Friulian language series: Gjenesi 17, cjase di Abram

The seventeenth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: il pat di circuncision (pact of circumcision).

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Read Gjenesi 17

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 17. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), (to have), novantenûf (ninety-nine), un an (year), comparî (to appear), (to say), jessi (to be), cjaminâ (to walk), sot di (under), il voli (eye), viodi di (to see to), just (just), (to make), il pat (pact), fra (between), deventâ (to become), grant (great), ma (but), une vore (very), butâsi par tiere (to cast oneself to the ground), il cjâf (head), fevelâ (to speak), cussì (so), ve (this is), il pari (father), un grumon di (many), il popul (people), clamâ (to call), no… plui (no more), il non (name), parcè che (for).

Verse 1: Cuant che Abram al veve novantenûf agns (when Abram was ninety-nine years old [had ninety-nine years]), i comparì il Signôr e i disè (the Lord appeared to him and said to him): jo o soi El-Shadai (I am El-Shaddai), cjamine sot dai miei vôi (walk under my eyes) e viôt* di jessi just (and see to being just). — *Viôt is the second-person singular imperative of the verb viodi.

Verse 2: O fasarai un pat fra me e te (I will make a pact between me and thee) e ti fasarai deventâ grant (and I will make thee become great), ma une vore grant (but very great).

Verses 3-4: E Abram si butà cul cjâf par tiere (and Abram cast himself with his head to the ground) e Diu al fevelà cun lui cussì (and God spoke with him so): ve il pat che o fâs cun te (this is the pact which I make with thee): tu deventarâs pari di un grumon di popui (thou shalt become father of many peoples).

Verse 5: E no ti clamaran plui Abram (and thou shalt be called [and they shall call thee] Abram no more), ma il to non al sarà Abraham (but thy name shall be Abraham), parcè che jo ti fâs pari di un grumon di popui (for I make thee father of many peoples).

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: (to make), cressi (to increase), savê (to know), nancje (not even), trop (how much), il popul (people), il çoc (stock), saltâ fûr (to come forth), il re (king), il pat (pact), fra (between), la gjernazie (line), dopo di (after), la gjenerazion (generation), par in eterno (for all time), in mût che ({in order} that), vignî (to come), (to give), la tiere (land), cumò (now), il forest (foreigner), par simpri (for ever).

Verse 6: Ti fasarai cressi no tu sâs nancje tu trop (I will make thee increase not even thou knowest how much); o fasarai di te popui (I will make peoples of thee) e dal to çoc a saltaran fûr rês (and from thy stock shall come forth kings).

Verse 7: O fasarai un pat fra me e te (I will make a pact between me and thee) e la tô gjernazie dopo di te (and thy line after thee), di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation), un pat par in eterno (a pact for all time), in mût che jo o sarai il to Diu (that I will be thy God) e chel de gjernazie ch’e vignarà dopo di te (and that of the line who will come after thee).

Verse 8: A ti e a la tô gjernazie dopo di te (to thee and to thy line after thee) us darai la tiere che tu sês cumò (will I give the land wherein thou art now), come forest (as a foreigner), dute la tiere di Canaan (all the land of Canaan), che e sarà vuestre par simpri (which shall be yours for ever), e jo o sarai il vuestri Diu (and I will be your God).

Versets 9-16

Vocabulary: (to say), vê di (to have to), rispietâ (to respect), il pat (pact), la gjernazie (line), dopo di (after), la gjenerazion (generation), ve cuâl che (this is that which), vadì (which is to say), daûr di (behind), il mascjo (male), jessi (to be), circuncidi (to circumcise), (to make), taiâ (to cut), ultin (last), la piel (skin), la nature (nature), il segnâl (sign), vot (eight), il dì (day), nassi (to be born), la cjase (house), comprâ (to acquire), i bêçs (money), cualchi (any), il forest (foreigner), la raze (kind), segnâ (to mark), la cjar (flesh), par in secula (for all time), ven a stâi (which is to say), taiâ fûr di (to cut off from), dissal (he said), la femine (wife), clamâ (to call), no… plui (no more), il non (name), benedî (to bless), (to give), ancje (also), il frut (male child), midiant di (by way of), deventâ (to become), il popul (people), il re (king), saltâ fûr (to come forth).

Verse 9: Diu i disè a Abram* (God said to Abraham): e tu tu varâs di rispietâ il gno pat (and thou shalt have to respect+ my pact), tu e la tô gjernazie dopo di te (thou and thy line after thee), di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation). — *The Friulian continues to employ the old name Abram throughout, rather than the new name Abraham (see verse 5). In point of fact, the new name Abraham appears in but two verses: Gjenesi 17:5 and Neemie 9:7, for therein is mention specifically made of the name change. In the printed version of this Bible from the year 2018, the following note is provided at verse 5: Par comoditât o doprìn ancje di cumò indenant la forme plui cognossude: Abram, which is to say that Abram is the most known form, wherefore its use is continued in the text. Nevertheless, when the name Abram henceforth appears in the Friulian text, it will be rendered in the English as Abraham to reflect the name change. +as in keep

Verse 10: Ve cuâl che al è il gno pat (this is that which my pact is) che o vês di rispietâ (which you are to respect*), pat fra me e vualtris (a pact between me and you), vadì la tô gjernazie daûr di te (which is to say, thy line behind thee): ducj i mascjos a varan di jessi circuncidûts (all males shall have to be circumcised). — Learn the following usages: circuncidi (to circumcise); circuncidût (circumcised); la circuncision (circumcision). *as in keep

Verse 11: *Si fasarês taiâ l’ultime piel de nature* (you shall have the last skin of your nature cut) e chel al sarà il segnâl dal pat (and that shall be the sign of the pact) fra me e vualtris (between me and you). — *In this and the verses ahead, the foreskin is referred to as the ultime piel de nature (last skin of the nature), where the feminine noun nature refers euphemistically to the virile member, and the foreskin is the ultime piel (last skin) thereof. Taken apart literally: si fasarês (you shall make unto yourselves) taiâ (cut) l’ultime piel (the last skin) de nature (of the nature); to ‘make cut unto oneself’ is to have some other one perform the cut.

Verse 12: Sui vot dîs (on the eighth day [on the eight days]), ducj i mascjos a saran circuncidûts (all males shall be circumcised), di gjenerazion in gjenerazion (from generation to generation), tant che al sedi nassût in cjase (as much be he born in house) o ben comprât cui bêçs di cualchi forest (or else acquired with money of any foreigner) che nol è de tô raze (who is not of thy kind).

Verse 13: Si à di circuncidi (one is to circumcise) tant chel nassût in cjase (as much that one born in house) che chel comprât cui bêçs (as that one acquired with money). Il gno pat (my pact) al sarà segnât te vuestre cjar (shall be marked in your flesh) come un pat par in secula (as a pact for all time).

Verse 14: Chel che nol sarà circuncidût (that one who is not [will not be] circumcised), ven a stâi (which is to say) *il mascjo che no i varan taiade l’ultime piel de nature* (the male whose last skin of the nature has not [will not have] been cut), chel al sarà taiât fûr de sô gjernazie (that one shall be cut off from his line): nol à rispietât il gno pat (he has not respected+ my pact). — *Friulian employs the third-person plural here, whereas in English the passive voice is preferable. +as in kept

Verse 15: Dissal Diu a Abram (God said to Abraham): Sarai, la tô femine, no tu le clamarâs plui Sarai (thy wife Sarai shalt thou call Sarai no more), ma il so non al sarà Sare (but her name shall be Sarah).

Verse 16: Jo le benedissarai (I will bless her), ti darai ancje un frut midiant di jê (I will also give to thee a male child by way of her); jo le benedissarai (I will bless her) e e deventarà popui (and she shall become peoples), e rês di popui a saltaran fûr di jê (and kings of peoples shall come forth from her).

Versets 17-22

Vocabulary: butâsi par tiere (to cast oneself to the ground), tacâ (to start), ridi (to laugh), parcè che (for), (to say), dentri di sè (inside oneself), podê (can), dome (but), crodi (to believe), un om (man), cent (one hundred), un an (year), (to make), i fruts (children), cjaminâ (to walk), novante (ninety), rivâ a (to be able to), parturî (to bear), dissal (he said), almancul (at least), vivi (to live), midiant di (by way of), pononò (nay), la femine (wife), il frut (male child), meti (to put), il non (name), il pat (pact), par simpri (for ever), in mût che ({in order} that), la gjernazie (line), daûr di (behind), ancje (also), scoltâ (to hearken), benedî (to bless), la dissendence (lineage), cressi (to increase), il numar (number), cetant cetant (so very much), dodis (twelve), il princip (prince), grant (great), il popul (people), di chi (hence), la stagjon (season), finî (to finish), fevelâ (to speak), slontanâsi (to part).

Verse 17: Abram si butà par tiere (Abraham cast himself to the ground) e al tacà a ridi (and started to laugh), parcè che *al diseve* dentri di sè (for he was saying inside himself): tu puedis dome crodi (thou canst but believe) se un om di cent agns (if a man of one hundred years {of age}) al fâs fruts (makes children) e se Sare, ch’e cjamine par novante (and if Sarah, who is walking by ninety), e rive a parturî (is able to bear). — *Al diseve is the third-person singular imperfet indicatîf of the verb dî. For reference, the verb is conjugated below in this tense.

Verb:
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disevi
disevio?
tu
tu disevis
disevistu?
lui
al diseve
disevial?

e diseve
disevie?

o disevin
disevino?
vualtris
o disevis
diseviso?
lôr
a disevin
disevino?

Verse 18: Dissal Abram a Diu (Abraham said to God): che almancul Ismael al puedi vivi midiant di te (let Ishmael at least be able to live by way of thee). — Consider: al pues (he is able); che al puedi (let him be able).

Verse 19: Ma Diu i disè (but God said to him): pononò (nay). Sare, la tô femine, ti parturissarà un frut (thy wife Sarah shall bear to thee a male child) e tu i metarâs non Isac (and thou shalt put unto him the name Isaac) e o fasarai un pat cun lui (and I will make a pact with him), un pat par simpri (a pact for ever), in mût che jo o sarai il so Diu (that I will be his God) e chel de sô gjernazie daûr di lui (and that of his line behind him).

Verse 20: Ancje par Ismael ti ai scoltât (also for Ishmael have I hearkened unto thee): jo lu benedìs (I {hereby} bless him), i darai dissendence (I will give to him a lineage), lu fasarai cressi di numar cetant cetant (I will make him increase in number so very much); al varà dodis princips (he shall beget twelve princes) e o fasarai di lui un grant popul (and I will make of him a great people).

Verse 21: Ma il gno pat jo lu fasarai cun Isac (but my pact will I make with Isaac), chel che ti parturissarà Sare (that one whom Sarah shall bear to thee), di chi a un an (one year hence) e in cheste stagjon (and in this season).

Verse 22: Finît di fevelâ (having finished speaking), Diu si slontanà di Abram (God parted from Abraham).

Versets 23-27

Vocabulary: alore (then), cjapâ (to take), il fi (son), nassi (to be born), la cjase (house), comprâ (to acquire), i bêçs (money), vadì (which is to say), il mascjo (male), jessi a stâ (to dwell), taiâ (to cut), ultin (last), la piel (skin), la nature (nature), stes (same), la dì (day), ordenâ (to order), (to have), novantenûf (ninety-nine), un an (year), tredis (thirteen), circuncidi (to circumcise), la famee (family), il forest (foreigner).

Verse 23: Alore Abram al cjapà so fi Ismael (then Abraham took his son Ishmael), ducj chei che a jerin nassûts te sô cjase (all those who had been born in his house), ducj chei che al veve comprât cui bêçs (all those whom he had acquired with money), vadì ducj i mascjos che a jerin a stâ cun Abram (which is to say, all the males who were dwelling with Abraham) e ur taià la ultime piel de nature (and he cut the last skin of their nature) ta chê stesse dì (in that same day), come che Diu i veve ordenât (as God had ordered him).

Verses 24-25: Abram al veve novantenûf agns (Abraham was ninety-nine years old [had ninety-nine years]) cuant che si fasè taiâ l’ultime piel de nature (when he had the last skin of his nature cut) e Ismael, so fi, al veve tredis agns (and his son Ishmael was thirteen years old [had thirteen years]) cuant che i taiarin l’ultime piel de nature (when the last skin of his nature was cut).

Verses 26-27: Ta chê stesse dì (in that same day) a forin circuncidûts Abram e so fi Ismael (Abraham and his son Ishmael were circumcised), e ducj i mascjos de famee (and all the males of his family), nassûts in cjase o comprâts dal forest cui bêçs (born in house or acquired of the foreigner with money), a forin circuncidûts cun lui (were circumcised with him).