Friulian language series: Gjenesi 14, Chedorlaomer

The subject whereof the fourteenth chapter of the book of Genesis treats is: la campagne di Chedorlaomer (Chedorlaomer’s campaign).

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Versets 1-2

Cuant che Amrafel al jere re di Senaar (when Amraphel was king of Shinar), Arioc re di Elasar (Arioch king of Ellasar), Chedorlaomer re di Elam (Chedorlaomer king of Elam) e Tideal re di Goim (and Tidal king of Goiim), chescj rês a faserin vuere (these kings made war) cuintri di Bere re di Sodome (against Bera king of Sodom), Bisre re di Gomore (Birsha king of Gomorrah), Sinab re di Adme (Shinab king of Admah), Semeber re di Zeboim (Shemeber king of Zeboiim) e il re di Bele, ven a stâi Zoar (and the king of Bela, which is to say, Zoar).

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), il re (king), (to make), la vuere (war), cuintri di (against), ven a stâi (which is to say).

Of the masculine re (king), the plural is rês (kings). A faserin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb fâ.

Of the feminine vuere, supplementary examples: lâ in vuere (to go to war); jessi in vuere (to be at war); declarâ vuere (to declare war); la Grande Vuere (the Great War); la prime vuere mondiâl (the First World War); la seconde vuere mondiâl (the Second World War); un criminâl di vuere (war criminal).

Of the masculine re, supplementary examples: il re di Spagne (the king of Spain); tratâ come un re (to treat like a king); mi trate come un re (he treats me like a king). Learn also: la regjine (queen); il princip (prince); la principesse (princess). Furthermore, related to these are the Friulian names of chess pieces: il re (king); la regjine (queen); il roc (rook); il cjaval (knight); l’alfîl (bishop); il pedon (pawn). The game positions check and check mate are expressed respectively as scac and scac mat. The game of chess itself is called i scacs.

Verset 3

Chescj chi si derin dongje te valade di Sidim (these here drew together [gave themselves alongside] in the valley of Siddim), che al sarès il mâr dal Sâl (which would be the Sea of Salt).

Vocabulary: chescj (these; masculine plural), chi (here), dâsi dongje (to give oneself alongside), la valade (valley), il mâr (sea), il sâl (salt).

A derin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb (to give); of the reflexive dâsi, it is si derin. The simple past conjugation of the verb is presented below.

The Friulian for salt is the masculine sâl. Alongside this, learn the Friulian for pepper: il pevar.

Al sarès (he/it would be) is the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the the verb jessi (to be). For instance, al sarès miôr par ducj means it would be better for all. The condizionâl presint of the verb jessi is presented below. See also: Friulian conjugation tables.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dei
derio?
tu
tu deris
deristu?
lui
al dè
derial?

e dè
derie?

o derin
derino?
vualtris
o deris
deriso?
lôr
a derin
derino?

Verb: JESSI
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarès
saressio?
tu
tu saressis
saressistu?
lui
al sarès
saressial?

e sarès
saressie?

o saressin
saressino?
vualtris
o saressis
saressiso?
lôr
a saressin
saressino?

Verset 4

Chedorlaomer ju veve tignûts sot par dodis agns (Chedorlaomer had kept them under for twelve years), ma però (but), tal tredicesim an (in the thirteenth year), i faserin cuintri (they made against him).

Vocabulary: tignî sot (to keep under), dodis (twelve), un an (year), par dodis agns (for twelve years), ma però (but), tredicesim (thirteenth), (to make), cuintri (against).

Chedorlaomer ju veve tignûts sot: Chedorlaomer had kept them under. Of tignî (to keep), the past participle is tignût, which is found employed here in its masculine plural form tignûts to agree in gender and number with the direct object ju preceding it. Consider: al veve tignût sot (he had kept under); ju veve tignûts sot (he had kept them under).

Tal tredicesim an: in the thirteenth year. The Friulian for thirteenth may be expressed a number of different ways: decim tierç, diesim tierç, tredicesim. Ordinal numbers are presented below.

Ordinal numbers up to tenth, in both masculine and feminine form: prin, prime (first); secont, seconde (second); tierç, tierce (third); cuart, cuarte (fourth); cuint, cuinte (fifth); sest, seste (sixth); setim, setime (seventh); otâf, otave (eighth); novesim, novesime (ninth); decim, decime (tenth).

One way to express the ordinal numbers for eleventh to nineteeth is to put decim before the masculine forms of those listed above, and decime before the feminine; for instance, il secul decim prin means the eleventh century. Following this model: decim prin, decime prime (eleventh); decim secont, decime seconde (twelfth); decim tierç, decime tierce (thirteenth); decim cuart, decime cuarte (fourteenth); decim cuint, decime cuinte (fifteenth); decim sest, decime seste (sixteenth); decim setim, decime setime (seventeenth); decim otâf, decime otave (eighteenth); decim novesim, decime novesime (nineteenth). Variant: Decim may be expressed as diesim (diesim prin, diesim secont, and so on).

Ordinal numbers from twentieth to hundreth: vincjesim, vincjesime (twentieth); vincjesim prin, vincjesime prime (twenty-first); vincjesim secont, vincjesime seconde (twenty-second); vincjesim tierç, vincjesime tierce (twenty-third); vincjesim cuart, vincjesime cuarte (twenty-fourth); vincjesim cuint, vincjesime cuinte (twenty-fifth); vincjesim sest, vincjesime seste (twenty-sixth); vincjesim setim, vincjesime setime (twenty-seventh); vincjesim otâf, vincjesime otave (twenty-eighth); vincjesim novesim, vincjesime novesime (twenty-ninth); trentesim, trentesime (thirtieth); cuarantesim, cuarantesime (fortieth); cincuantesim, cincuantesime (fiftieth); sessantesim, sessantesime (sixtieth); setantesim, setantesime (seventieth); otantesim, otantesime (eightieth); novantesim, novantesime (ninetieth); centesim, centesime (hundredth).

Ordinal numbers from hundred-and-first beyond: centesim prin, centesime prime (hundred-and-first); centesim secont, centesime seconde (hundred-and-second); dusintesim, dusintesime (two-hundredth); tresintesim, tresintesime (three-hundredth); cuatricentesim, cuatricentesime (four-hundredth); cinccentesim, cinccentesime (five-hundredth); sîscentesim, sîscentesime (six-hundredth); sietcentesim, sietcentesime (seven-hundredth); votcentesim, votcentesime (eight-hundredth); nûfcentesim, nûfcentesime (nine-hundredth); milesim, milesime (thousandth); milesim prin, milesime prime (thousand-and-first); milcinccentesim, milcinccentesime (one-thousand-and-five-hundredth); milcinccentdecim, milcinccentdecime (one-thousand-five-hundred-and-tenth); doi milesim, doi milesime (two-thousandth); cent milesim, cent milesime (one-hundred-thousandth); dusinte milesim, dusinte milesime (two-hundred-thousandth); tresinte milesim, tresinte milesime (three-hundred-thousandth); milionesim, milionesime (millionth); un miliardesim, un miliardesime (billionth).

It is often possible to avoid ordinal numbers in spoken language; in the same way that the fifteenth chapter may also be expressed in English as chapter fifteen, Friulian may say il cjapitul cuindis (chapter fifteen). In spoken language, with the names of monarchs, popes, and so on, the ordinal number up to fifth is employed, whereafter it is the cardinal (fourteen, fifteen…): Elisabete I (Elizabeth I; spoken: Elisabete prime); Zuan Pauli II (John Paul II; spoken: Zuan Pauli secont); Elisabete II (Elizabeth II; spoken: Elisabete seconde); Carli V (Charles V; spoken: Carli cuint); Carli VI (Charles VI; spoken: Carli sîs); Luîs XIV (Louis XIV; spoken: Luîs cutuardis); Luîs XVI (Louis XVI; spoken: Luîs sedis).

Versets 5-7

Vocabulary: cuatuardicesim (fourteenth), un an (year), rivâ (to arrive), il re (king), cun lui (with him), fruçâ (to smite), la plane (plain), la mont (mountain), fint a (so far as), tacâ (to start), il desert (desert), (to make), grant (great), il gîr (circuit), capitâ in (to come upon), la fontane (fountain), il judizi (judgement), valadì (which is to say), la pestadice (trouncing), dut (all), il teritori (territory), ancje (also), stâ (to dwell).

Verses 5-6: Tal cuatuardicesim an (in the fourteenth year), a rivarin Chedorlaomer e i rês che a jerin cun lui (Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him arrived). A fruçarin i refaim a Astarot-Karnaim (they smote the Rephaim at Ashteroth-Karnaim), i zuzim a Am (the Zuzim at Ham), i emim te plane di Kiriataim (the Emim in the plain of Kiriathaim), i urits su lis monts di Seir fint a El-Paran ({and} the Horites on the mountains of Seir so far as El-Paran), là che al tache il desert (where the desert starts).

Verse 7: A faserin un grant gîr (they made a great circuit) e a capitarin te fontane dal Judizi (and came upon the Fountain of Judgement), valadì a Kades (which is to say, to Kadesh); a faserin une pestadice (they made a trouncing) in dut il teritori dai amalecits (in all the territory of the Amalekites) e ancje dai amoreus che a stavin a Azazon-Tamar (and also of the Amorites who were dwelling at Hazazon-Tamar).

Versets 8-11

Vocabulary: alore (then), il re (king), vadì (which is to say), saltâ fûr (to come forth), metisi (to put oneself), la schirie (array), cuintri di (against), la valade (valley), cuatri (four), cinc (five), plen di (filled with), il poç (well), il catram (pitch), scjampâ (to flee), colâ dentri (to fall inside), chei altris (those others), la mont (mountain), vinci (to prevail), puartâ vie (to bear away), la robe (matter), la mangjative (food), lâsint (to leave).

Verses 8-9: Alore il re di Sodome (then the king of Sodom), il re di Gomore (the king of Gomorrah), il re di Adme (the king of Admah), il re di Zeboim (the king of Zeboiim) e il re di Bele, vadì Zoar (and the king of Bela, which is to say, Zoar), a saltarin fûr (came forth) e si meterin in schirie cuintri di lôr (and put themselves into array against them) te valade di Sidim (in the valley of Siddim), cuintri Chedorlaomer re di Elam (against Chedorlaomer king of Elam), Tideal re di Goim (Tidal king of Goiim), Amrafel re di Senaar (Amraphel king of Shinar) e Arioc re di Elasar (and Arioch king of Ellasar), cuatri rês a cinc (four kings to five).

Verse 10: La valade di Sidim (the valley of Siddim) e jere plene di poçs di catram (was filled with wells of pitch); scjampant (in fleeing) il re di Sodome e il re di Gomore (the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah) a colarin dentri (fell inside) e chei altris a scjamparin su la mont (and those others fled on the mountain). — Of colâ, supplementary examples: colâ dal barcon (to fall from the window); il soldat al è colât in bataie (the soldier fell in battle); chest an Nadâl al cole di domenie (this year Christmas falls on a Sunday).

Verse 11: Chei che a vevin vinçût (those who had prevailed), a puartarin vie di Sodome e di Gomore (bore away from Sodom and Gomorrah) dute la robe (all the matter) e dute la mangjative (and all the food) e s’int lerin (and left).S’int lerin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of lâsint. Lâsint is composed of + si + int. Consider: s’int lè (he left); s’int lerin (they left).

Verset 12

Prin di lâsint (before leaving), a cjaparin ancje Lot, il nevôt di Abram (they also took Lot the nephew of Abram), e dute la sô robe (and all his matter); lui al jere a stâ a Sodome (he was dwelling at Sodom).

Vocabulary: prin di (before), lâsint (to leave), cjapâ (to take), ancje (also), il nevôt (nephew), dut (all), la robe (matter), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

Names of family members in Friulian: l’om (husband); la femine (wife); il pari (father); la mari (mother); il fî (son); la fie (daughter); il frut (male child); la frute (female child); il fradi (brother); la sûr (sister); il barbe (uncle); la agne (aunt); il nevôt (nephew; grandson); la gnece (niece; granddaughter); il nono; il von (grandfather); la none; la ave; la veve (grandmother); il cusin (male cousin); la cusine (female cousin); il zinar (son-in-law); la brût (daughter-in-law); il missêr (father-in-law); la madone (mother-in-law); il cugnât (brother-in-law); la cugnade (sister-in-law); il padreul (step-father); la madrigne (step-mother).

A number of supplementary examples, for information: o soi deventât barbe, al è nassût il gno prin nevôt (I have become an uncle; my first nephew has been born); o soi ancje jo nono, o ai doi nevôts (I too am a grandfather; I have two grandchildren); von di pari; von di bande di pari (paternal grandfather); von di mari; von di bande di mari (maternal grandfather); cusin di pari; cusin di bande di pari (paternal cousin); cusin dret (first [direct] cousin); cusin secont (second cousin).

Versets 13-16

Vocabulary: scjampâ (to flee), vignî (to come), visâ (to inform), un ebreu (Hebrew), jessi a stâ (to dwell), dongje di (alongside), il rôl (oak), il fradi (brother), la bande (side), cuant che (when), savê (to know), il nevôt (nephew), cjapâ (to take), il presonîr (prisoner), clamâ dongje (to call alongside), la int (people), il famei (servant), in dut (in all), tresinte e disevot (three hundred and eighteen), cori (to run), daûr (behind), fint a (so far as), tacâ vie (to start forth), vie par (during), la gnot (night), sparniçâ (to scatter), (to give), il pest (crushing), plui (more), in sù di (up from), podê (to be able), tornâ a vê (to regain), la robe (matter), ancje (also, as well as), la femine (woman).

Verse 13: Un di chei scjampâts (one of those {who had} fled) al vignì a visâ Abram l’ebreu (came to inform Abram the Hebrew), che al jere a stâ dongje dal rôl di Mamre, l’amoreu (who was dwelling alongside the oak of Mamre the Amorite), fradi di Escol e di Aner (brother of Eshkol and Aner); lôr a stavin de bande di Abram (they were on the side of Abram).

Verse 14: Cuant che Abram al vignì a savê (when Abram came to know) che so nevôt lu vevin cjapât presonîr (that his nephew had been taken prisoner), al clamà dongje dute la sô int (he called alongside all his people), i fameis (the servants), in dut tresinte e disevot di lôr (in all three hundred and eighteen of them), e ur corè daûr fint a Dan (and ran behind them so far as Dan).

Verse 15: Lui e la sô int a tacarin vie pe* gnot (he and his people started forth during the night), ducj sparniçâts (all scattered); ur dè un pest (he gave them a crushing) e ur corè daûr fint a Cobe (and ran behind them so far as Hobah), +plui in sù di+ Damasc (north of [more up from] Damascus). — *The contraction of par + la produces pe. +When used in the context of cardinal directions, plui in sù di (more up from) is read as north of, and plui in jù di (more down from) as south of. Another example: plui in jù di Rome (south of [more down from] Rome). See also the language of Gjenesi 13:14.

Verse 16: Al podè (he was able) tornâ a vê dute la sô robe (to regain all his matter) e ancje so nevôt Lot e dute la sô robe (and also his nephew Lot and all his matter), ancje lis feminis e la int (as well as the women and people).

Versets 17-24

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), tornâ indaûr (to turn back), dopo di (after), (to give), bon (good), la scopule (thrashing), il re (king), vignî incuintri (to come unto), la valade (valley), intant (meanwhile), presentâ (to present), il pan (bread), il vin (wine), il predi (priest), altissim (most high), benedî (to bless), la peraule (word), la bande (side), (to make), il cîl (heaven), la tiere (earth), meti (to put), il nemì (enemy), la man (hand), (to give), la decime (one tenth), dopo (thereupon), (to say), la int (people), tignî (to keep), la robe (matter), rispuindi (to respond), alçâ (to lift), denant di (before), tocjâ (to touch), no… ni… ni (neither… nor… nor), il fîl (thread), la coree (strap), il sandul (sandal), nuie (not a thing), cussì (so), podê (to be able), slargjâsi (to broaden oneself), in gracie di (thanks to), volê (to will), dome (but), mangjâ (to eat), la part (part), spietâi a (to be owing to), un om (man), il dirit (right).

Verse 17: Cuant che Abram al tornà indaûr (when Abram turned back) *dopo di vêi dade* une buine scopule a Chedorlaomer (after having given a good thrashing to Chedorlaomer) e ai rês che a jerin cun lui (and to the kings who were with him), il re di Sodome i vignì incuintri (the king of Sodom came unto him) te valade di Save (in the valley of Shaveh), ch’e sarès la valade dal Re (which would be the Valley of the King). — *Observe: (to give); vê dât (to have given); vêi dât (to have given to him); dopo di vêi dât (after having given to him).

Verse 18: Intant Melchisedek, re di Salem (meanwhile Melchizedek, king of Salem), al presentà pan e vin (presented bread and wine): al jere predi di Diu l’Altissim* (he was a priest of God the Most High). — *Alt (high); altissim (most high). Another example of superlative formation: sant (holy); santissim (most holy).

Verses 19-20: Lu benedì cun chestis peraulis (he blessed him with these words): benedet seial Abram de bande dal Diu l’Altissim (blessed be Abram on the side of God the Most High), che al à fat cîl e tiere (who made heaven and earth) e benedet seial Diu l’Altissim (and blessed be God the Most High) che al à metût i tiei nemîs *tes tôs mans* (who put thine enemies into thy hands). E Abram i dè lis decimis di dut: and Abram gave him the one tenths of all. — *Observe: la tô man (thy hand); lis tôs mans (thy hands); te tô man (in{to} thy hand); tes tôs mans (in{to} thy hands). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Verse 21: Dopo, il re di Sodome i disè a Abram (thereupon the king of Sodom said to Abram): dami* la int e tegniti+ la robe (give the people to me and keep the matter¬ for thyself). — *Da is the second-person singular imperative of the verb (to give); dami means give to me. +Tegniti (read keep for thyself) is a second-person singular imperative. Of the verb tignî (to keep), the second-person singular imperative is ten (keep); when ti (unto thyself) is added, the gn reappears: ten; tegniti. ¬the spoils

Verses 22-23: Ma Abram i rispuindè al re di Sodome (but Abram responded to the king of Sodom): o alci la man denant di Diu l’Altissim (I lift my hand before God the Most High), che al à fat cîl e tiere (who made heaven and earth): no tocjarai ni un fîl ni une coree di sandul (I shall touch neither a thread nor a sandal strap), no tocjarai nuie di ce che al è to (I shall touch not a thing of that which is thine); cussì *no tu podarâs* (so wilt thou not be able to say): Abram si è slargjât in gracie di me (Abram has broadened himself thanks to me). — *Tu tu podarâs is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb podê. The second-person singular is particular in that the atonic (unstressed) tu does not disappear in the presence of no. Consider the following: jo o podarai; jo no podarai (I shall be able; I shall not be able); tu tu podarâs; tu no tu podarâs (thou wilt be able; thou wilt not be able); jo o soi; jo no soi (I am; I am not); tu tu sês; tu no tu sês (thou art; thou art not).

Verse 24: No vuei vê nuie: I will have* not a thing. Dome ce che la mê int e à mangjât (but that which my people have eaten) e la part che ur spiete ai oms che a son vignûts cun me, Aner, Escol e Mamre (and the part which is owing to the men who came with me — Aner, Eshkol and Mamre); lôr +a varan+ dirit a la lôr part (they ought to have right to their part). — *The literal I will have not a thing works admirably in the English; however, it is to be understood that have assumes here the sense of take. +A varan (they will have) is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vê; the use of the futur sempliç here is particular in that it conveys the sense of ought. Below are presented three conjugation tables: the simple future of vê, and the simple past of and jessi.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varai
varaio?
tu
tu varâs
varâstu?
lui
al varà
varaial?

e varà
varaie?

o varìn
varìno?
vualtris
o varês
varêso?
lôr
a varan
varano?

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vei
verio?
tu
tu veris
veristu?
lui
al vè
verial?

e vè
verie?

o verin
verino?
vualtris
o veris
veriso?
lôr
a verin
verino?

Verb: JESSI
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o foi
forio?
tu
tu foris
foristu?
lui
al fo
forial?

e fo
forie?

o forin
forino?
vualtris
o foris
foriso?
lôr
a forin
forino?

See also: Friulian conjugation tables.