it?
ca di une ore
in one hour (from now)
(literally, here from one hour)
za fa trê oris
three hours ago
cjaminâ par oris e straoris*
to walk for hours and hours
a ce ore rivistu?
at what time do you arrive?
domandâ la ore
to ask for the time
par strade mi soi fermât dome che par domandâ la ore
when I was out, I stopped only to ask for the time
(par strade, in the street)
*This may have reminded you of another usage already seen: strabon (excellent), from the root bon (good).
Below are more examples of how to tell the time in Friulian.
ce ore ise?
what time is it?
a son lis vot
it is eight o’clock
a ce ore rivistu?
at what time do you arrive?
a lis vot
at eight o’clock
The feminine plural lis is used is because oris is understood (lis [oris] vot). With one o’clock, the singular la is used: la une.
When talking about the time, the feminine une and dôs are used to say one and two, never un or doi. This is because ore is a feminine noun.
1.00 — 13.00
e je la une
it is one o’clock
2.00 — 14.00
a son lis dôs
it is two o’clock
3.00 — 15.00
a son lis trê
it is three o’clock
4.00 — 16.00
a lis cuatri
at four o’clock
4.10 — 16.10
a lis cuatri e dîs
at ten past four
4.20 — 16.20
lis cuatri e vincj
twenty past four
4.15 — 16.15
lis cuatri e un cuart
quarter past four
lis cuatri e cuindis
5.50 — 17.50
lis sîs mancul dîs
ten to six
lis cinc e cincuante
5.45 — 17.45
lis sîs mancul un cuart
quarter to six
lis cinc e cuarantecinc
5.40 — 17.40
a lis sîs mancul vincj
at twenty to six
a lis cinc e cuarante
at five forty
Mieze is the feminine form of mieç.
4.30 — 16.30
a lis cuatri e mieze
at half past four
You can use di matine or sot sere to indicate morning and evening time, if the context has not made it clear.
a lis siet di matine
at seven in the morning
a son lis siet sot sere
it is seven in the evening
In official style, the hour numbers from 13 to 24 can be used; for example: lis cuindis e cincuantecinc (15.55).
The Friulian for midday, noon is il misdì; for midnight, it is la miezegnot.
al è misdì in pache 12.00
it is noon on the dot
a misdì in pache 12.00
at noon on the dot
al è misdì mancul un cuart 11.45
it is a quarter to noon
a misdì e mieç 12.30
at half past noon
a miezegnot e mieze 0.30
at half past midnight
Other useful expressions include:
pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot
shortly before midnight
(literally, few minutes before midnight; il minût, minute)
tor di misdì
al vignarà tor siet
he will come about seven
des cinc a lis vot sot sere
from five to eight in the evening
It is possible to drop the definite articles lis and la when telling the time:
a son cuatri e tredis
it is four thirteen
al è vignût a une
he came at one
Abraham looks up and sees three men standing before him.
alçant i vôi
raising his eyes
(literally, raising the eyes)
al viodè trê oms
he saw three men
in pîts devant di lui
standing in front of him
Alçant is the present participle of the verb alçâ, meaning to raise.
The Friulian for foot is il pît. In pîts translates literally as in feet (that is, on [the] feet), which is to be understood as meaning standing, on foot. Pîts sounds like pîs; the pronunciation of the t drops before the s of the plural.
Your right foot is called il pît dret; the left foot is il pît çamp. The Friulian for finger is il dêt; the toes are called i dêts dal pît (fingers of the foot).
The expression a pene che means as soon as.
a pene che ju viodè
as soon as he saw them
In Gjenesi 14:14, you saw that ur corè daûr (from cori daûr) meant he pursued them, he ran after them. In the current verse, you find ur corè incuintri (from cori incuintri), meaning he ran up to them. Incuintri can be understood here as meaning towards.
You read that Abraham ran up to them de jentrade de tende (from the entrance of the tent). Recall that butâsi par tiere means to take to the ground (in deference).
Il paron can be rendered in English a number of ways, including ruler, master, lord. Abraham uses the term paron here as a term of respect:
paron, ti prei
my lord, I pray you
my lord, please
You will remember that ti prei (from the verb preâ) means I pray you, I beg you, I beseech you; it can often simply be translated as please in English.
You have already seen the expression vê a grât (to be pleased with, to have in one’s good graces); in Gjenesi 4:4, you read il Signôr al vè a grât Abêl (the Lord was pleased with Abel). In the current verse, you read:
se tu mi âs a grât
if you are pleased with me
(more literally, if you have me in your [good] graces; if you have me in your favour)
You find a new example now of creating a negated command using no sta:
no sta passâ dret devant dal to famei
do not pass right in front of your servant
(literally, without stopping yourself)
Lassait is the second-person plural imperative of the verb lassâ (to let).
lassait che si us puarti un pocje di aghe
let a bit of water be brought to you
let one bring you a bit of water
In the above, un pocje di aghe means a bit of water, a little water. Us here means to you. Si puarte equates to the it is brought or one brings of English; it is found here in subjunctive form (si puarti), which is required after lassâ che (to let, to allow).
The verb lavâ means to wash. As for the reflexive distirâsi, it means to lie oneself down, to stretch oneself out and, by extension, to relax oneself, to rest oneself.
us lavarai i pîts
I shall wash your feet
o podarês distirâsi
you will be able to rest
(literally, you will be able to stretch yourselves out; you will be able to lie yourselves down)
sot dal arbul
under the tree
O podarês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb podê.
Distirâsi is the second-person plural infinitive form (to lie yourselves down). The second-person singular infinitive form is distirâti (to lie yourself down).
tu podarâs distirâti
you will be able to lie yourself down
o podarês distirâsi
you will be able to lie yourselves down
The first-person singular infinitive form is distirâmi.
o voi a distirâmi un moment
I am going to lie myself down for a moment
(or simply, I am going to lie down for a moment)
O voi (I go, I am going) must be taken literally and not as a sort of future tense; the sense of it is I am off at this very moment, I am going just now. Compare the following, using the verb studiâ (to study):
o studiarai il polac
= I shall study Polish
= I am going to study Polish (in the future)
o voi a studiâ il polac
= I am off at this very moment to go study Polish
In this verse, you encounter the Friulian for a piece of bread: un toc di pan.
o voi a cjoli un toc di pan
I am going to get a piece of bread
I am off to get a bread of bread
par che o podês ristorâsi
so that you can replenish yourselves
prime di lâ indevant
before continuing on
(literally, before going forward)
You will remember that the verb cjoli means to take, to get.
The reflexive ristorâsi conveys here the sense of regaining one’s strength via food; that is, to replenish oneself. As for prime di, it means before: prime di lâ indevant (before moving on, before going forward, etc.). You saw another example of prime di in the notes for verse 1: pôcs minûts prime di miezegnot (few minutes before midnight, shortly before midnight).
As you read in the notes at verse 4, o voi means I go, I am going in the physical sense of getting up and going off. It is not to be understood as a future tense. O voi a cjoli un toc di pan is to be understood in the sense of I am heading off just now to get a piece of bread, and not I am going to get a piece of bread (at some moment in the near future).
You have seen before that isal is the interrogative form of al è. In the text, you find the variant esal instead: no esal? (is it not?).
no esal par chel
is it not for that reason
che o sês vignûts
that you came
chi dal vuestri famei?
here to your servant(’s place)?
You see that the verb vignî has taken the auxiliary jessi in the passât prossim. Remember that the past participle in this case must agree in gender and number with its subject: o sês vignûts (you came; plural).
With verbs of movement, chi di and li di can be used to convey what English does with place.
vignî chi dal vuestri famei
to come [here] to your servant’s (place)
cori li dal barbe
to run over [there] to one’s uncle’s (place)
You may have been able to determine on your own that a rispuinderin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb rispuindi.
they responded to him
they answered him
The visitors say: fâs ce che tu âs dit (do what you have said).
The expression lâ di corse means to run off, to hurry off, to rush away.
Abram al lè di corse te tende
Abraham rushed off into the tent
Abraham hastened into the tent
Un miezut di means a measure of. The Friulian for flour is la farine; as for la farine di flôr, this can be understood as fine flour.
cjol svelte trê miezuts di farine di flôr
get quickly three measures of fine flour
take quickly three measures of fine flour
Svelt means quick(ly), fast.
une cjaminade svelte
a brisk walk, fast walk
al cjamine simpri svelt
he always walks fast
The remainder of this verse presents more new usages: impastâ (to knead), messedâ (to blend, to mix), la fuiace (flatbread, unleavened cake). Abraham tells Sarah: impastile (knead it), messedile (blend it), fâs trê fuiacis (make three flatbreads; three unleavened cakes).
The second-person singular imperative forms of impastâ and messedâ are impaste and messede; when le is added, the final e becomes i: impastile, messedile. Le stands in for la farine di flôr.
Related usages to learn:
messedâ sâl e farine
to blend salt and flour
(il sâl, salt)
al è miôr no messedâ bire e vin
it is better to not mix beer and wine
(miôr, better; la bire, beer; il vin, wine)
impastâ aghe, farine e levan par fâ il pan
to knead water, flour and yeast to make bread
(il levan, yeast; il pan, bread)
Abraham takes a calf to have it prepared as food. The Friulian for calf is il vidiel. The calf was tenarut (tender) and saurît (savoury, tasty).
Abram al corè là ch’e jere la mandrie
Abraham ran there where the herd was
(that is, Abraham rushed off to the herd)
al cjapà un vidiel tenarut e saurît
he took a tender and savoury calf
The verb consegnâ means to deliver, to give. It is cognate with the English to consign.
jal consegnà al famei
he gave it to the servant
In the above, jal is a contraction of i + lu, where lu stands in for il vidiel.
i consegnà al famei
he gave to the servant
jal consegnà al famei
he gave it to the servant
The verb spesseâ means to hurry, to hasten, to rush. The Friulian for to prepare is preparâ.
al spesseà a preparâlu
he hastened to prepare it
Abraham takes la caglade (curd), il lat (milk) and il vidiel (calf); the verb parecjâ means to prepare, to dress: il vidiel che al veve parecjât (the calf that he had prepared). He offers these things to the men: al metè dut devant di lôr (he put everything before them).
You will remember from the second verse that in pîts is to be understood as standing. Here, you find in pîts as part of the expression stâ in pîts (to be standing).
lui al stave in pîts dongje di lôr
he was standing by them
Al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ.
Abraham was standing near the men under the tree: sot dal arbul (under the tree), and the men ate: lôr a mangjarin (they ate). A mangjarin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb mangjâ.
Above, you saw that the interrogative esal is a variant of isal; you now find in this verse the variant interrogative ese for ise.
dulà ese Sare, la tô femine?
where is Sarah, your wife?
Note that both domandâ and rispuindi take an indirect object in the following:
they asked (to) him
he responded to them
When asked where his wife was, Abraham responds:
e je dentri, te tende
she is inside, in the tent
Recall that un forest is the Friulian for foreigner.
In this verse, you have another example of chi di:
o tornarai chi di te
I shall return here to you
l’an che al ven
(literally, the year that comes)
In other contexts, o tornarai chi de te could be understood as I shall come back to your place, I shall come back to your house, etc.
You have seen a number of times now that ta chê volte means at that time. The man tells Abraham that, in one year’s time, Sarah will have a boy: e varà un frut.
Sarah, who was listening at the opening of the tent, overheard what was said:
Sare e scoltave su la jentrade de tende
Sarah was listening at the entrance of the tent
e e jere juste daûr di lui
and she was just behind him
E scoltave is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb scoltâ (to listen). Note that at the entrance is expressed here in Friulian as su la jentrade (literally, on the entrance).
The adjective vieli means old. Its four forms are vieli (masculine singular), viei (masculine plural), viele (feminine singular), vielis (feminine plural).
a jerin viei
they were old
in là cui agns
on in years
advanced in years
Dopomai che means it was long ago that.
The euphemistic expression vê lis sôs robis (literally, to have one’s matters) is to be understood as meaning to menstruate, to get one’s period.
dopomai che no veve plui lis sôs robis
it was long ago that she was no longer having her “matters”
(that is, she stopped menstruating long ago; she stopped having her periods long ago)
Sarah finds the idea that she should give birth to a son incredible.
for that reason
Sare e ridè dibessole
Sarah laughed to herself
The verb ridi means to laugh. Dibessôl, which you have already come across in your reading, means alone, to oneself. You will perhaps recall having encountered it in Gjenesi 2:18, when you read: nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl. The feminine form, which you find in the current verse, is dibessole.
You then read that Sarah said something to herself: disint dentri di sè (saying to herself; literally, saying within herself). Disint is the present participle of the verb dî.
propit cumò che o soi di butâ vie
just now that I am to be taken out
o varès di tornâ a vê la frescjece di une zovine
I am to have again the freshness of a young woman
e l’om al è vieli
and my husband is old
Through the use of the Friulian expression butâ vie, it is made very clear that Sarah is old indeed. In other contexts, butâ vie can be taken as to throw away. For example:
o ai butât vie lis scovacis
I threw the garbage out
I threw the rubbish away
(lis scovacis, rubbish, garbage)
Recall the following two expressions: vê di (to have to) and tornâ a (to return to, to go back to). In the text, o varès di tornâ a vê translates literally as I would have to return to having; that is, I am (supposed) to have again. O varês (I would have) is the first-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê.
Sarah quips that she is supposed to somehow reacquire the freshness of a young woman: la frescjece di une zovine. The Friulian for freshness is la frescjece. A young male is un zovin; a young female is une zovine.
You find the interrogative form àe here, from the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. This is a variant of aie.
The past participle of the verb ridi (to laugh) is ridût.
parcè po Sare àe ridût?
why then did Sarah laugh?
e à ridût
she has laughed
aie (àe) ridût?
has she laughed?
did she laugh?
God restates what Sarah said to herself:
al sarès propit di ridi
it would indeed be laughable
che o parturissi dopo viele
that I should give birth so old
Recall that al è can be used in the sense of there is. Its interrogative form, then, is isal or esal. Alc means something, anything.
esal alc che Diu nol pò fâ?
is there anything that God cannot do?
Al pues and al pò are variants of one another.
Di cheste stagjon is synonymous with in cheste stagjon, met in Gjenesi 17:21.
The sense of jo o tornarai in cjase tô is similar to that of jo o tornarai chi di te (see verse 10 above). It translates literally as I shall return to your house.
Sarah tries to hide the fact that she laughed — not that such a thing could be hidden from God. The verb dineâ means to deny.
Sare e dineà
Gran can be understood as meaning (not) at all.
jo no ai ridût gran
I did not laugh at all
Another example: no mi plâs gran (I do not like it at all). The verb here is plasê (to please, to be pleasing); al plâs is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf. No mi plâs gran can be taken literally as it is not pleasing to me at all. To say in Friulian I like it and I do not like it, you can use mi plâs and no mi plâs, which translate literally as it is pleasing to me and it is not pleasing to me.
Sarah denied having laughed because she was afraid: e veve pôre (literally, she had [was having] fear). You will recall that the Friulian for to be afraid is vê pôre (to have fear). Pôre is a feminine noun: la pôre.
God calls Sarah out on her denial. You read:
ma lui al contindè
but he refuted
but he contested
The verb in the above is contindi, meaning to refute, to contest.
sì lafè che tu âs ridût
you most certainly did laugh
Sì lafè che can be understood as meaning certainly, absolutely, of course.
The men got up: a jevarin sù; the expression here is jevâ sù (literally, to rise up). They left the spot where they were: a partirin di li (literally, they left from there); the verb partî means to leave. They faced Sodom: a rivarin in viodude di Sodome (literally, they arrived in sight of Sodom); la viodude means view, sight.
Abraham walked with them: al cjaminave dutun cun lôr, to bid them farewell: par saludâju. You will remember that dutun cun means along with. The verb saludâ is cognate with the English to salute; it is used, depending on the context, in the sense of to greet (to say hello) or to send off (to say good-bye). Examples:
saludâ un amì cun afiet
to greet a friend with affection
mi saludave cu la man dal tren
he waved good-bye to me from the train
God speaks to himself; you find the expression dî dentri di sè, which you have seen a number of times now. He says:
cemût fasio a platâi a Abram
how do I hide from Abraham
ce che o ai intenzion di fâ
what I plan to do
In the above, you encounter once more the interrogative cemût fasio a, which you first saw in the notes for Gjenesi 15:8. It translates literally as how do I do to; the sense of it is how can I, how do I go about, how can I manage to.
how do I do?
The verb platâ means to hide (something). You have in fact already encountered this verb, but in its reflexive form platâsi (to hide oneself). You will perhaps recall it, for example, from Gjenesi 3:8, when you read the following about Adam and Eve: a lerin a platâsi.
In the seventeeth verse, you find platâ used as follows: platâi a Abram ce che o ai intenzion di fâ. Platâi translates here as to hide from him, to keep from him. The expression vê intenzion di fâ means to intend to do, to plan to do, to plan on doing, where the feminine noun intenzion in the Friulian for intention. This expression translates literally as to have intention to do. Ce che o ai intenzion di fâ can be taken as meaning that which I intend to do; what I plan on doing.
Dal moment che is to be understood as meaning given that.
You read that Abraham will become a great and mighty people: grant (great), fuart (strong, mighty). For your reference, here are the four forms of both adjectives:
grant (masculine singular)
grancj (masculine plural)
grande (feminine singular)
grandis (feminine plural)
fuart (masculine singular)
fuarts (masculine plural)
fuarte (feminine singular)
fuartis (feminine plural)
Below are examples using the adjective fuart. You will see that fuart can translate as more than just strong, mighty:
un om une vore fuart
a very strong man
fuart tant che un taur
as strong as a bull
(il taur, bull)
jessi fuart di panze
to have a big belly
(la panze, belly)
jessi fuarte di pet
to have a big chest
(il pet, chest, bosom; it is question here of a woman because the feminine fuarte is used; the sense, then, is that the woman is big breasted)
un fumadôr fuart
a heavy smoker
(fumâ, to smoke; il fumadôr, smoker)
(il spagnolet, cigarette)
The text of this verse continues; you read that, in Abraham, all the nations of the world shall be blessed:
in lui a saran benedidis
in him shall be blessed
dutis lis gjernaziis dal mont
all the progenies of the world
(that is, all the nations of the world; all the peoples of the world)
Benedidis (blessed) is in feminine plural form to agree with lis gjernaziis. In standard spelling, the four forms of this adjective are:
benedet (masculine singular)
benedets (masculine plural)
benedete (feminine singular)
benedetis (feminine plural)
Di fat can be understood as meaning in fact, indeed. You will recall that the verb sielzi means to choose, to select. Its past participle is sielzût.
jo lu ai sielzût
I have chosen him
The verb insegnâ means to teach.
par che o insegni
so that I may teach
In the first of the pair above, you have the presint indicatîf; in the second, following par che, you have the coniuntîf presint. Both verb forms are identical, however. In the first-person singular, this is the case with verbs ending in â in their infinitive form.
par che o feveli
so that I may speak
The difference is apparent in the third-person singular:
par che al insegni
so that he may teach
par che al feveli
so that he may speak
Using the verb fevelâ, compare the presint indicatîf to the coniuntîf presint.
Presint indicatîf — coniuntîf presint
Present indicative — present subjunctive
Compare now the coniuntîf presint to the coniuntîf imperfet.
Coniuntîf presint — coniuntîf imperfet
Present subjunctive — imperfect subjunctive
|present subjunctive||imperfect subjunctive
||o feveli||o fevelàs
||tu fevelis||tu fevelassis
||al feveli||al fevelàs
||e feveli||e fevelàs
||o fevelìn||o fevelassin
||o fevelais||o fevelassis
||a fevelin||a fevelassin|
Return now to the text of this verse. You read:
par che ur insegni ai siei fîs
so that I may teach (to) his sons
e a la sô int dopo di lui
and (to) his people after him
a cjaminâ pe strade dal Signôr
to walk in the way of the Lord
Recall that pe is a contraction of par + la.
The text of this verse continues:
fasint ce che al è just
doing what is just
e che al va ben
and what is good
Fasint is the present participle of the verb fâ.
You will remember the expression lâ ben from Gjenesi 1:4, where you read: Diu al viodè che la lûs e leve ben.
In the remainder of this verse, you find the verb imprometi, meaning to promise. Another way to say to promise is prometi.
only in this way
il Signôr al rivarà a fâ
shall the Lord manage to do
ce che i à imprometût
that which he has promised (to) him
The four forms of the adjective just are below.
just (masculine singular)
juscj (masculine plural)
juste (feminine singular)
justis (feminine plural)
Joi is an interjection meaning oh, alas, etc. As for il berli, this is the Friulian for shout, yell, (out)cry. Related to this is the verb berlâ, meaning to shout, to yell, to cry out.
ce grant che al è il berli
how great is the outcry
cuintri di Sodome e Gomore
against Sodom and Gomorrah
God says that they commit much evil: cetant mâl (so much evil) che a fasin (that they do).
From this verse, you will need to know the following usages: lâ jù (to go down), propit (really, indeed), se… o no (whether…. or not, if… or not), fin cassù (all the way up here), savê un dret (to know at all).
o vuei lâ jù
I will go down
a viodi se propit
to see if indeed
a àn fat o no dut chel mâl
they have committed all that wickedness or not
The verb volê can usually be taken as to want; however, in the current verse, it is used to convey God’s will or intention. O vuei lâ jù translates well here as I will go down.
You know that the verb rivâ means to arrive; in this verse, you can take it more in the sense of to reach: mi rive fin cassù il berli cuintri di lôr (the outcry against them reaches me all the way up here).
dome cussì o savarai un dret
only in this way shall I know at all
O savarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb savê.
This verse should not present any particular difficulties to you. You have two third-person plural, passât sempliç forms: a partirin (they left) and a lerin (they went). Denant di, you will recall, means before, in front of. Simpri can be taken here as meaning still.
The expression lâ dongje can be understood as meaning to draw near, to approach.
Abram i lè dongje
Abraham drew near to him
As for the expression distinâ (or destinâ) di fâ, it means to determine to do, to decide to do, to set out to do, etc.
You will perhaps recall having already encountered the verb netâ; you first saw it in Gjenesi 7:4, when you read: o netarai de face de tiere dut ce che o ai fat. The verb netâ means to clean, but it can also be used in the sense of to clean away, to wash away, to do away with, to get rid of, especially when used in the expression netâ vie, as found in the current verse.
âstu propit distinât di netâ vie
have you indeed set out to do away with
il just dutun cul pecjadôr
the just along with the sinner
The Friulian for sinner is il pecjadôr. As for sin, the Friulian is il pecjât. Some examples: al è un pecjât (it is a sin); vivi tal pecjât (to live in sin).
You will remember that salacor means perhaps, maybe, suppose. Remember also that al è can mean there is. Its simple future form is al sarà.
salacor ant sarà cincuante juscj
perhaps of them there will be fifty righteous
(that is, perhaps there will be fifty righteous amongst them; what if there should be fifty righteous amongst them?)
in dute la citât
in all the city
In the above, ant sarà (or a ’nt sarà) is a contraction of al + indi + sarà.
Indi (of it, of them, thereof) is a formal written form. In this Bible, contracted forms of indi are preferred, which is also the usage of spoken language: if the verb after indi begins with a consonant, the final i drops and the d changes to t; if the verb begins with a vowel, the d is maintained. The initial i of indi drops when it is preceded by a vowel.
Note: In the text above (you will see more examples below), al first changes to a; now that it ends in a vowel, it causes the loss of the initial i. The same applies to nol; it first changes to no, meaning it now ends in a vowel; this causes the loss of the initial i.
I should also point out that what is described here pertains to standard Friulian spelling. In the Friulian Bible that you are reading, you will sometimes find deviations from this standard. As you progress, you will be able to recognise them.
A note about pronunciation: Say the English word ring aloud. That ng sound at the end is the same sound made by ’nt. This means that a ’nt sounds like ang, and o ’nt sounds like ong. Int sounds like ing. (This is not the case for ’nd. For example, a ’nd è sounds like andè.)
a ’nd è
there is (some) of it
a ’nt sarà
there will be (some) of it
lui a ’nd à
he has (some) of it
he has (some) of them
lui no ’nd à
he has not (any) of it
he has not (any) of them
o ’nd ai
I have (some) of it
I have (some) of them
no tu ’nd âs
you do not have (any) of it
you do not have (any) of them
have you (any) of it?
have you (any) of them?
do you want (any) of it?
do you want (any) of them?
o ’nt viôt
I see (some) of it
I see (some) of them
o ’nt vuei trê
I want three of them
us int doi cuatri
I give you four of them
In English, it is possible to say I want two, I do not have any, etc., without including of it, of them. You cannot do this in Friulian. In Friulian, you must say, via the use of indi, I want two of them, I do not have any of it, etc. For example, you cannot say in Friulian
us doi cuatri basing yourself on the English I give you four; you must say us int doi cuatri (I give you four of them). Indi is a topic that certainly deserves an entire post unto itself. For now, the above should at least help to raise your awareness as you continue to read.
This verse continues with the verb fruçâ, which you will remember means to destroy, to to strike down.
âstu propit distinât di fruçâju?
have you indeed determined to destroy them?
Abraham asks if God will not spare the city because of the fifty righteous who may be found there. The Friulian verb for to spare is sparagnâ. You will remember that in gracie di means thanks to, because of.
sparagnâ la citât
to spare the city
in gracie di chei cincuante juscj
because of those fifty righteous
You will also recall that jessi a stâ means to live, to dwell, to reside.
chei cincuante juscj che a son a stâ dentri
those fifty righteous who dwell within
You can understand the expression fâ une part as meaning to do a deed. Dal gjenar means of the sort; il gjenar is the Friulian for genre, kind.
Abraham says to God:
no tu âs di fâ une part dal gjenar
you must not do a deed of the sort
di fâ murî il just cul pecjadôr
that of killing the righteous with the sinner
Note that to kill is expressed in the above as fâ murî, which translates literally as to make die. Another way that you have seen to kill expressed in Friulian is with the verb copâ.
The interjection mai vie po can be understood as meaning absolutely not.
From the remainder of the verse, learn or review the following: judicâ (to judge), intîr (entire), tibiâ (to trample upon), la justizie (justice), par prin (first of all). You read: chel che al judiche il mont intîr (he who judges the entire world), al à di jessi propit lui (does it have to be he himself) a tibiâ la justizie par prin? (to trample upon justice first?); that is, must he who judges the entire world indeed be the first to infringe upon justice?
God explains that if he can find fifty righteous in Sodom, he will spare the city. Recall that rivâ adore di fâ means to manage to do, to succeed in doing. The Friulian verb cjatâ means to find.
se o rivi adore di cjatâ
if I manage to find
The expression jessi bon di fâ can be understood as meaning to be capable of doing. As for perdonâ, this is the Friulian for to forgive, to pardon.
In the previous verse, you saw the masculine intîr, meaning entire; in the current verse, you find its feminine form interie.
o soi bon di perdonâi a la citât interie
I am capable of forgiving the entire city
Note that Friulian says to forgive something unto someone.
Il fiât is the Friulian name for the liver. In this verse, this noun is used to describe having the nerve (literally, liver) to do something:
o ai un bon fiât a fevelâi al gno Signôr
I have a lot of nerve to speak to my Lord
jo che o soi pulvin e cinise
I who am dust and ash
The Friulian for dust is il pulvin; for ash, ashes, it is la cinise. Supplementary examples:
la cinise dal spagnolet
la cinise dal zigar
An ashtray is un cinisâr.
Learn or review the following: mancjâ (to be missing, to lack), sintîsi (to be disposed), splantâ di raspe (to eradicate, to destroy).
par rivâ a cincuante juscj
in order to arrive at fifty righteous
ant mancjarà salacor cinc
of them there will lack perhaps five
Put into clearer English, the above can be taken as: perhaps the fifty righteous will lack five; what if the fifty righteous should lack five? The sense of this question is: perhaps there will only be forty-five righteous; what if there are only forty-five righteous?
par cinc di lôr
for five of them
ti sintaressistu di splantâ di raspe dute la citât?
would you be disposed to destroy the entire city?
Tu tu ti sintaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the reflexive sintîsi. Sintîsi di fâ can be understood as meaning to be disposed to do.
Related to the reflexive sintîsi is the verb sintî, which often (but not always) means to hear. Following are supplementary examples of it. O sint is its first-person singular presint indicatîf form.
o sint che al larà dut ben
I hear that everything will go well
fevele a fuart che no ti sint
speak up because I cannot hear you
(literally, speak up for I do not hear you)
This verse ends with God’s response:
s’o cjati corantecinc juscj, no
if I find forty-five righteous, no
not if I (can) find forty-five righteous
S’o is a contraction of se + o; it could have also been written se o, without contraction. Recall that the variant corante (forty) has been preferred in this Bible, where the standard is cuarante. The above could have also be written as follows: se o cjati cuarantecinc juscj, no.
Tornâ a cjapâ la peraule can be taken as meaning to speak again (literally, to return to taking the word, to take the word again). As for vadì che, it can be understood as what if, suppose.
In this verse, you have more examples of indi (of it, of them).
vadì che ant sarà dome corante
suppose there will only be forty of them
a ’nt sarà
= al indi sarà
there will be of them
s’and è ancje dome corante
if there are even only forty of them
= se al indi è
if there is of them
I shall spare them
(literally, I spare them)
Cjapâse means to get angry, to become angered. The se ending is a contraction of si + le. You might understand cjapâse as literally meaning to take it (anger) upon oneself.
che nol stedi a cjapâse il gno Signôr
let my Lord not get angry
may my Lord not become angered
Whereas no sta is used to give a negated command in the second-person singular, che nol stedi is used for the third-person singular.
no sta cjapâte
do not get angry
che nol stedi a cjapâse
let him not get angry
may he not get angry
You will remember that the verb lassâ means to let, to allow. Lassâ dî, then, means to let say, to allow to say.
che mi lassi dî
may he allow me to say
Pò stâi che is synonymous with vadì che; that is, suppose, what if.
pò stâi che s’int cjati trente
suppose that thirty of them are found
suppose that one finds thirty of them
The verb cjastiâ means to punish.
no ju cjastii
I do not punish them
In the context of this verse, no ju cjastii is to be taken as I shall not punish them.
Note that the i in the root of the verb is maintained before the i of the first-person singular: cjastiâ > o cjastii.
The Friulian sfaçât means brazen, impertinent.
o sai di jessi sfaçât
I know that I am brazen
a fevelâi cussì al gno Signôr
to speak thus to my Lord
to speak in this way to my Lord
Note how Friulian expresses I know that I am: o sai di jessi (literally, I know to be). More examples:
o sai di jessi malât
I know that I am ill
al sa di jessi fuart
he knows that he is strong
New examples of indi appear:
forsit vincj s’int cjate
maybe twenty of them will be (are) found
maybe one will find (finds) twenty of them
s’and è ancje vincj
if there are even twenty of them
no ju fruci
I shall not destroy them
(literally, I do not destroy them; from the verb fruçâ)
You now find another usage meaning to get angry: inrabiâsi. This verse begins with wording similar to that found in the thirtieth verse:
che nol stedi a cjapâse il gno Signôr (verse 30)
che nol stedi a inrabiâsi il gno Signôr (verse 32)
let my Lord not get angry
may my Lord not become angered
Pe ultime volte means for the last time.
You can understand pussibil mo che as meaning might it be possible that, what if. It is followed by the subjunctive here (che no ’nt sedi).
pussibil mo che no ’nt sedi almancul dîs?
might it be possible that there be at least ten of them?
what if there are at least ten of them?
in gracie di chei dîs
because of those ten
God finishes speaking with Abraham and leaves; Abraham returns to his place.
Tratâ cun is be understood as meaning to speak with.
finît di tratâ cun Abram
(having) finished speaking with Abraham
il Signôr s’indi lè
the Lord departed
Recall that lâsint means to go away, to leave, to depart. In s’indi lè, it is si that has been contracted before indi; it is also possible to have instead contracted the i of indi, as in si ’ndi lè. The use of indi is a complicated one. If it is still unclear to you (and understandably so), I might recommend that you not burden yourself too heavily at this point with trying to master it. The examples in this post will have at least raised your awareness; as you progress in your study of Friulian, its use will become clearer to you.