Friulian language series: Gjenesi 15, pat di sotanance

The fifteenth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: il pat di sotanance (pact of subjugation).

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: dopo di (after, following), la robe (thing, matter), la peraule (word), (to make, to do), sintî (to hear), la vision (vision), no sta (do not), la pôre (fear), vê pôre (to fear, to be afraid), parâ (to shield), la pae (pay, wages), une vore (very), grant (great, large, big), rispuindi (to respond), (to give), lâsint (to depart, to go away), cence (without), il frut (child), un erêt (heir), la cjase (house), zontâ (to add), viodi (to see), nancje (not even), un onôr (honour), la gjernazie (offspring), il famei (servant), alore (then, so), (to go), la ereditât (inheritance), saltâ fûr (to come [go] out), lis vissaris (innards, guts), menâ fûr (to bring out), (to say), cjalâ sù (to look up), il cîl (heaven, sky), contâ (to count), la stele (star), rivâ a (to be able to, to manage to), cussì (thus, so).

Verse 1: Dopo di chestis robis: after these things; formula used here to indicate the passage of a certain amount of time. La peraule dal Signôr si è fate sintî a Abram intune vision: the word of the Lord made itself heard to Abram in a vision. The Lord says: no sta vê pôre, Abram (fear not, Abram). He continues: jo o soi chel (I am he) che ti pare (who shields you) e la tô pae e sarà une vore grande (and your pay shall be very great). No sta is used before an infinitive to create a second-person singular negated command: no sta vê pôre (fear not [do not have fear]). More examples using commandments from Esodo 20: no sta copâ (do not kill); no sta robâ (do not steal); no sta fâ adulteri (do not commit adultery).

Verse 2: I rispuindè Abram: Abram responded to him. He asks: Signôr gno Diu (O Lord my God), ce mi darâstu? (what will you give me [to me]?). Abram continues, using lâsint (to depart, to go away): jo mi ’nt voi (I will die [I depart]) cence fruts (without children) e l’erêt de mê cjase (and the heir of my house) al è un di Damasc, Eliezer (is a man [is one] from Damascus — Eliezer).

Verse 3: Al zontà Abram: Abram added. He says: no viodistu (do you not see) che no tu mi âs dât nancje l’onôr (that you have not made me [given to me] even the honour) di vê une gjernazie (of having offspring) e che dute la mê robe (and that all my possessions) i larà al gno famei? (will go to my servant?). Consider: tu tu viodis; tu viodis (you see); tu no tu viodis; no tu viodis (you do not see); viodistu? (do you see?); no viodistu? (do you not see?).

Verse 4: Alore Diu i fasè sintî chestis peraulis: then the Lord made him hear these words (made hear these words unto him). The Lord says: no i larà a lui la tô ereditât (your inheritance shall not go to him), ma chel che al saltarà fûr des tôs vissaris (but he [that one] who will come forth from your innards) al sarà il to erêt (shall be your heir).

Verse 5: Lu menà fûr e i disè: he brought him outside and said to him. Al disè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of dâ; the entire simple past conjugation of this verb is presented below. The Lord says to Abram: cjale sù tal cîl (look up into the heaven) e conte lis stelis (and count the stars), se tu rivis a contâlis (if you are able to count them). Cussì e sarà la tô gjernazie: so shall your offspring be. Contâlis means to count them; because it is question of the feminine plural stelis, them is attached to the infinitive as the feminine plural lis. Lis is feminine plural; masculine plural is ju; consider: contâ lis stelis; contâlis (to count the stars; to count them). contâ i libris; contâju (to count the books; to count them). In the singular, either the masculine lu or the feminine le is used: cjalâ il soreli; cjalâlu (to look at the sun; to look at it); cjalâ la stele; cjalâle (to look at the star; to look at it).

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disei
diserio?
tu
tu diseris
diseristu?
lui
al disè
diserial?

e disè
diserie?

o diserin
diserino?
vualtris
o diseris
diseriso?
lôr
a diserin
diserino?

Versets 6-12

Vocabulary: crodi (to believe), meti (to put, to place), il cont (account, reckoning), la justizie (justness, righteousness), dissal (he said), tirâ fûr (to take out, to remove), un caldeu (Chaldean), (to make, to do), deventâ (to become), il paron espotic (lord of the land), la tiere (land), rispuindi (to respond), cemût (how), savê (to know), (to go), cjoli (to take), la mange (heifer; also manze), trê (three), un an (year), la cjavre (she-goat), il roc (ram), la tortorele (turtledove), il colombin (pigeon), puartà dongje (to bring back), il nemâl (animal), taiâ (to cut), il mieç (middle), il toc (piece, bit), in face di (facing, in front of), altri (other), smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half), un ucel (bird; also uciel), un ucelat (bird of prey), plombâ su (to swoop in on), la cjarnasse (flesh, carcass), sovâ vie (to drive away), cuant che (when, as), il soreli (sun), lâ a mont (to set; of sun), vignî (to come), grant (great, large, big), la flaperie (drowsiness, sleepiness), il scûr (darkness), gafâ (to seize).

Verse 6: Abram i à crodût al Signôr (Abram believed in the Lord) e chest i è stât metût in cont di justizie (and this was reckoned unto him as righteousness [and this was put unto him in a reckoning of justness]). That is to say, Abram’s having put his faith in the Lord was to his merit. Another possible rendering of chest i è stât metût in cont di justizie: this was accounted to him as justness. Chest è stât metût is a passive contruction meaning this was put, this was placed; metût is the past participle of the verb meti. As for crodi, you will find this verb conjugated below in both the presint indicatîf and passât prossim. Yet more conjugations of crodi are presented at the end of this post.

Verb: CRODI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crôt
crodio?
tu
tu crodis
crodistu?
lui
al crôt
crodial?

e crôt
crodie?

o crodìn
crodìno?
vualtris
o crodês
crodêso?
lôr
a crodin
crodino?

Verb: CRODI
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai crodût
aio crodût?
tu
tu âs crodût
âstu crodût?
lui
al à crodût
aial crodût?

e à crodût
aie crodût?

o vin crodût
vino crodût?
vualtris
o vês crodût
vêso crodût?
lôr
a àn crodût
àno crodût?

Verse 7: The Lord says: jo o soi il Signôr (I am the Lord), che ti à tirât fûr (who brought you out) di Ur dai caldeus (of Ur of the Chaldeans) par fâti deventâ (to make you become) paron espotic di cheste tiere (lord of the land [absolute possessor of this land]). The verb tirâ is conjugated below in the passât prossim. The only difference between the passât prossim of tirâ and that of crodi (presented at verse 6) is the change of past participle. This is the case for all verbs taking as their auxiliary.

Verb: TIRÂ
Passât prossim
Recent past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ai tirât
aio tirât?
tu
tu âs tirât
âstu tirât?
lui
al à tirât
aial tirât?

e à tirât
aie tirât?

o vin tirât
vino tirât?
vualtris
o vês tirât
vêso tirât?
lôr
a àn tirât
àno tirât?

Verse 8: Abram asks the Lord: signôr gno Diu (O Lord my God), cemût fasio a savê che dut al sarà gno? (how am I to know [how do I do to know] that all shall be mine?). Consider: o fâs (I do); cemût fasio? (how do I do?); cemût fasio a…? (how do I go about…?, how am I…?). Supplementary examples: cemût fasio a rivâ in timp? (how am I to arrive in time?; how do I go about arriving in time?); cemût fasio a contâ lis stelis? (how am I to count the stars?; how do I go about counting the stars?); cemût fasio a imparâ il furlan? (how am I to learn Friulian?; how do I go about learning Friulian?).

Verse 9: The Lord gives instructions to Abram: va a cjolimi (bring me [go take for me]) une mange di trê agns (a three-year-old heifer [a heifer of three years]), une cjavre di trê agns (a three-year-old she-goat [a she-goat of three years]), un roc di trê agns (a three-year-old ram [a ram of three years]), une tortorele e un colombin (a turtledove and a pigeon). Names of more animals in Friulian: il gjat (cat); il cjan (dog); il cjaval (horse; plural cjavai); il purcit (pig); il poleç (chicken); la sghirate (squirrel); il cierf (deer); un ors (bear); il lôf (wolf); la bolp (fox), un elefant (elephant).

Verse 10: I puartà dongje ducj chescj nemâi (he brought back to him all these animals), ju taià pal mieç (cut them down the middle) e al metè un toc (and put one piece) in face di chel altri (facing the other), ma nol smiezà i ucei (but he did not halve the birds).

Verse 11: I ucelats a plombarin su la cjarnasse (birds of prey swooped in on the flesh), ma Abram ju sovà vie (but Abram drove them away).

Verse 12: Cuant che il soreli al leve a mont (as the sun was setting), a Abram i vignì une grande flaperie (a heavy drowsiness came upon Abram) e un grant scûr lu gafà (and a great darkness seized him).

Versets 13-20

Vocabulary: (to say), savê (to know), ben (well), la gjernazie (offspring), forest (foreign), la tiere (land), sotan (enslaved, subjugated), tibiâ (to oppress), cuatricent (four hundred), un an (year), a dilunc (in length), la sentence (sentence, judgement), fâ sentence (to judge, to execute judgement), cuintri di (against), il popul (people), il famei (servant), fâ di famei (to act as servant), jessî (to go/come out), un grum di (a great deal of), la robe (possessions, substance), rivuardâ (to regard, to concern), lâsint (to depart, to go away), la pâs (peace), i vons (forefathers), sot tiere (underground), dopo di (after, following), biel (fine, nice), la vecjae (old age; also vecjaie), tornâ (to return, to come back), culì (here), cuart (fourth), la gjenerazion (generation), fint in (as far as, up to), la volte (time), la tristerie (wickedness), un amoreu (Amorite), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il colm (peak, height), lâ a mont (to set; of sun), il soreli (sun), vignî (to come), scûr (dark), la fornâs (furnace), impiâ (to light), il lampion (lamp), il fûc (fire), passâ (to pass), framieç di (amongst), il toc (piece, bit), smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half), la dì (day), il pat (pact, covenant), (to give), il flum (river), grant (great, large, big).

Verse 13: The Lord says to Abram: tu savarâs ben che (know well that [you shall know well that]) la tô gjernazie e sarà foreste (your offspring shall be foreign) intune tiere foreste (in a foreign land). A saran sotans: they shall be enslaved; they shall be subjugated. Ju tibiaran par cuatricent agns a dilunc: they shall be oppressed (they shall oppress them) for four hundred years (for four hundred years in length).

Verse 14: Ma jo o fasarai sentence (but I will execute judgement) cuintri di chel popul (against that people) che lôr i varan fat di fameis (for whom they shall have been servants [unto whom they shall have acted as servants]) e a jessaran di li cuntun grum di robe (and they shall go forth from there with a great deal of substance). A varan fat is the third-person plural of the futûr anteriôr of the verb fâ. Consider the following: a varan; a varan fat (they will have; they will have done); o varai; o varai comprât (I will have; I will have bought); al varà; al varà metût (he will have; he will have put). The future perfect conjugation of the verb is presented below.

Verb:
Futûr anteriôr
Future perfect

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varai fat
varaio fat?
tu
tu varâs fat
varâstu fat?
lui
al varà fat
varaial fat?

e varà fat
varaie fat?

o varìn fat
varìno fat?
vualtris
o varês fat
varêso fat?
lôr
a varan fat
varano fat?

Verse 15: Par chel che ti rivuarde (as for you [as it regards you]), tu t’int larâs in pâs (you shall depart in peace) cui tiei vons (to your forefathers), tu larâs sot tiere (you shall be buried [shall go underground]) dopo di une biele vecjae (after a fine old age). Consider these examples of lâsint: tu t’int larâs (you will depart); m’int voi (I depart); s’int lè (he departed); s’int lerin (they departed). Possible variant spellings: tu ti ’nt larâs; mi ’nt voi; si ’nt lè; si ’nt lerin.

Verse 16: A tornaran culì (they shall return here) cu la cuarte gjenerazion (in the fourth generation) parcè che, fint in chê volte (for, until that time), la tristerie dai amoreus (the wickedness of the Amorites) no sarà rivade al colm (will not have reached its peak [come to its peak; come to its height]).

Verse 17: Lât a mont il soreli (the sun having set) e vignût scûr (and having grown [come] dark), ve che une fornâs impiade (behold {it was that} a lit furnace) e un lampion di fûc (and a lamp of fire) a passarin framieç di chei tocs smiezâts (passed amongst those halved pieces).

Verse 18: In chê dì (on that day) il Signôr al fasè cun Abram chest pat (the Lord made with Abram this covenant): jo o doi a la tô gjernazie cheste tiere (I give this land to your offspring), dal flum dal Egjit (from the river of Egypt) fint al grant flum (as far as the great river), il flum Eufrât (the river Euphrates).

Verses 19-20: Peoples mentioned are: i kenits (Kenites); i kenisits (Kenizzites); i kadmonits (Kadmonites); i itits (Hittites); i perissits (Perizzites); i refaim (Rephaim); i amoreus (Amorites); i cananeus (Canaanites); i gjergjeseus (Girgashites); i eveus (Hivites); i gjebuseus (Jebusites). This completes your study of the fifteen chapter of the book of Genesis; below are more conjugations of the verb crodi for your reference.

Verb: CRODI
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodevi
crodevio?
tu
tu crodevis
crodevistu?
lui
al crodeve
crodevial?

e crodeve
crodevie?

o crodevin
crodevino?
vualtris
o crodevis
crodeviso?
lôr
a crodevin
crodevino?

Verb: CRODI
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodarai
crodaraiao?
tu
tu crodarâs
crodarâstu?
lui
al crodarà
crodaraial?

e crodarà
crodaraie?

o crodarìn
crodarìno?
vualtris
o crodarês
crodarêso?
lôr
a crodaran
crodarano?

Verb: CRODI
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o crodei
croderio?
tu
tu croderis
croderistu?
lui
al crodè
croderial?

e crodè
croderie?

o croderin
croderino?
vualtris
o croderis
croderiso?
lôr
a croderin
croderino?

See also: Friulian verb conjugation charts.