Friulian language series: Gjenesi 15, pat di sotanance

You continue now to progress in your study of Friulian and in your reading of the book of Genesis through this language; in this post, you will examine the entirety of the fifteenth chapter, where the subject is il pat di sotanance (pact of subjugation).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 15

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 15. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

The verb sintî means to hear. The expression fâsi sintî translates as to make oneself heard.

la peraule dal Signôr si è fate sintî
the word of the Lord made itself heard
(that is, the word of the Lord was heard)

Si è fat is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât prossim of the reflexive verb fâsi. In the above, you find si è fate, which is its feminine equivalent: it agrees in gender with la peraule.

The Friulian for vision is la vision.

si è fate sintî intune vision
it made itself heard in a vision

The expression vê pôre means to be afraid; it translates literally as to have fear. The Friulian for fear is la pôre.

no tu âs di vê pôre di nuie
you need not fear anything
you need fear nothing

You will perhaps recall that no sta is used to create a negated command in the second-person singular. Example:

no sta vê pôre!
do not be afraid!
do not fear! fear not!

More good examples of no sta, using commandments taken from Esodo 20, include:

no sta fâ adulteri
do not commit adultery

no sta copâ, no sta robâ
do not kill, do not steal

no sta testemoneâ il fals cuintri dal to prossim
do not bear false witness against your neighbour
(testemoneâ, to testify, to bear witness; il fals, falsehood; cuintri di, against)

no sta bramâ la cjase dal to prossim
do not covet your neighbour’s house
(bramâ, to covet, to desire, to long for)

no sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim
do not covet your neighbour’s wife

Prossim as an adjective means next; as a noun, it translates as next person, next man; that is, fellow person, fellow man. In this light, no sta bramâ la femine dal to prossim can perhaps be taken more literally as do not cover the wife of your fellow man. In English-language Bibles, un prossim is rendered as neighbour. In regular language, the Friulian for neighbour (as in the person who lives next door) is il vicin. Example:

o soi in barufe cul vicin
I am in an argument with the neighbour

The verb parâ can be understood in this verse as meaning to shield.

chel che ti pare
he who shields you

jo o soi chel che ti pare
I am he who shields you

e la tô pae e sarà une vore grande
and your reward shall be very great

La pae (or la paie) means pay, compensation, etc.

Verset 2

An interrogative form appears:

ce mi darâstu?
what will you give me?

You know that I go in Friulian is rendered as jo o voi, from the verb lâ. In this verse, you will have perhaps recognised jo mi ’nt voi as being the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of lâsint.

jo mi ’nt voi cence fruts
I (shall) leave without children
(that is, I shall die childless)

The Friulian for heir is l’erêt.

l’erêt de mê cjase al è un di Damasc, Eliezer
the heir of my house is a man from Damascus, Eliezer

Learn also the verb ereditâ, meaning to inherit. Example:

o ai ereditât chest orloi di pols di un barbe
I inherited this wristwatch from an uncle
(un orloi, clock, watch; il pols, wrist)

Verset 3

Another interrogative form now appears; this time, it is negated: no viodistu.

tu tu viodis
you see
tu no tu viodis
you do not see

or simply:

tu viodis
you see
no tu viodis
you do not see


do you see?
no viodistu?
do you not see?

no viodistu che no tu mi âs dât
do you not see that you have not given (to) me

nancje l’onôr di vê une gjernazie
even the honour of having any offspring

tu tu mi âs dât
you have given (to) me
tu no tu mi âs dât
you have not given (to) me

e che dute la mê robe i larà al gno famei
and that all my possessions shall go to my servant

In the above, la robe (thing) is used in a collective sense meaning possessions, goods, etc.

Verset 4

In the first verse of this chapter, you found the reflexive fâsi sintî (to make oneself heard). In the current verse, you find fâ sintî, meaning to make hear, to cause to hear.

Diu i fasè sintî chestis peraulis
God made him hear these words
(literally, God made hear unto him these words)

The text continues with the feminine noun ereditât, meaning inheritance:

no i larà a lui la tô ereditât
your inheritance shall not go to him

The Friulian la vissare means (internal) organ. In the plural, lis vissaris can be understood as meaning guts, innards.

chel che al saltarà fûr des tôs vissaris
he who comes (will come) forth from your innards

al sarà il to erêt
he shall be your heir

You have now seen the following related Friulian usages: erêt (m., heir), ereditât (f., inheritance), ereditâ (to inherit).

Verset 5

This verse begins with the expression menâ fûr, meaning to bring out, to bring forth. Other usages to learn or review include: cjalâ sù (to look up), la stele (star), contâ (to count), rivâ a contâ (to manage to count, to succeed in counting).

lu menà fûr
he brought him forth
he brought him out

cjale sù tal cîl
look up into the sky
look up into the heaven

conte lis stelis
count the stars

se tu rivis a contâlis
if you are able to count them
if you manage to count them

In the above, you have two examples of a second-person singular imperative: cjale and conte. You will remember that regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â take the ending e in their second-person singular imperative.

You also find contâlis in the above, meaning to count them. Because it is question here of the feminine lis stelis, them is expressed as the feminine plural lis. The masculine plural equivalent is ju.

contâ i libris –> contâju
to count the books –> to count them

contâ lis stelis –> contâlis
to count the stars –> to count them

In the singular, you will find either the masculine lu or the feminine le:

cjalâ il soreli –> cjalâlu
to look at the sun –> to look at it

cjalâ la stele –> cjalâle
to look at the star –> to look at it

This verse ends with:

cussì e sarà la tô gjernazie
so shall be your offspring

In this verse, you find the third-person singular passât sempliç form al disè, from the verb dî. Below, for your reference, you will find the entire simple past conjugation of dî.

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o disei
tu diseris
al disè

e disè

o diserin
o diseris
a diserin

Verset 6

Crodût is the past participle of the verb crodi (to believe). The text reads Abram i à crodût al Signôr (Abram believed in the Lord); note that Friulian uses the preposition a here: i à crodût al Signôr, whereas English uses in.

The Friulian for account or reckoning is the masculine cont. La justizie translates as justness, righteousness. Chest i è stât metût in cont di justizie can be taken as this was reckoned unto him as righteousness or this was accounted unto him as justness (more literally, this was put unto him in a reckoning [accounting] of righteousness [justness]); the sense here is that his justness was to his credit, to his merit.

Chest è stât metût is a passive contruction meaning this was put, this was placed. You will recall that metût is the past participle of the verb meti. You saw a wording similar to this back in Gjenesi 2:1, when you read: a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere (the heaven and the earth were put in place).

Below, for your reference, you will find the verb crodi conjugated in the presint indicatîf and passât prossim. You will find even more conjugations of crodi at the very end of this post.

Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

o crôt
tu crodis
al crôt

e crôt

o crodìn
o crodês
a crodin

Passât prossim
Recent past

o ai crodût
aio crodût?
tu âs crodût
âstu crodût?
al à crodût
aial crodût?

e à crodût
aie crodût?

o vin crodût
vino crodût?
o vês crodût
vêso crodût?
a àn crodût
àno crodût?

Verset 7

The expression tirâ fûr means to take out, to bring out.

che ti à tirât fûr di Ur dai caldeus
who brought you out of Ur of the Chaldeans

The masculine noun paron means ruler, master; it can also take on the sense of lord. In the context of this verse, un paron espotic can be understood as meaning lord of the land; literally, il paron means lord, and espotic means absolute. To be paron espotic over an area of land is to be in absolute possession of it.

par fâti deventâ paron espotic di cheste tiere
so as to make you become (absolute) lord of this land

The verb tirâ is found in this verse conjugated in the passât prossim. Below, I have conjugated this verb in that tense, for your reference. You will note that the only difference between the passât prossim of tirâ and that of crodi (see previous verse) is the change of past participle. This is the case for all verbs taking as their auxiliary.

Verb: TIRÂ
Passât prossim
Recent past

o ai tirât
aio tirât?
tu âs tirât
âstu tirât?
al à tirât
aial tirât?

e à tirât
aie tirât?

o vin tirât
vino tirât?
o vês tirât
vêso tirât?
a àn tirât
àno tirât?

Verset 8

Another interrogative form now appears:

cemût fasio a savê che dut al sarà gno?
how shall I know that all will be mine?
(literally, how do I do to know that all will be mine?)

o fâs
I do

cemût fasio?
how do I do?

Supplementary examples using cemût fasio:

cemût fasio a rivâ in timp?
how can I arrive in time?
how do I go about arriving in time?

cemût fasio a contâ lis stelis?
how can I count the stars?
how do I go about counting the stars?

cemût fasio a imparâ il furlan?
how can I learn Friulian?
how do I go about learning Friulian?

Verset 9

The names of five animals appear in this verse: la mange (heifer); la cjavre (she-goat), il roc (ram), la tortorele (turtledove), il colombin (pigeon). La mange (or la manze) is a young cow that has not yet produced a calf; the Friulian for cow is la vacje.

va a cjolimi une mange di trê agns
bring me a three-year-old heifer

(literally, go take [for] me a heifer of three years)

Supplementary Friulian names of a few different animals: il gjat (cat), il cjan (dog), il cjaval (horse; plural: i cjavai), il purcit (pig), il poleç (chicken), la sghirate (squirrel), il cierf (deer), un ors (bear), il lôf (wolf), la bolp (fox).

Verset 10

You can understand puartâ dongje as meaning to bring.

i puartà dongje ducj chescj nemâi
he brought (to) him all these animals

The verb taiâ means to cut. Taiâ pal mieç, then, means to cut down the middle, to cut in half. The Friulian for middle is il mieç. The Friulian for piece, on the other hand, is il toc.

ju taià pal mieç
he cut them down the middle
he cut them in half

al metè un toc in face di chel altri
he put one piece in front of the other

Abram did not cut the birds:

nol smiezà i ucei
he did not halve the birds
he did not cut the birds in half

The verb smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half) is related to the noun mieç.

Verset 11

Un ucelat is the Friulian for bird of prey. As for la cjarnasse, this means carcass.

i ucelats a plombarin su la cjarnasse
birds of prey swooped in on the carcasses
birds of prey came down upon the carcasses

The expression plombâ su can be understood as meaning to swoop in on, to come down upon.

Abram did not allow the birds to prey on the carcasses:

Abram ju sovà vie
Abram drove them away

The expression here is sovâ vie (to drive away).

Verset 12

Lâ a mont, with reference to the sun, means to set, to go down.

cuant che il soreli al leve a mont
when the sun was setting
when the sun was going down

A sleep came upon Abram:

a Abram i vignì une grande flaperie
a great sleepiness came upon Abram
a great drowsiness came to Abram

The verb gafâ means to grab, to seize. As for il scûr, this means darkness.

un grant scûr lu gafà
a great darkness seized him

Verset 13

The adjective forest means foreign. For example, une lenghe foreste is a foreign language. Lavoradôrs forescj are foreign workers. The four forms of this adjective are forest (masculine singular), forescj (masculine plural), foreste (feminine singular), forestis (feminine plural). You read:

tu savarâs ben che
you shall know well that
(that is, you can be certain that; know well that)

la tô gjernazie e sarà foreste
your offspring shall be foreign

intune tiere foreste
in a foreign land

The adjective sotan means oppressed, subjugated. As a noun, il sotan can be taken as slave; its feminine form is la sotane. Related to these is la sotanance, meaning oppression, subjugation. As for the verb tibiâ, it means to oppress.

a saran sotans
they shall be oppressed
they shall be subjugated

ju tibiaran par cuatricent agns a dilunc
they* shall oppress them+ for four hundred years

*they = the Egyptians
+them = the Israelites

A dilunc means in length, at length, long.

par cuatricent agns a dilunc
for four hundred years in length

fevelâ a dilunc
to speak at length

Verset 14

La sentence is the Friulian for sentence, judgement; the expression fâ sentence cuintri di can be understood as meaning to pronounce a judgement against, to bring judgement against. As for the expression fâ di famei, this means to act as servant, to be as a servant. In this verse, you find this last expression used in the futûr anteriôr (future perfect).

jo o fasarai sentence cuintri di chel popul
I shall bring judgement against this people

che lôr i varan fat di fameis
for whom they shall have been servants

a varan
they will have
a varan fat
they will have done

o varai
I shall have
o varai comprât
I shall have bought

al varà
he will have
al varà metût
he will have put

Recall that the verb jessî means to exit, to go out, to come out. This is the verb that appears in the following (it is not the verb jessi, meaning to be):

a jessaran di li
they shall come out of there

cuntun grum di robe
with a great deal of possessions

In the above, un grum di means a lot of, a great deal of. Below, you will find the future perfect conjugation of the verb fâ.

Futûr anteriôr
Future perfect

o varai fat
varaio fat?
tu varâs fat
varâstu fat?
al varà fat
varaial fat?

e varà fat
varaie fat?

o varìn fat
varìno fat?
o varês fat
varêso fat?
a varan fat
varano fat?

Verset 15

The expression par chel che ti rivuarde means as for you, as it concerns you. The verb here is rivuardâ, meaning to concern.

par chel che ti rivuarde
as for you

tu t’int larâs in pâs cui tiei vons
you shall go in peace to your forefathers

You will recognise the use of lâsint in the above. As for the masculine noun von, you first encountered this in the notes for Gjenesi 14:12. The Friulian for peace in la pâs. More examples of lâsint:

tu t’int larâs
you will go off; depart

m’int voi
I go off; depart

s’int lè
he went off; departed

s’int lerin
they went off; departed

The text continues:

tu larâs sot tiere
you shall go underground
(that is, you shall be buried)

dopo di une biele vecjae
after a good old age

The feminine noun vecjae (or vecjaie) refers to the elderly years of one’s life, one’s old age.

Verset 16

This verse begins:

a tornaran culì cu la cuarte gjenerazion
they shall return here in the fourth generation

Fint in chê volte is to be understood as until that time. You have seen the feminine tristerie before; recall that it means wickedness, iniquity.

parcè che, fint in chê volte,
because until that time

la tristerie dai amoreus no sarà rivade al colm
the wickedness of the Amorites will not have reached its peak

Il colm is the Friulian for peak, height, brim. Rivâ al colm can be understood as to reach its peak, to reach its height.

Il colm is also used in colloquial language:

chest al è il colm!
that is the limit!
now that is going too far!

Verset 17

Lât a mont il soreli can be understood as meaning the sun (having) gone down, the sun (having) set. Vignût scûr, on the other hand, is to be understood as darkness (having) come.

La fornâs is a furnace; une fornâs impiade is a lit furnace. When talking about fire or electrical appliances, the verb impiâ means to light, to turn on. Examples:

impiâ il fûc
to light a fire

impiâ une cjandele
to light a candle

impiâ la television
to turn the television on

o ai impiât un fulminant
I lit a match

une fornâs impiade
a lit furnace

Un lampion is a lamp; un lampion di fûc is a lamp of fire. You read that une fornâs impiade and un lampion di fûc passed between the halved pieces; recall the verb smiezâ (to halve, to cut in half), seen above in verse 10:

a passarin framieç di chei tocs smiezâts
they passed between those halved pieces

In the context of this verse, une fornâs impiade (literally, a lit furnace) might be better rendered as a smoking furnace, and un lampion di fûc (literally, a lamp of fire) as a burning lamp.

Versets 18-20

The final three verses do not present any particular difficulties or new usages. The names of peoples that appear are translated below for your reference.

in chê dì
on that day

fâ un pat
to make a covenant
to make a pact

dal flum dal Egjit
from the river of Egypt

fint al grant flum
unto the great river

il flum Eufrât
the river Euphrates

Peoples: i kenits (Kenites), i kenisits (Kenizzites), i kadmonits (Kadmonites), i itits (Hittites), i perissits (Perizzites), i refaim (Rephaims), i amoreus (Amorites), i cananeus (Canaanites), i gjergjeseus (Girgashites), i eveus (Hivites), i gjebuseus (Jebusites).

This completes your study of Gjenesi 15; I now leave you with more conjugations of the verb crodi.

Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o crodevi
tu crodevis
al crodeve

e crodeve

o crodevin
o crodevis
a crodevin

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o crodarai
tu crodarâs
al crodarà

e crodarà

o crodarìn
o crodarês
a crodaran

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o crodei
tu croderis
al crodè

e crodè

o croderin
o croderis
a croderin