Friulian language series: Gjenesi 15, pat di sotanance

You now continue to make great progress in your study of Friulian via the book of Genesis; in this post, you will examine the entirety of the fifteenth chapter, where the subject is il pat di sotanance (covenant of bondage).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

You will find a number of new verb conjugation charts in this post: in the notes for verse 5, the simple past of dî; in verse 6, the present indicative and recent past of crodi; in verse 7, the recent past of tirâ; in verse 14, the future perfect of fâ; at the end of the post, the imperfect indicative, simple future and simple past of crodi. For regular verbs whose infinitive ends in i, you can use the verb crodi as a model.

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of this chapter in the video begins at 0:00 at ends at 3:18.

Letore: Cristiana Compagno

Verset 1

The verb sintî means to hear. The expression fâsi sintî translates as to make oneself heard.

la peraule dal Signôr si è fate sintî
the word of the Lord made itself heard
(that is, the word of the Lord was heard)

Si è fat is the masculine, third-person singular, passât prossim conjugation of the reflexive verb fâsi. In the above, you find si è fate, which is its feminine equivalent: it agrees in gender with la peraule.

The Friulian for vision is la vision.

si è fate sintî intune vision
it made itself heard in a vision

The expression vê pôre means to be afraid; literally, it translates as to have fear. The Friulian for fear is la pôre.

no tu âs di vê pôre di nuie
you do not have to be afraid of anything
you need fear nothing

You will perhaps recall that no sta is used to create a negated command in the second-person singular:

no sta vê pôre!
do not be afraid!
do not fear!

Here are more very good examples, using commandments from Esodo 20 (Exodus 20):

no sta fâ adulteri
do not commit adultery

no sta copâ, no sta robâ
do not kill, do not steal

no sta testemoneâ il fals cuintri dal to prossim
do not bear false witness against your neighbour
(testemoneâ, to testify, to give testimony, to bear witness; il fals, falsehood, untruth; cuintri di, against)

no sta bramâ la cjase dal to prossim
do not covet your neighbour’s house
(bramâ, to covet, to desire, to long for)

no sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim
do not covet your neighbour’s wife

Prossim as an adjective means next; as a noun, it translates literally as next person; that is, fellow person. In English-language Bibles, this is rendered as neighbour. In regular language, the Friulian word for neighbour (as in the person who lives next door) is il vicin.

o soi in barufe cul vicin
I am in an argument with the neighbour

The verb parâ can be understood in this verse as meaning to shield.

chel che ti pare
he who shields you

jo o soi chel che ti pare
I am he who shields you

e la tô pae e sarà une vore grande
and your reward will be very large

La pae (or la paie) means pay, compensation, etc.

Verset 2

An interrogative form appears in this verse:

ce mi darâstu?
what will you give me?

You know that I go in Friulian is rendered as jo o voi, from the verb lâ. In this verse, you will have perhaps recognised jo mi ’nt voi as being the first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of lâsint.

jo mi ’nt voi cence fruts
I go off without children

The Friulian for heir is l’erêt.

l’erêt de mê cjase al è un di Damasc, Eliezer
the heir of my house is (some)one from Damascus, Eliezer

You can now also learn the verb ereditâ, meaning to inherit.

o ai ereditât chest orloi di pols di un barbe
I inherited this wristwatch from an uncle
(un orloi, clock, watch; il pols, wrist)

Verset 3

Another interrogative form appears in this verse; this time, it is negated:

tu tu viodis
tu no tu viodis
you see
you do not see

or simply:

tu viodis
no tu viodis
you see
you do not see

interrogative:

viodistu?
no viodistu?
do you see?
do you not see?

no viodistu che no tu mi âs dât
do you not see that you have not given to me

nancje l’onôr di vê une gjernazie
even the honour of having offspring

tu tu mi âs dât
tu no tu mi âs dât
you have given to me
you have not given to me

e che dute la mê robe i larà al gno famei
and that all my possessions will go to my slave

In the above, la robe (thing) is used in a collective sense meaning things, stock, possessions, etc.

Verset 4

In the first verse of this chapter, you found the reflexive fâsi sintî (to make oneself heard). In the current verse, you find fâ sintî, meaning to make hear.

Diu i fasè sintî chestis peraulis
God made him hear these words
God pronounced these words to him

(literally, God made hear these words to him)

The text continues with the feminine noun ereditât, meaning inheritance:

no i larà a lui la tô ereditât
your inheritance will not go to him

The Friulian la vissare means (internal) organ. In the plural, lis vissaris can be understood as meaning guts, innards.

chel che al saltarà fûr des tôs vissaris
he who will come forth from your innards

al sarà il to erêt
he will be your heir

You have now seen the following related Friulian usages: erêt (m., heir), ereditât (f., inheritance), ereditâ (to inherit).

Verset 5

This verse begins with the expression menâ fûr, meaning to bring out, to bring forth. Other usages in this verse to learn or review include: cjalâ sù (to look up), la stele (star), contâ (to count), rivâ a contâ (to manage to count, to succeed in counting).

lu menà fûr
he brought him forth
he brought him out

cjale sù tal cîl
look up (in)to the sky

conte lis stelis
count the stars

se tu rivis a contâlis
if you are able to count them
if you can manage to count them

In the above examples, you have two examples of a second-person singular imperative: cjale and conte. You will remember that regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â take the ending e in their second-person singular imperative.

In the above, you also find contâlis, meaning to count them. Because it is question of the feminine lis stelis here, them is expressed as the feminine plural lis. The masculine plural equivalent is ju.

contâ i libris > contâju
to count the books > to count them

contâ lis stelis > contâlis
to count the stars > to count them

In the singular, you will find either the masculine lu or the feminine le:

cjalâ il soreli > cjalâlu
to look at the sun > to look at it

cjalâ la stele > cjalâle
to look at the star > to look at it

This verse ends with:

cussì e sarà la tô gjernazie
thus will be your offspring

In this verse, you find the third-person singular, passât sempliç conjugation al disè, from the verb dî. Below, for your reference, you will find the entire simple past conjugation of dî.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disei
diserio?
tu
tu diseris
diseristu?
lui
al disè
diserial?

e disè
diserie?

o diserin
diserino?
vualtris
o diseris
diseriso?
lôr
a diserin
diserino?

Verset 6

Crodût is the past participle of the verb crodi (to believe). The text reads Abram i à crodût al Signôr (Abram believed in the Lord); you will notice that Friulian has used the preposition a here: i à crodût al Signôr, whereas English uses in.

The text then reads: chest i è stât metût in cont di justizie. In cont di can be understood as meaning regarding, as concerns. La justizie translates as justness, righteousness. You can understand chest i è stât metût in cont di justizie as meaning this was put to him as righteousness, for righteousness.

Chest è stât metût is a passive contruction meaning this was put, this was placed. You will recall that metût is the past participle of the verb meti. You saw a wording similar to this back in Gjenesi 2:1, when you read: a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere (the heaven and the earth were put in place).

Below, for your reference, you will find the verb crodi conjugated in the presint indicatîf and passât prossim. You will find even more conjugations of crodi at the very end of this post.

Verb: CRODI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crôt
crodio?
tu
tu crodis
crodistu?
lui
al crôt
crodial?

e crôt
crodie?

o crodìn
crodìno?
vualtris
o crodês
crodêso?
lôr
a crodin
crodino?

Verb: CRODI
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai crodût
aio crodût?
tu
tu âs crodût
âstu crodût?
lui
al à crodût
aial crodût?

e à crodût
aie crodût?

o vin crodût
vino crodût?
vualtris
o vês crodût
vêso crodût?
lôr
a àn crodût
àno crodût?

Verset 7

The expression tirâ fûr means to take out, to pull out.

che ti à tirât fûr di Ur dai caldeus
who took you out of Ur of the Chaldees
who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldees

You will remember that the Friulian il paron means ruler, master, leader. Un paron espotic can be understood here as meaning absolute ruler. Par fâti deventâ means in order to make you become.

The verb tirâ is found in this verse conjugated in the passât prossim. Below, I have conjugated this verb in that tense, for your reference. You will note that the only difference between the passât prossim of tirâ and that of crodi (see previous verse) is the change of past participle. This is the case for all verbs taking as their auxiliary.

Verb: TIRÂ
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai tirât
aio tirât?
tu
tu âs tirât
âstu tirât?
lui
al à tirât
aial tirât?

e à tirât
aie tirât?

o vin tirât
vino tirât?
vualtris
o vês tirât
vêso tirât?
lôr
a àn tirât
àno tirât?

Verset 8

Another interrogative form appears in this verse:

cemût fasio a savê che dut al sarà gno?
how can I know that all will be mine?
(literally, how do I do to know that all will be mine?)

o fâs
cemût fasio?
I do
how do I do?

More examples using cemût fasio:

cemût fasio a rivâ in timp?
how can I arrive in time?
how do I go about arriving in time?

cemût fasio a contâ lis stelis?
how can I count the stars?
how do I go about counting the stars?

cemût fasio a imparâ il furlan?
how can I learn Friulian?
how do I go about learning Friulian?

Verset 9

The names of five animals appear in this verse: la mange (heifer); la cjavre ([female] goat), il roc (ram), la tortorele (turtledove), il colombin (pigeon). La mange (or la manze) is a young cow that has not yet produced a calf; the Friulian for cow is la vacje.

va a cjolimi une mange di trê agns
go take for me a heifer of three years (of age)
go get me a three-year-old heifer

I shall include here the names of a few different animals in Friulian: il gjat (cat), il cjan (dog), il cjaval (horse; plural: i cjavai), il purcit (pig), il poleç (chicken), la sghirate (squirrel), il cierf (deer), un ors (bear), il lôf (wolf), la bolp (fox).

Verset 10

You can understand puartâ dongje as meaning to bring.

i puartà dongje ducj chescj nemâi
he brought to him all these animals

The verb taiâ means to cut. Taiâ pal mieç, then, means to cut down the middle, to cut in half. The Friulian for middle is il mieç. The Friulian for piece, on the other hand, is il toc.

ju taià pal mieç
he cut them down the middle
he cut them in half

al metè un toc in face di chel altri
he put one piece in front of the other

You read that Abram did not cut the birds:

nol smiezà i ucei
he did not halve the birds
he did not cut the birds in half

The verb smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half) is related to the noun mieç.

Verset 11

Un ucelat is the Friulian for bird of prey. As for la cjarnasse, this means carcass.

i ucelats a plombarin su la cjarnasse
the birds of prey swooped in on the carcasses

The expression plombâ su can be understood as meaning to swoop in on, to pounce on.

Abram did not allow the birds to prey on the carcasses:

Abram ju sovà vie
Abram drove them away

Verset 12

You may have been able to guess at this point that lâ a mont, with reference to the sun, means to set, to go down.

cuant che il soreli al leve a mont
when the sun was setting
when the sun was going down

You read that a sleep came upon Abram:

a Abram i vignì une grande flaperie
a great sleep came upon Abram
a great drowsiness came to Abram

The verb gafâ means to grab, to seize. As for il scûr, this means darkness.

un grant scûr lu gafà
a great darkness seized him

Verset 13

The adjective forest means foreign. For example, une lenghe foreste is a foreign language. Lavoradôrs forescj are foreign workers. The four forms of this adjective are forest (masculine singular), forescj (masculine plural), foreste (feminine singular), forestis (feminine plural).

tu savarâs ben che
you will know well that
(that is, you can be certain that)

la tô gjernazie e sarà foreste
your offspring will be foreign

intune tiere foreste
in a foreign land

The adjective sotan means subjugated. Related to this adjective is the noun la sotanance, meaning subjugation, bondage, servitude. As for the verb tibiâ, it means to oppress, to tread on.

a saran sotans
they will be subjugated

ju tibiaran par cuatricent agns a dilunc
they will oppress them for four hundred years

A dilunc means in length, at length, long.

par cuatricent agns a dilunc
for four hundred years in length

fevelâ a dilunc
to speak at length

Verset 14

La sentence is the Friulian for sentence, judgement. The expression fâ sentence cuintri di can be understood as meaning to pronounce a judgement against, to bring judgement against.

jo o fasarai sentence cuintri di chel popul
I shall bring judgement against that people

The expression fâ di famei means to be as a slave. In this verse, you find this expression used in the futûr anteriôr (future perfect):

lôr i varan fat di fameis
they will have been as slaves to it
(that is, to that people)

a varan
a varan fat
they will have
they will have done

o varai
o varai comprât
I shall have
I shall have bought

al varà
al varà metût
he will have
he will have put

You will remember that the verb jessî means to exit. This is the verb that appears in the following (it is not the verb jessi, meaning to be):

a jessaran di li
they will exit from there
they will come out from there

cuntun grum di robe
with a lot of possessions, stock

In the above, un grum di means a lot of, a great deal of. Below, you will find the future perfect conjugation of the verb fâ.

Verb:
Futûr anteriôr
Future perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varai fat
varaio fat?
tu
tu varâs fat
varâstu fat?
lui
al varà fat
varaial fat?

e varà fat
varaie fat?

o varìn fat
varìno fat?
vualtris
o varês fat
varêso fat?
lôr
a varan fat
varano fat?

Verset 15

The expression par chel che ti rivuarde means as for you, as it concerns you. The verb here is rivuardâ, meaning to concern.

tu t’int larâs in pâs cui tiei vons
you will go in peace to your forefathers

You will recognise the use of lâsint in the above. You will also remember the noun il von, which you saw in the notes for Gjenesi 14:12 in the sense of grandfather. The Friulian for peace in la pâs.

tu t’int larâs
you will go off

m’int voi
I go off

s’int lè
he went off

s’int lerin
they went off

The text continues:

tu larâs sot tiere
you will go underground
(that is, you will be buried)

dopo di une biele vecjae
after a good old age

The Friulian la vecjae (or la vecjaie) means old age, as in the elderly years of one’s life.

Verset 16

This verse begins with:

a tornaran culì cu la cuarte gjenerazion
they will return here in the fourth generation

Fint in chê volte can be understood as until that time.

You have seen the Friulian la tristerie before; you will recall that it means wickness, iniquity.

la tristerie dai amoreus no sarà rivade al colm
the wickedness of the Amorites will not have reached its peak

Il colm is the Friulian for peak, height, brim. Rivâ al colm can be understood as meaning to reach its peak, to reach its height.

Il colm can also be used in colloquial language as:

chest al è il colm!
that is the limit!
now that is going too far!
(I have had it!)

Verset 17

Lât a mont il soreli can be understood as meaning the sun (having) gone down, the sun (having) set. Vignût scûr, on the other hand, can be understood as darkness (having) come.

The Friulian la fornâs is a furnace. When talking about fire or electrical appliances, the verb impiâ means to light, to turn on.

impiâ il fûc
to light a fire

impiâ une cjandele
to light a candle

impiâ la television
to turn the television on

o ai impiât un fulminant
I lit a match

une fornâs impiade
a lit furnace

Un lampion is a lamp; un lampion di fûc, a lamp of fire. The text tells you that une fornâs impiade and un lampion di fûc passed between the halved pieces; you will recall the verb smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half) seen above in verse 10:

a passarin framieç di chei tocs smiezâts
they passed between those halved pieces

Versets 18-20

I shall group here the last three verses, given that they do not present any particular difficulties or new usages. The names of peoples that appear are translated below for your reference.

in chê dì
on that day

fâ un pat
to make a covenant
to make a pact

dal flum dal Egjit
from the river of Egypt

fint al grant flum
unto the great river

il flum Eufrât
the river Euphrates

Peoples: i kenits (Kenites), i kenisits (Kenizzites), i kadmonits (Kadmonites), i itits (Hittites), i perissits (Perizzites), i refaim (Rephaims), i amoreus (Amorites), i cananeus (Canaanites), i gjergjeseus (Girgashites), i eveus (Hivites), i gjebuseus (Jebusites).

This completes your study of Gjenesi 15; I shall leave you with more conjugations of the verb crodi.

Verb: CRODI
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodevi
crodevio?
tu
tu crodevis
crodevistu?
lui
al crodeve
crodevial?

e crodeve
crodevie?

o crodevin
crodevino?
vualtris
o crodevis
crodeviso?
lôr
a crodevin
crodevino?

Verb: CRODI
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodarai
crodaraiao?
tu
tu crodarâs
crodarâstu?
lui
al crodarà
crodaraial?

e crodarà
crodaraie?

o crodarìn
crodarìno?
vualtris
o crodarês
crodarêso?
lôr
a crodaran
crodarano?

Verb: CRODI
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodei
croderio?
tu
tu croderis
croderistu?
lui
al crodè
croderial?

e crodè
croderie?

o croderin
croderino?
vualtris
o croderis
croderiso?
lôr
a croderin
croderino?