Friulian language series: Gjenesi 16, Sarai e Agar

In your study of the Friulian language, you have come to chapter 16 of the book of Genesis; in this post, you will examine the entirety of the chapter, where the subject is Sarai e Agar (Sarai and Hagar).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 16

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 16. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

You read that Abram’s wife, Sarai, had not produced any children:

no i veve dât fruts
she had not given him (any) children

In the above, you have the third-person singular of the trapassât prossim (past perfect) of the verb dâ. Compare the passât prossim and trapassât prossim in these examples:

al à fat
he has done
al veve fat
he had done

o ai dât
I have given
o vevi dât
I had given

Both verbs above ( and ) take as their auxiliary; the passât prossim is composed of the presint indicatîf of + the past participle of the verb in question, whereas the trapassât prossim is composed of the imperfet indicatîf of + the past participle of the verb in question.

Below, you will find the verb conjugated in the trapassât prossim, for your reference. The notes for this verse continue after the chart.

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi dât
vevio dât?
tu
tu vevis dât
vevistu dât?
lui
al veve dât
vevial dât?

e veve dât
vevie dât?

o vevin dât
vevino dât?
vualtris
o vevis dât
veviso dât?
lôr
a vevin dât
vevino dât?

In the notes for Gjenesi 12:16, you saw that il sierf and la sierve meant servant; il sierf is a male servant, and la sierve is a female one — a handmaid or maidservant.

e veve une sierve egjiziane
she had (used to have) an Egyptian handmaid

ch’e veve non Agar
whose name was Hagar

Before moving on to the next verse, I shall detail below the passât prossim and trapassât prossim conjugations of the verb vê. These correspond, respectively, to the English recent past I have had, you have had, etc., and past perfect I had had, you had had, etc.

Verb:
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai vût
aio vût?
tu
tu âs vût
âstu vût?
lui
al à vût
aial vût?

e à vût
aie vût?

o vin vût
vino vût?
vualtris
o vês vût
vêso vût?
lôr
a àn vût
àno vût?

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi vût
vevio vût?
tu
tu vevis vût
vevistu vût?
lui
al veve vût
vevial vût?

e veve vût
vevie vût?

o vevin vût
vevino vût?
vualtris
o vevis vût
veviso vût?
lôr
a vevin vût
vevino vût?

Verset 2

Sarai was barren (sterpe); you will remember this from Gjenesi 11:30, where you read: Sarai e jere sterpe e no podeve vê fruts. She now tells Abram to produce children with her handmaid Hagar. She begins:

scoltimi, ti prei
please listen to me

In the above, the verb scoltâ means to listen. The second-person singular imperative form is scolte; when ti is added, the final e of scolte becomes i.

scolte!
listen!
scoltimi!
listen to me!

Another example (not from the text):

scolte, o ai di dîti une robe
listen, I have to tell you something

O prei is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb preâ, meaning to beg, to pray, to beseech, to implore.

ti prei
I beseech you
I beg you

The Friulian ti prei does not contain the same level of formality as the English I beseech you, I implore you, etc. It can often simply be understood as meaning please.

scoltimi, ti prei
please listen to me
listen to me, please

ti prei di tasê
please be quiet
please quieten down
(tasê, to be quiet)

Sarai continues:

il Signôr no mi à dade la gracie di vê fruts
the Lord has not given me the favour of having children

parcè no vâstu cu la mê sierve?
why do you not go unto (with) my handmaid?
(that is, why do you not have relations my handmaid?)

The euphemistic lâ cun (to go with) refers here to having a sexual relationship.

tu tu vâs
you go
tu no tu vâs
you do not go

parcè vâstu?
why do you go?
parcè no vâstu?
why do you not go?

Salacor is to be understood as perhaps, maybe. You have seen the expression midiant di before; you will remember that it means through, via, by means of.

salacor midiant di jê
perhaps through her
perhaps by means of her

o podarai ancje jo vê fruts
I too shall be able to have children

This verse ends with another example of the trapassât prossim:

Abram al fasè ce che i veve dit la femine
Abram did that which his wife had told him
Abram did what his wife had said to him

Dit is the past participle of the verb dî.

e à dit
she has said
e veve dit
she had said

ce che e veve dit
what she had said
ce che i veve dit
what she had said to him

Verset 3

You have another example of the trapassât prossim; this time, however, it is formed with the auxiliary jessi.

dîs agns dopo che Abram al jere lât
ten years after Abram had gone

a stâ te tiere di Canaan
to dwell in the land of Canaan

The verb takes the auxiliary jessi in the following:

al è lât
he has gone
al jere lât
he had gone

The passât prossim here is composed of the presint indicatîf of jessi + the past participle lât, whereas the trapassât prossim is composed of the imperfet indicatîf of jessi + the past participle lât. A verb that takes jessi as its auxiliary must have its past participle agree in gender and number with its subject:

al è lât
he has gone
e je lade
she has gone

al jere lât
he had gone
e jere lade
she had gone

o soi lât
I have gone (male speaker)
o soi lade
I have gone (female speaker)

o jerin lâts
we had gone (male or mixed-gender speakers)
o jerin ladis
we had gone (female speakers)

Below, you will find the verb conjugated in both the passât prossim and trapassât prossim. The notes for this verse continue after the charts.

Verb:
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o soi lât
o soi lade

soio lât?
soio lade?

tu
tu sês lât
tu sês lade

sêstu lât?
sêstu lade?

lui
al è lât
isal lât?

e je lade
ise lade?

o sin lâts
o sin ladis

sino lâts?
sino ladis?

vualtris
o sês lâts
o sês ladis

sêso lâts?
sêso ladis?

lôr
a son lâts
a son ladis

sono lâts?
sono ladis?

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o jeri lât
o jeri lade

jerio lât?
jerio lade?

tu
tu jeris lât
tu jeris lade

jeristu lât?
jeristu lade?

lui
al jere lât
jerial lât?

e jere lade
jerie lade?

o jerin lâts
o jerin ladis

jerino lâts?
jerino ladis?

vualtris
o jeris lâts
o jeris ladis

jeriso lâts?
jeriso ladis?

lôr
a jerin lâts
a jerin ladis

jerino lâts?
jerino ladis?

Sarai gives her handmaid to her husband:

e cjolè Agar l’egjiziane
she took Hagar the Egyptian
(egjizian, Egyptian)

ch’e jere la sô sierve
who was her handmaid

je dè par femine al so om
she gave her as wife to her husband

In the above, you can understand the expression dâ par femine as meaning to give as wife. Je is a contraction of i + le, where i is equivalent to al so om, and le stands in for la sierve.

i dè al so om
she gave to her husband

je dè al so om
she gave her to her husband

Related: Direct and indirect object pronouns in Friulian.

Verset 4

This verse begins with the euphemistic use of lâ cun (to go with; that is, to have sexual intercourse with), which you first met in the second verse:

lui al lè cun Agar
he went unto Hagar
(literally, he went with Hagar)

The text then continues with an expression first seen in Gjenesi 4:1: cjapâ sù (to conceive, to get pregnant).

lui al lè cun Agar, ch’e cjapà sù
he went unto Hagar, who conceived

The masculine noun stât means state; it is taken here as referring to the state of pregnancy. Hagar’s realisation of her pregnant condition is expressed through the use of viodisi in stâts.

cuant che si viodè in stâts
when she saw that she had conceived
when she saw that she was pregnant
(literally, when she saw herself in the state[s] [of pregnancy])

Translated literally, butâ di bande means to throw to the side, to cast aside. In the context of this verse, it is to be taken as meaning to spurn, to shun.

e butà di bande la sô parone
she shunned her mistress
(literally, she cast [threw] her mistress aside)

La parone is the female form of il paron, which you will remember means ruler, master, lord, depending on the context. (A note about the English: The use of mistress here should be understood in its older sense as the feminine form of master, and not in the modern sense of female lover. The mistress in question here is, of course, Sarai, who has authority over her handmaid Hagar.)

Verset 5

The expression jessi colpe means to be at fault, to be responsible. The feminine noun colpe means fault.

tu sês colpe tu
it is you who is at fault
it is you who is responsible

In the above, note the placement of the tonic (stressed) tu at the end, for emphasis. Compare:

tu sês colpe
you are at fault

tu sês colpe tu
it is you who is at fault

Sarai continues:

se jê e à pierdûts i rispiets cun me
if she has lost respect for me

The masculine noun rispiet means respect. You can understand pierdi i rispiets as meaning to lose respect. The Friulian verb pierdi means to lose; its past participle is pierdût. In the above, note that the past participle has been accorded as pierdûts to agree with the masculine plural rispiets following it.

Sarai reminds Abram that she had offered Hagar to him:

jo ti ai metude la mê sierve tai tiei braçs
I myself put my handmaid into your arms

Metude (feminine singular form of the past participle metût) agrees in number and gender with the direct object la mê sierve following it. In the following, di cuant che means ever since, from the time when.

di cuant che e à cjapât sù
ever since she has conceived

nancje no mi cjale
she does not even look at me

She finishes by saying that the Lord is witness: al è testemoni, and that he will be the judge: che al fasi lui (let him judge; literally, let him do). The Friulian for witness is il testemoni. In regular usage, you can use this noun to refer to the witness of an incident such as an accident, murder, marriage, etc. Al fasi is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb fâ.

al fâs
he does
che al fasi
let him do; may he do

Although it does not appear in this verse, the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi has come up numerous times now in your reading of the Bible. As such, I have conjugated it below, in chart form, for your reference. That said, I do not wish to delve too heavily into the subjunctive at this point and shall leave a more advanced look of this topic for future posts.

For the subjunctive conjugation, there is an optative form (second column of the chart). The optative is used to express hope or desire. You need not concern yourself with the optative at this point; know, however, that you have already seen examples of it:

maladet seial Canaan (Gjenesi 9:25)
cursed be Canaan
may Canaan be cursed

benedet seial il Signôr (Gjenesi 9:26)
blessed be the Lord
may the Lord be blessed

After the chart, I have pulled together a number of examples that you have already seen using the present subjunctive of jessi.

Verb: JESSI
Coniuntîf presint
Present subjunctive

affirmative
optative
jo
o sedi
seio
tu
tu sedis
seistu
lui
al sedi
seial

e sedi
seie

o sedin
seino
vualtris
o sedis
seiso
lôr
a sedin
seino

Note that an alternative form exists in the affirmative: o sei, tu seis, al sei, e sei, o sein, o seis, a sein; as well as in the optative: sedio, sedistu, sedial, sedie, sedino, sediso, sedino. (In other words, the d can be present or not.) I have preferred the forms in the chart above (d in the affirmative; no d in the optative) based on the usage of this Friulian Bible.

nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl (Gjenesi 2:19)
it is not good that the man be alone

che al sedi pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis (Gjenesi 9:25)
let him be to (for) his brothers the lowest (last) of servants

lis aghis che a sedin dut un sbulium di robe vive (Gjenesi 1:20)
let the waters be a complete gush of living matter

ch’e sedi la lûs (Gjenesi 1:3)
let the light be
(that is, let there be light)

For comparison, consider the following pairs:

al è pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis
he is to his brothers the lowest of servants
che al sedi pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis
let him be to his brothers the lowest of servants

lis aghis a son un sbulium di robe vive
the waters are a gush of living matter
lis aghis che a sedin un sbulium di robe vive
let the waters be a gush of living matter

Verset 6

Poben (or po ben) can be understood as meaning well now.

poben, la sierve e je tô
well now, the handmaid is yours

fâs ce che ti pâr a ti
do what you like
do what you want
do as you see fit

Fâs is the second-person singular imperative of the verb fâ. As for the verb parê, it literally means to seem; it is used here, however, in the sense of to seem right, to seem good. Al pâr is its masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf. An example:

al jere libar di fâ ce che i pareve
he was free to do as he liked
(literally, he was free to do as it seemed [was seeming] to him)

A few more examples of the verb parê, in its basic sense of to seem:

no mi pâr vere
it does not seem true to me
it seems unbelievable
I cannot believe it
(vêr, true)

al pareve legri
he seemed cheerful
(legri, cheerful)

no mi pâr di vê let chel libri
it does not seem to me that I have read that book
(literally, it does not seem to me to have read that book; lei, to read; let is the past participle of lei)

More examples of how you might use po ben:

po ben, ce volêso?
well, what do you want?
so, what do you want?

po ben, âstu finît?
so, have you finished?
well, are you done?

po ben, o tornìn a tabaiândi plui tart
fine, we shall talk about it again later on

ok, we shall chat about it again later on
(o tornìn, we are returning; tabaiâ, to chat, to talk; tabaiândi, to chat about it, to talk about it; plui tart, later on)

In the last example above, indi (about it, of it) is attached to the infinitive tabaiâ as ndi. Indi (which is a formal written form) is equivalent to int, which you have already seen; for example: mangjânt (to eat of it). In the next example from this verse, you find int contracted to ’nt (which occurs because it is preceded by i):

Sarai i ’nt disè tantis
Sarai said so much of it to her
(that is, Sarai spoke so harshly to her)

che chê altre e scjampà di cjase
that she (Hagar) fled from home

Chê altre refers to Hagar here; it literally means that other one, in its feminine form. Because the sentence began with Sarai, using (she) to then refer to Hagar would have been ineffective; it would not have been entirely clear to which woman referred. Chê altre, on the other hand, makes it clear that it is question not of Sarai but the other woman; that is, of Hagar.

You first encountered the verb scjampâ (to flee, to escape) in Gjenesi 4:12. Here now is another example (not from this verse):

a son scjampâts cuatri presonîrs
four prisoners have escaped

Note the use of the auxiliary jessi in the above, with the past participle made to agree with the masculine plural subject cuatri presonîrs. (The subject has been shifted to the end.)

Verset 7

A new noun appears in this verse: l’agnul (angel). This is a masculine noun.

l’agnul dal Signôr
the angel of the Lord

le cjatà tal desert
found her in the desert

Supplementary examples of the verb cjatâ (to find):

cjatâ la cjase di un amì
to find a friend’s house

o cjati che la tô idee e sedi strabuine
I find your idea to be excellent
I think that your idea is excellent
(strabon, excellent; note the use of the coniuntîf presint here)

ma ce cjatistu in lui?
but what do you see in him?
(literally, but what do you find in him?)

The angel of the Lord found Hagar near a spring: dongje di une risultive. You will remember the noun risultive (spring, fountain) from Gjenesi 7:11.

You read the following detail about the spring:

la risultive ch’e je sul viaç di Sur
the spring that is on the way to Shur

Sul viaç di can be understood as meaning on the way to. The masculine noun viaç is cognate with the English voyage and often means precisely that.

Verset 8

The angel asks Hagar:

dontri venstu?
where are you coming from?
from where are you arriving?

dulà vâstu?
where are you going?

Dulà means where; dontri means from where. Dontri can also be expressed as di dulà (literally, from where).

You have seen before that the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb vignî is tu tu vegnis, or simply tu vegnis. Its interrogative form is vegnistu. In this verse, rather than the interrogative vegnistu, you find the variant venstu.

dontri vegnistu? dontri venstu?
where are you coming from?
from where are you arriving?

More examples asking where:

dulà sêstu?
where are you?

di dulà sêstu?
where are you from?

di dulà vegnistu? dontri vegnistu?
where are you coming from?
from where are you arriving?

dulà vivistu?
indulà vivistu?
dulà che tu vivis?
where do you live?

Note the difference in meaning between the questions di dulà sêstu and di dulà vegnistu: the first asks for a person’s hometown, country, etc. (where are you from?), whereas the second asks for the person’s point of departure before his journey had been embarked upon (where are you arriving from?, where are you coming from?).

Hagar responds to the angel:

o scjampi de mê parone
I am fleeing from my mistress

You may wish to look now at the names of more countries in Friulian. In the notes at Gjenesi 13:7, the names of European countries were listed; below are the names of countries in America. I have opted for Friulianised names, but, as you will come to expect of Friulian, variants are possible (NicaragueNicaragua, ParavuaiParaguay, UruvuaiUruguay, VuatemaleGuatemala, VenezueleVenezuela, etc.).

la Americhe (America)

Antigue e Barbude (Antigua and Barbuda), la Argjentine (Argentina), lis Bahamas (Bahamas), Barbados (Barbados), il Belize (Belize), la Bolivie (Bolivia), il Brasîl (Brazil), il Canadà (Canada), il Cile (Chile), la Colombie (Colombia), Cube (Cuba), la Cueste Riche (Costa Rica),  la Dominiche (Dominica), l’Ecuadôr (Ecuador), la Gjamaiche (Jamaica), Grenade (Grenada), Haiti (Haiti), l’Honduras (Honduras), il Messic (Mexico), il Nicarague (Nicaragua), Panamà (Panama), il Paravuai (Paraguay), il Perù (Peru), la Republiche Dominicane (Dominican Republic), il Salvadôr (El Salvador), Sant Cristoful e Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis), Sant Vincent e Grenadinis (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Sante Lucie (Saint Lucia), Stâts Unîts di Americhe (United States of America), il Suriname (Suriname), Trinitât e Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago), l’Uruvuai (Uruguay), il Venezuele (Venezuela), il Vuatemale (Guatemala), la Vuiane (Guyana).

Also: la Americhe dal Nord, la Americhe Setentrionâl (North America), la Americhe Centrâl (Central America), la Americhe dal Sud, la Americhe Meridionâl (South America), i Caraips (Caribbean).

Verset 9

The angel gives Hagar the following command:

torne de tô parone
return to your mistress

no sta mancjâi di rispiet
do not lack respect for her
(that is, do not disrespect her)

Recall from the notes at Gjenesi 15:1 that no sta is used to create a negated command.

The expression mancjâ di rispiet means to lack respect. In the text, you find mancjâi di rispiet, which translates literally as to lack respect unto her: mancjâ (to lack), mancjâi (to lack unto him, to lack unto her, to lack unto it, etc.).

Note the use of the preposition di in torne de tô parone.

Verset 10

You have already encountered the vocabulary and usages of this verse. Recall that rivâ adore a fâ means to be manage to do, to succeed in doing.

o fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie
I shall increase your offspring
(literally, I shall make increase your offspring)

che no si rivarà adore nancje di contâle
such that one shall not even be able to count it
such that it shall not even be able to be counted

Verset 11

You have seen before that the verb spietâ means to wait; in this verse, it takes on a different sense: that of to be expecting a child. You can also use the expression spietâ un frut.

tu tu spietis
you are expecting
(that is, you are pregnant)

The text continues:

tu parturissarâs un frut
you shall give birth to a boy
you shall bear a boy

tu i metarâs non Ismael
you shall name him Ishmael
(literally, you shall put unto him [the] name Ishmael)

The Friulian la streme can be understood as meaning difficulty, need. As for the verb judâ, this means to help.

il Signôr ti à judade inte tô streme
the Lord has helped you in your difficulty

Note that the past participle of the verb judâ has been made to agree with the direct object ti preceding it. Because ti refers to Hagar, the past participle is accorded in the feminine singular as judade.

Verset 12

Recall from Gjenesi 12:16 that the Friulian for donkey, ass is il mus.

al sarà come un mus salvadi
he shall be like a wild donkey

il so braç cuintri di ducj
his arm against everyone

Plantâ une tende means to pitch a tent. In face di is Friulian for in front of, before.

Verset 13

This verse begins:

al Signôr, che i veve fevelât
unto the Lord, who had spoken to her

Agar i dè chest non:
Hagar gave this name:

Hagar says: tu tu sês El-Roi (you are El-Roi; this is one of the Hebrew names of God and means God of seeing, God of vision).

aio podût viodi
have I been able to see

ancjemò dopo di Chel che mi viôt?
even after He who sees me?

o ai podût
I have been able
aio podût?
have I been able?

viodi
to see
al viôt
he sees

Verset 14

The verb clamâ means to call. You have met the Friulian noun for well (of water) before: il poç.

par chel
for this reason

a àn clamât chel poç
they called that well

il poç di Lacai-Roi
the well of Lahai Roi

You read that the well was between Kades (Kadesh) and Bered (Bered).

Verset 15

You come across the verb parturî again:

Agar i parturì a Abram un frut
Hagar bore a boy unto Abram

Abram named his son Ishmael.

Verset 16

The Friulian for 86 is otantesîs. The expression fâ deventâ pari translates literally as to make become (a) father, to cause to become (a) father.

Abram al veve otantesîs agns
Abram was eighty-six years old
(literally, Abram was having eighty-six years)

cuant che Agar lu fasè deventâ pari di Ismael
when Hagar bore Ishmael unto him
(literally, when Hagar made him become [the] father of Ishmael)