Friulian language series: Gjenesi 16, Sarai e Agar

Hagar the maidservant flees from her mistress Sarai in the sixteenth chapter of the book of Genesis.

The first-time visitor to this site ought to begin his study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 16

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 16. An archived version of the text is found here.

Versets 1-2

La femine di Abram, Sarai, no i veve dât fruts (Abram’s wife Sarai had not given children to him), ma però e veve une sierve egjiziane (but she had an Egyptian maidservant), ch’e veve non Agar (who had for name Hagar), e Sarai i disè a Abram (and Sarai said to Abram): scoltimi, ti prei (hearken unto me, I pray thee): il Signôr no mi à dade la gracie di vê fruts (the Lord has not given me the grace of having children). Parcè no vâstu (why goest thou not) cu la mê sierve? (with my maidservant?). Salacor midiant di jê (perhaps by way of her), o podarai ancje jo vê fruts (I, too, shall be able to have children). E Abram al fasè (and Abram did) ce che i veve dit la femine (that which his wife had said to him).

Vocabulary: la femine (wife), (to give), i fruts (children), ma però (but), la sierve (maidservant), egjizian (Egyptian), (to have), il non (name), (to say), scoltâ (to hearken), preâ (to pray), la gracie (grace), parcè no (why not), (to go), salacor (perhaps), midiant di (by way of), podê (to be able), ancje (too), (to do).

With no i veve dât (she had not given to him), encountered is the negated, third-person singular of the trapassât prossim (past perfect) of the verb dâ. Observe side-by-side the passât prossim and trapassât prossim in the following instances: al à fat; al veve fat (he has done; he had done); o ai dât; o vevi dât (I have given; I had given). The passât prossim is composed of the presint indicatîf of + the past participle of the verb in question, whereas the trapassât prossim is composed of the imperfet indicatîf of + the past participle of the verb in question. The verb is conjugated in the trapassât prossim below.

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi dât
vevio dât?
tu
tu vevis dât
vevistu dât?
lui
al veve dât
vevial dât?

e veve dât
vevie dât?

o vevin dât
vevino dât?
vualtris
o vevis dât
veviso dât?
lôr
a vevin dât
vevino dât?

Scoltimi, ti prei: hearken unto me, I pray thee. The verb scoltâ means to hearken {unto}. Its second-person singular imperative is scolte; when ti is added, the final e of scolte becomes i. Observe: scolte (hearken); scoltimi (hearken unto me). O prei is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb preâ, meaning to pray. Ti prei: I pray thee.

Parcè no vâstu cu la mê sierve?: why goest thou not with my maidservant? Lâ cun (literally, to go with) is to be understood here in the sense of to have carnal relations with. Observe the following: tu tu vâs (thou goest); tu no tu vâs (thou goest not); parcè vâstu? (why goest thou?); parcè no vâstu? (why goest thou not?).

Another instance of the trapassât prossim is found in the last sentence of the second verse: Abram al fasè ce che i veve dit la femine (Abram did that which his wife had said to him). Dit is the past participle of the verb dî. Consider all the following: e à dit; e veve dit (she has said; she had said); ce che e veve dit; ce che i veve dit (that which she had said; that which she had said to him).

For reference, presented below are also the passât prossim (I have had, thou hast had, he has had…) and trapassât prossim (I had had, thou had had, he had had…) conjugations of the verb vê. These and all other available Friulian conjugations may be located through this page: Friulian verb conjugation tables.

Verb:
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai vût
aio vût?
tu
tu âs vût
âstu vût?
lui
al à vût
aial vût?

e à vût
aie vût?

o vin vût
vino vût?
vualtris
o vês vût
vêso vût?
lôr
a àn vût
àno vût?

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi vût
vevio vût?
tu
tu vevis vût
vevistu vût?
lui
al veve vût
vevial vût?

e veve vût
vevie vût?

o vevin vût
vevino vût?
vualtris
o vevis vût
veviso vût?
lôr
a vevin vût
vevino vût?

Verset 3

Cussì (so), dîs agns dopo che Abram (ten years after Abram) al jere lât a stâ te tiere di Canaan (had gone to dwell in the land of Canaan), Sarai, la sô femine, e cjolè Agar l’egjiziane (his wife Sarai took Hagar the Egyptian), ch’e jere la sô sierve (who was her maidservant), e je dè par femine al so om, Abram (and gave her for wife to her husband Abram).

Vocabulary: cussì (so), dîs (ten), un an (year), dopo che (after), lâ a stâ (to go to dwell), la tiere (land), la femine (woman), cjoli (to take), la egjiziane (Egyptian woman), la sierve (maidservant), (to give), un om (husband).

With al jere lât, encountered is another instance of the trapassât prossim; however, it is now formed with the auxiliary jessi. Consider: al è lât (he has gone); al jere lât (he had gone). The passât prossim is here composed of the presint indicatîf of jessi + the past participle lât, whereas the trapassât prossim is composed of the imperfet indicatîf of jessi + the past participle lât. A verb which takes jessi as its auxiliary causes its past participle to agree in gender and number with its subject: al è lât; e je lade (he has gone; she has gone); al jere lât; e jere lade (he had gone; she had gone); o soi lât; o soi lade (I have gone [male]; I have gone [female]); o jerin lâts; o jerin ladis (we had gone [males or mixed-gender]; we had gone [females]). The verb is conjugated below in both the passât prossim and trapassât prossim below.

Je is a contraction of i + le (unto him + her), where i corresponds to al so om, and le stands in for la sierve. Observe: i dè al so om (she gave to her husband); je dè al so om (she gave her to her husband). Related: Direct and indirect object pronouns in Friulian.

Verb:
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o soi lât
o soi lade

soio lât?
soio lade?

tu
tu sês lât
tu sês lade

sêstu lât?
sêstu lade?

lui
al è lât
isal lât?

e je lade
ise lade?

o sin lâts
o sin ladis

sino lâts?
sino ladis?

vualtris
o sês lâts
o sês ladis

sêso lâts?
sêso ladis?

lôr
a son lâts
a son ladis

sono lâts?
sono ladis?

Verb:
Trapassât prossim
Past perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o jeri lât
o jeri lade

jerio lât?
jerio lade?

tu
tu jeris lât
tu jeris lade

jeristu lât?
jeristu lade?

lui
al jere lât
jerial lât?

e jere lade
jerie lade?

o jerin lâts
o jerin ladis

jerino lâts?
jerino ladis?

vualtris
o jeris lâts
o jeris ladis

jeriso lâts?
jeriso ladis?

lôr
a jerin lâts
a jerin ladis

jerino lâts?
jerino ladis?

Verset 4

Lui al lè cun Agar (he went with Hagar), ch’e cjapà sù (who conceived [took up]). Cuant che si viodè in stâts (when she saw herself with child [in states]), e butà di bande la sô parone (she cast aside her mistress).

Vocabulary: (to go), cjapâ sù (to take up), viodisi (to see oneself), il stât (state), butâ (to cast), la bande (side), la parone (mistress).

Lui al lè cun Agar: he went with Hagar, which is to say, carnally. To be in stâts is to be pregnant with child. Parone (mistress) is the feminine form of the masculine paron.

Verset 5

Alore Sarai i disè a Abram (then Sarai said to Abram): tu sês colpe tu (it is thou who art guilty) se jê e à pierdûts i rispiets cun me (if she has lost respect for [with] me). Jo ti ai metude la mê sierve tai tiei braçs e (I put my maidservant unto thee into thine arms and), di cuant che e à cjapât sù (since she has conceived [taken up]), nancje no mi cjale (she looks not even upon me). Il Signôr al è testemoni (the Lord is witness) e che al fasi lui (and may he judge [do]).

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to say), colpe (guilty), pierdi (to lose), i rispiets (respect), meti (to put), la sierve (maidservant), il braç (arm), di cuant che (since), cjapâ sù (to take up), nancje (not even), cjalâ (to look {upon}), il testemoni (witness), (to do).

Se jê e à pierdûts i rispiets cun me: if she has lost respect for [with] me. The past participle of pierdi is accorded as the masculine plural pierdûts to agree with the masculine plural rispiets following it.

Che al fasi lui: literally, may he do, which is to say, may he judge. Al fasi is the third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb fâ. Observe: al fâs (he does); che al fasi (may he do).

Although it does not appear in the text of this verse, the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi has been met with numerous times; it is found conjugated below, for reference. For the subjunctive conjugation, there is an optative form (second column of the table). The optative is used to express hope or desire; instances thereof have already been encountered in the readings: maladet seial Canaan (Gjenesi 9:25; cursed be Canaan); benedet seial il Signôr (Gjenesi 9:26; blessed be the Lord). After the table, found are a number of examples employing the present subjunctive of jessi which have been encountered in the readings.

Verb: JESSI
Coniuntîf presint
Present subjunctive

affirmative
optative
jo
o sedi
seio
tu
tu sedis
seistu
lui
al sedi
seial

e sedi
seie

o sedin
seino
vualtris
o sedis
seiso
lôr
a sedin
seino

An alternate form exists in the affirmative: o sei, tu seis, al sei, e sei, o sein, o seis, a sein; as well as in the optative: sedio, sedistu, sedial, sedie, sedino, sediso, sedino (in other words, the d may be present or not). In the table above, the forms employed (d in the affirmative; no d in the optative) are based on the usage of this Friulian Bible.

Of jessi, examples employing the present subjunctive: ch’e sedi la lûs (Gjenesi 1:3); lis aghis che a sedin dut un sbulium di robe vive (Gjenesi 1:20); nol è ben che l’om al sedi dibessôl (Gjenesi 2:19); che al sedi pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis (Gjenesi 9:25).

Verset 6

Abram i disè a Sarai (Abram said to Sarai): poben (well), la sierve e je tô (the maidservant is thine), fâs ce che ti pâr a ti (do that which seems fitting to thee). Sarai i ’nt disè tantis (Sarai said so many thereof to her) che chê altre e scjampà di cjase (that that other one fled from the house).

Vocabulary: (to say), poben (well), la sierve (maidservant), (to do), parê (to seem {fitting}), tant (so much), scjampâ (to flee), la cjase (house).

Fâs ce che ti pâr a ti: do that which seems fitting to thee. The Friulian verb parê means to seem; in this expression, however, it takes on the sense of to seem fitting. Fâs is the second-person singular imperative of the verb fâ, whereas al pâr is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of parê.

Sarai i ’nt disè tantis: Sarai said so many thereof to her. It is question here of harsh words being spoken. Taken apart: Sarai (Sarai) i (unto her) ’nt (thereof) disè (did say) tantis (so many).

Versets 7-8

L’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord) le cjatà tal desert (found her in the desert) dongje di une risultive (alongside a spring), la risultive ch’e je sul viaç di Sur (the spring which is on the way to Shur), e i disè (and said to her): Agar, sierve di Sarai (Hagar maidservant of Sarai), dontri venstu e dulà vâstu? (whence comest thou and whither goest thou?). I rispuindè (she responded to him): o scjampi de mê parone, di Sarai (I am fleeing from my mistress, from Sarai).

Vocabulary: un agnul (angel), cjatâ (to find), il desert (desert), dongje di (alongside), la risultive (spring), sul viaç di (on the way to), (to say), la sierve (maidservant), dontri (whence), vignî (to come), dulà (whither), (to go), rispuindi (to respond), scjampâ (to flee), la parone (mistress).

Dulà means where, but also whither; dontri means whence. Dontri may also be expressed as di dulà. Of vignî, the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf is tu tu vegnis, or simply tu vegnis. Its interrogative form is vegnistu. In the text of this verse, rather than the interrogative vegnistu, found is the variant venstu. Dontri vegnistu? (whence comest thou?) may therefore also expressed as dontri venstu?, as found in the text.

Note the difference in meaning between the questions di dulà sêstu? and di dulà vegnistu?: the first asks for a one’s place of origin (country, hometown, and so on), whereas the second asks for his point of departure before his journey had been embarked upon. For instance, to ask a traveller from which country he hails, ask: di dulà sêstu?; to ask this same traveller from which city he had just arrived on his journey, ask: di dulà vegnistu? Whilst on the subject of places of origin, the reader may wish to learn the names of more countries in Friulian. In the notes at Gjenesi 13:7, the names of European countries were listed; below are the names of countries in America. I have opted for Friulianised versions, but, as the reader will come to expect of Friulian, variants are possible.

la Americhe (America)

Antigue e Barbude (Antigua and Barbuda), la Argjentine (Argentina), lis Bahamas (Bahamas), Barbados (Barbados), il Belize (Belize), la Bolivie (Bolivia), il Brasîl (Brazil), il Canadà (Canada), il Cile (Chile), la Colombie (Colombia), Cube (Cuba), la Cueste Riche (Costa Rica), la Dominiche (Dominica), l’Ecuadôr (Ecuador), la Gjamaiche (Jamaica), Grenade (Grenada), Haiti (Haiti), l’Honduras (Honduras), il Messic (Mexico), il Nicarague (Nicaragua), Panamà (Panama), il Paravuai (Paraguay), il Perù (Peru), la Republiche Dominicane (Dominican Republic), il Salvadôr (El Salvador), Sant Cristoful e Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis), Sant Vincent e Grenadinis (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), Sante Lucie (Saint Lucia), Stâts Unîts di Americhe (United States of America), il Suriname (Suriname), Trinitât e Tobago (Trinidad and Tobago), l’Uruvuai (Uruguay), il Venezuele (Venezuela), il Vuatemale (Guatemala), la Vuiane (Guyana).

Also: la Americhe dal Nord or la Americhe Setentrionâl (North America), la Americhe Centrâl (Central America), la Americhe dal Sud or la Americhe Meridionâl (South America), i Caraips (Caribbean).

Versets 9-16

Vocabulary: un agnul (angel), (to say), tornâ di (to return to), la parone (mistress), no sta (do not), mancjâ (to lack), il rispiet (respect), zontâ (to add), (to make), cressi (to increase), la gjernazie (line), rivâ adore di (to be able to), nancje (not even), contâ (to count), dissal (he said), ancje (also), spietâ (to expect), parturî (to bear), il frut (male child), meti (to put), il non (name), parcè che (for), judâ (to help), la streme (affliction), il mus (ass), salvadi (wild), il braç (arm), cuintri di (against), plantâ (to plant), la tende (tent), in face di (in face of), il fradi (brother), fevelâ (to speak), (to give), podê (to be able), viodi (to see), ancjemò (yet), dopo di (after), par chel (therefore), clamâ (to call), il poç (well), fra (between), il fi (son), (to give), otantesîs (eighty-six), un an (year), deventâ (to become), il pari (father).

Verse 9: L’agnul dal Signôr i disè (the angel of the Lord said to her): torne de tô parone (return to thy mistress) e *no sta mancjâi di rispiet* (and lack not respect for her). — *No sta is used to create a negated command. Examples: torne; no stâ tornâ (return; return not); fevele; no sta fevelâ (speak; speak not). Consider now the following: mancjâ (to lack); mancjâi (to lack for [unto] her).

Verse 10: L’agnul dal Signôr al zontà (the angel of the Lord added): o fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie (I will make thy line increase) che no si rivarà adore nancje di contâle (that one shall not even be able to count it).

Verse 11: Dissal ancje l’agnul dal Signôr (the angel of the Lord also said): tu tu spietis (thou art expecting) e tu parturissarâs un frut (and shalt bear a male child) e tu i metarâs non Ismael (and shalt put unto him the name Ishmael), parcè che il Signôr ti à judade* (for the Lord helped thee) inte tô streme (in thine affliction). — *The past participle of the verb judâ has been made to agree with the direct object ti preceding it; for ti refers to Hagar, the past participle is accorded in the feminine singular as judade.

Verse 12: Al sarà come un mus salvadi (he shall be like a wild ass), il so braç cuintri di ducj (his arm against all), il braç di ducj cuintri di lui (the arm of all against him). Al plantarà la sô tende (he shall plant his tent) in face di ducj i siei fradis (in face of all his brethren).

Verse 13: Al Signôr, che i veve fevelât (to the Lord who had spoken to her), Agar i dè chest non (Hagar gave this name): “Tu tu sês El-Roi” (‘Thou art El-Roi’) parcè che, disè (for, she said): àio podût viodi ancjemò (have I been able to see yet) dopo di Chel che mi viôt? (after that one who sees me?).

Verse 14: Par chel *a àn clamât chel poç* il poç di Lacai-Roi (therefore that well was called [therefore they called that well] the well of Lahai-Roi); al è fra Kades e Bered (it is between Kadesh and Bered). — *A àn clamât chel poç translates literally as they called that well; the Friulian employment of the third-person plural may often be made to align with a passive construction in English.

Verse 15: Agar i parturì a Abram un frut (Hagar bore to Abram a male child) e Abram i metè (and Abram put unto him), al fi che i veve dât Agar (unto the son whom Hagar had given to him), il non di Ismael (the name of Ishmael).

Verse 16: Abram al veve otantesîs agns (Abram was eighty-six years old [had eighty-six years]) cuant che Agar lu fasè deventâ (when Hagar made him become) pari di Ismael (father of Ishmael). — Consider the following: deventâ (to become); fâ deventâ (to make become); fâ deventâ pari di Ismael (to make become father of Ishmael); lu fasè deventâ pari di Ismael (she made him become father of Ishmael).