Friulian language series: Gjenesi 14, Chedorlaomer

In this post, you will study the entirety of the fourteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la campagne di Chedorlaomer (Chedorlaomer’s campaign).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 14

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 14. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-2

Other than a succession of names (listed and translated below for good measure), there are only a few new usages appearing in these first two verses, which are: il re (king; plural: i rês), fâ vuere cuintri di (to make war against), ven a stâi (that is to say).

The Friulian for war is la vuere. Supplementary examples related to this noun include: lâ in vuere (to go to war); jessi in vuere (to be at war); declarâ vuere (to declare war); la Grande Vuere (Great War; that is, First World War); la prime vuere mondiâl (First World War); la seconde vuere mondiâl (Second World War); il criminâl di vuere (war criminal). As for il re (king), which takes the plural form i rês, some related usages include: il re di Spagne (King of Spain), tratâ come un re (to treat like a king), mi trate come un re (he treats me like a king). The Friulian for queen is la regjine, for example: la regjine dal Canadà (Queen of Canada). The feminine âf means bee; the Friulian for queen bee, then, is âf regjine. The Friulian for prince and princess is il princip and la principesse, respectively.

In this verse, you find a faserin, which you will recall is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb fâ. You looked at the entire simple past conjugation of this verb in the notes at Gjenesi 13:18.

The following names appear in these two verses, some of which you have already met:

Kings: Amrafel (Amraphel), Arioc (Arioch), Chedorlaomer (Chedorlaomer), Tideal (Tidal), Bere (Bera), Bisre (Birsha), Sinab (Shinab), Semeber (Shemeber), Zoar (Zoar).

Places: Senaar (Shinar), Elasar (Ellasar), Elam (Elam), Goim (Goiim), Sodome (Sodom), Gomore (Gomorrah), Adme (Admah), Zeboim (Zeboiim), Bele (Bela).

Verset 3

You have seen that the expression dâ dongje means to gather, to accumulate. For example, dâ dongje i resultâts means to gather the results, to pull together the results. In this verse, you now find instead the reflexive dâsi dongje (to come together).

chescj chi si derin dongje
all these came together
all the latter joined forces

te valade di Sidim
in the valley of Siddim

Chescj chi translates literally as these here; it is used to refer to the kings mentioned in the previous verses and can be taken as meaning all the latter. The third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb is a derin; of dâsi, it is si derin. Below, for your reference, you will find the simple past conjugation of the verb dâ. (The notes for this verse continue after the chart.)

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dei
derio?
tu
tu deris
deristu?
lui
al dè
derial?

e dè
derie?

o derin
derino?
vualtris
o deris
deriso?
lôr
a derin
derino?

The verse continues:

che al sarès il mâr dal Sâl
which is (would be) the Salt Sea

The Friulian for salt is il sâl. Il mâr dal Sâl (literally, sea of Salt) refers to the Dead Sea. A few supplementary examples of sâl include: zontâ un tic di sâl (to add a pinch of salt); il pevar (pepper); zontâ un tic di pevar (to add a pinch of pepper). In addition to un tic di, a pinch of can also be expressed as un piç di. From the text above, note of the use of the condizionâl presint of the verb jessi; that is, al sarès. Al sarès translates literally as it (he) would be. Supplementary examples:

l’ideâl al sarès de vê une machine
the ideal situation would be to have a car

sigûr al sarès miôr par ducj
certainly it would be better for all
it would certainly be better for everybody

You will find below the condizionâl presint conjugation of the verb jessi. Links pointing to all Friulian conjugation charts can be found here.

Verb: JESSI
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarès
saressio?
tu
tu saressis
saressistu?
lui
al sarès
saressial?

e sarès
saressie?

o saressin
saressino?
vualtris
o saressis
saressiso?
lôr
a saressin
saressino?

Verset 4

The expression tignî sot means to subjugate, to subdue, to rule over (literally, to hold under).

Chedorlaomer ju veve tignûts sot
Chedorlaomer had ruled over them

par dodis agns
for twelve years

The past participle of tignî is tignût; it is found in the text as the plural tignûts because it agrees in number with the plural ju preceding it.

al veve tignût sot
ju veve tignûts sot

You have seen the ordinal numbers up to tenth; here they are again, for review, in both masculine and feminine form:

  • prin, prime
  • secont, seconde
  • tierç, tierce
  • cuart, cuarte
  • cuint, cuinte
  • sest, seste
  • setim, setime
  • otâf, otave
  • novesim, novesime
  • decim, decime

To form the ordinal numbers for eleventh to nineteeth, one possible way is to put decim (tenth) before the masculine forms of the adjectives above, or decime before the feminine ones.

  • decim prin, decime prime
  • decim secont, decime seconde 
  • decim tierç, decime tierce
  • decim cuart, decime cuarte
  • decim cuint, decime cuinte
  • decim sest, decime seste
  • decim setim, decime setime
  • decim otâf, decime otave
  • decim novesim, decime novesime

For example, il secul decim prin is Friulian for the eleventh century. That said, it is often possible to avoid using ordinal numbers in the spoken language; for example, in the same way that the fifteenth chapter can be equally expressed in English as chapter fifteen, you can say il cjapitul cuindis (chapter fifteen) in Friulian.

In spoken language, with the names of monarchs, popes, etc., the ordinal number up to fifth is used; after that, it is the cardinal (fourteen, fifteen, etc.).

Elisabete I (Elizabeth I)
in spoken language: Elisabete prime

Zuan Pauli II (John Paul II)
in spoken language: Zuan Pauli secont

Elisabete II (Elizabeth II)
in spoken language: Elisabete seconde

Carli V (Charles V)
in spoken language: Carli cuint

Carli VI (Charles VI)
in spoken language: Carli sîs

Luîs XIV (Louis XIV)
in spoken language: Luîs cutuardis

Luîs XVI (Louis XVI)
in spoken language: Luîs sedis

You should know that decim can also be expressed as diesim (diesim prin, diesim secont, etc.).

Here are the ordinal numbers from twentieth beyond.

  • vincjesim, vincjesime
  • vincjesim prin, vincjesime prime
  • vincjesim secont, vincjesime seconde
  • vincjesim tierç, vincjesime tierce
  • vincjesim cuart, vincjesime cuarte
  • vincjesim cuint, vincjesime cuinte
  • vincjesim sest, vincjesime seste
  • vincjesim setim, vincjesime setime
  • vincjesim otâf, vincjesime otave
  • vincjesim novesim, vincjesime novesime
  • trentesim, trentesime
  • cuarantesim, cuarantesime
  • cincuantesim, cincuantesime
  • sessantesim, sessantesime
  • setantesim, setantesime
  • otantesim, otantesime
  • novantesim, novantesime
  • centesim, centesime
  • centesim prin, centesime prime
  • centesim secont, centesime seconde
  • dusintesim, dusintesime
  • tresintesim, tresintesime
  • cuatricentesim, cuatricentesime
  • cinccentesim, cinccentesime
  • sîscentesim, sîscentesime
  • sietcentesim, sietcentesime
  • votcentesim, votcentesime
  • nûfcentesim, nûfcentesime
  • milesim, milesime
  • milesim prin, milesime prime
  • milcinccentesim, milcinccentesime
  • milcinccentdecim, milcinccentdecime
  • doi milesim, doi milesime
  • cent milesim, cent milesime
  • dusinte milesim, dusinte milesime
  • tresinte milesim, tresinte milesime
  • milionesim, milionesime
  • un miliardesim, un miliardesime

In the text, for thirteenth, you find neither decim tierç nor diesim tierç. Rather, you find the variant:

ma però, tal tredicesim an
but in the thirteenth year

The expression fâ cuintri means to revolt, to rebel (literally, to make against).

i faserin cuintri
they rebelled against him

Versets 5-6

The names of peoples and places appearing in these two verses are listed and translated farther below, for your reference.

For fourteenth, rather than decim cuart seen in the notes for the last verse, you find the variant cuatuardicesim in the text.

tal cuatuardicesim an
in the fourteenth year

The verb fruçâ can be understood in this verse as to defeat. As for the verb tacâ, it means to start, to begin. The Friulian word for desert is il desert.

a fruçarin i refaim
they defeated the Rephaims

là che al tache il desert
there where the desert starts
where the desert begins

Peoples: i refaim (Rephaims), i zuzim (Zuzims), i emim (Emims), i urits (Horites).

Places: Astarot-Karnaim (Ashteroth Karnaim), Am (Ham), Kiriataim (Kiriathaim), Seir (Seir), El-Paran (Elparan).

Verset 7

Learn or review the following: il gîr (rotation, turn), capitâ in (to arrive at, to come to), la fontane (fountain, spring), il judizi (judgement), valadì (that is to say), une pestadice (decimation), il teritori (territory).

a faserin un grant gîr
they made a large rotation
(that is, they returned)

a capitarin te fontane dal Judizi
they came to the Fountain of Judgement

a faserin une pestadice in dut il teritori
they decimated the entire territory
(literally, they made a decimation in all the territory)

i amalecits che a stavin a Azazon-Tamar
the Amalekites who lived (were living) in Hazezontamar

Peoples: i amalecits (Amalekites), i amoreus (Amorites).

Places: Kades (Kadesh), Azazon-Tamar (Hazezontamar).

Versets 8-9

Vadì, like valadì, means that is to say. You will remember that saltâ fûr means to go out, to come out. La schirie is the Friulian for (military) formation, line-up; the expression meti in schirie means to deploy (literally, to put into [military] formation). The reflexive metisi in schirie, then, means to deploy oneself; that is, to go to battle.

a saltarin fûr
they went out
they went forth

si meterin in schirie
they deployed themselves
(that is, they went to battle)

cuintri di lôr te valade di Sidim
against them, in the valley of Siddim

cuatri rês a cinc
four kings to five
(that is, four kings against five kings)

Verset 10

The valley of Siddim was full of tar pits:

e jere plene di poçs di catram
it was full of tar pits

You have met the masculine catram (tar) before, but this is the first time that you encounter il poç. Un poç di catram is a tar pit (literally, pit of tar). In addition to a pit, il poç can refer to a well. For example:

aurî l’aghe dal poç
to draw the water from the well

un poç di petroli
an oil well

The Friulian for full is plen; its feminine form is plene.

The text continues with the verb scjampâ, which you first encountered in Gjenesi 4:12. It means to flee. Scjampant (fleeing) is its present participle.

scjampant a colarin dentri
(whilst) fleeing, they fell in

The verb colâ means to fall. Supplementary examples of it include:

colâ dal barcon
to fall out the window

o soi colât smontant de coriere
I fell (whilst) getting off the coach
(smontâ, to get off, to alight; la coriere, motorcoach, bus)

mi è colât il libri di man
the book fell out of my hand
I dropped the book

vuê e cole la nêf
the snow is falling today
(that is, it is snowing today; vuê, today; la nêf, snow)

il soldat al è colât in bataie
the soldier fell (died) in battle
(la bataie, battle)

la cjase e je colade
the house fell down (collapsed)

chest an Nadâl al cole di domenie
this year Christmas falls on a Sunday

Chei altris means the others (that is, the other men).

chei altris a scjamparin su la mont
the others fled to the mountain
(literally, the others fled upon the mountain)

Verset 11

The verb vinci means to win; its past participle is vinçut.

chei che a vevin vinçût
those who had won
those who had prevailed

Supplementary examples of use: vinci un concors (to win a contest), vinci une bataie (to win a battle), vinci il prin premi (to win first prize).

The expression puartâ vie means to take away.

a puartarin vie di Sodome e di Gomore
they took away from Sodom and Gomorrah

dute la robe e dute la mangjative
all the goods and all the food

You first saw the feminine mangjative in Gjenesi 1:29.

S’int lerin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of lâsint (to go away, to go off, to leave). You first looked at a number of examples of lâsint in the notes at Gjenesi 12:19. Lâsint is composed of + si + int.

s’int lè
he left, took off, departed

s’int lerin
they left, took off, departed

You will perhaps remember from Gjenesi 12:19 that vatint (go away, leave, be gone) is the second-person singular imperative of lâsint.

Verset 12

You meet lâsint again in this verse:

prin di lâsint
before leaving
before departing

The rest of this verse contains usages that you have already met: cjapâ (to take), il nevôt (nephew), jessi a stâ (to live, to dwell).

a cjaparin ancje Lot
they also took Lot

lui al jere a stâ a Sodome
he lived (was living) in Sodom

Recall from the notes at Gjenesi 11:31 the following vocabulary: il nevôt (nephew; grandson), la gnece (niece; granddaughter), il zinar (son-in-law), la brût (daughter-in-law). In addition to these, learn the following: il nono (grandfather), la none (grandmother), il barbe (uncle), la agne (aunt). Note that the plural of il barbe is i barbis. Supplementary examples:

gno barbe nus à fat un biel regâl
my uncle gave us a nice gift
(fâ un regâl, to give a gift)

i barbis a son vignûts ducj a cjase nestre domenie
all the uncles came over to our place on Sunday

barbe Toni, cemût stâstu?
uncle Tony, how are you?

o soi lât a cjatâ mê agne
I went to visit my aunt
(literally, I went to find my aunt)

o soi une vore tacât a mês agnis
I am very attached to my aunts
(jessi tacât, to be attached)

o soi deventât barbe, al è nassût il gno prin nevôt
I have become an uncle; my first nephew has been born

o soi ancje jo nono, o ai dôi nevôts
I too am a grandfather; I have two grandchildren (boys or mixed gender)

la none ur vûl tant ben a dutis lis gnecis
grandmother very much loves all her granddaughters
(volê ben, to love)

lâ a cjatâ i nonos
to go visit the grandparents
(literally, to go find the grandparents)

Another word for grandfather is il von. Other words for grandmother are la ave and la vave.

von di pari
von di bande di pari
paternal grandfather

von di mari
von di bande di mari
maternal grandfather

lâ a cjatâ i vons
to go visit the grandparents
(literally, to go find the grandparents)

mê ave no mostre ducj i agns che e à
my grandmother does not show her age
(literally, she does not show all the years that she has; mostrâ, to show)

Now that you know il zinar (son-in-law) and la brût (daughter-in-law), you can also learn il missêr (father-in-law) and la madone (mother-in-law). In addition, the Friulian for brother-in-law is il cugnât; for sister-in-law, it is la cugnade. For (male) cousin, the Friulian is il cusin; and for (female) cousin, it is la cusine. The Friulian for step-father is il padreul; and for step-mother, it is la madrigne.

cemût di to cugnât?
how is your brother-in-law?

to fradi e tô cugnade a son une biele cubie
your brother and sister-in-law make a nice couple
(la cubie, couple)

mê sûr e gno cugnât a stan ben dongje
my sister and brother-in-law are good together

cusin di pari
cusin di bande di pari
paternal cousin

cusin dret
first cousin (direct cousin)
cusin secont
second cousin

Following are the names for family members seen thus far: l’om (husband), la femine (wife), il pari (father), la mari (mother), il fî (son), la fie (daughter), il frut (child; boy), la frute (child; girl), il fradi (brother), la sûr (sister), il barbe (uncle), la agne (aunt), il nevôt (nephew; grandson), la gnece (niece; granddaughter), il nono, il von (grandfather), la none, la ave, la veve (grandmother), il cusin ([male] cousin), la cusine ([female] cousin), il zinar (son-in-law), la brût (daughter-in-law), il missêr (father-in-law), la madone (mother-in-law), il cugnât (brother-in-law), la cugnade (sister-in-law), il padreul (step-father), la madrigne (step-mother).

Verset 13

The verb scjampâ means to flee.

un di chei scjampâts
one of those (who had) fled

The verb visâ means to inform. Al vignì a visâ Abram l’ebreu: he came to inform Abram the Hebrew.

Two new names appear: Escol (Eschol), Aner (Aner).

The expression stâ de bande di means to be united with, to be allied with; it translates literally as to be on the side of.

Verset 14

You read:

cuant che Abram al vignì a savê che
when Abram came to know that
(that is, when Abram found out that)

The expression vignî a savê translates literally as to come to know; the sense of it is to find out.

The text continues with the expression cjapâ presonîr, which means to take prisoner. The Friulian for prisoner is il presonîr; a female prisoner is la presonere. The Friulian for to be prisoner is jessi presonîr.

so nevôt lu vevin cjapât presonîr
they had taken his nephew prisoner

The Friulian for prison, which does not appear in this verse, is la preson. The expression meti in preson means to put in prison. Example:

lu àn fermât e metût in preson
they arrested him and put him in prison
(fermâ, to arrest, to stop)

Clamâ dongje means to call together, to summon.

al clamà dongje dute la sô int
he called together all his people

in dut tresinte e disevot di lôr
three hundred and eighteen of them in all

In the remainder of the verse, you find the expression cori daûr, meaning to pursue (literally, to run after).

ur corè daûr
he pursued them

fint a Dan
as far as Dan

In the above, al corè is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb cori (to run).

Verset 15

Abram and his servants lead their attack. You find the expressions tacâ vie (to set out) and dâ un pest (to deliver a defeat, to crush).

a tacarin vie pe gnot
they set out by night

ducj sparniçâts
all spread out
all scattered

ur dè un pest
he crushed them
(literally, unto them he gave a crushing; a trouncing)

Pe gnot means by night; pe is a contraction of par + la. The verb sparniçâ, which you first encountered in Gjenesi 11:8, means to spread out, to scatter. You will recall from verse 3 above that al dè is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb dâ.

Two new placenames appear: Cobe (Hobah), Damasc (Damascus).

plui in sù di Damasc
north of Damascus
(literally, more up from Damascus)

In Gjenesi 13:14, God told Abram to look in the four directions about himself: par in sù (upwards; that is, to the north), par in jù (downwards; that is, to the south), de bande de jevade (to the east), de bande dal amont (to the west). In both par in sù and plui in sù, north is expressed as up(wards). Similarly:

plui in jù di Rome
south of Rome
(literally, more down from Rome)

Verset 16

Recall that tornâ a followed by an infinitive conveys the sense of again, back.

tornâ a vê
to get back
to have again

al podè tornâ a vê
he was able to get back
he was able to have again

Verset 17

The expression tornâ indaûr means to return, to come back. Dâ une scopule can be taken as synonymous with dâ un pest, from verse 15. Both pest and scopule mean thrashing, beating, trouncing, etc.

dopo di vê dât
after having given

dopo di vêi dade une buine scopule a Chedorlaomer
after having given Chedorlaomer a good trouncing
(that is, after having utterly defeated Chedorlaomer)

The expression vignî incuintri is to be taken here as to come to meet.

i vignì incuintri
he came to meet him

A new placename appears: Save (Shaveh).

te valade di Save
in the valley of Shaveh

This verse ends with:

ch’e sarès la valade dal Re
which is (would be) the valley of the King

In the above, you have another example of the use of the condizionâl presint of the verb jessi; you saw a similar example in verse 3: che al sarès il mâr dal Sâl.

Verset 18

Intant means meanwhile, in the meantime. A new name appears: Melchisedek, re di Salem (Melchizedek, king of Salem). The Friulian for bread is il pan; wine is il vin.

al presentà pan e vin
he offered bread and wine
(literally, he presented bread and wine)

In the above, you learn a new verb: presentâ (to present).

God Most High finds its equivalent as Diu l’Altissim. You will remember that the adjective alt means high, tall. Altissim is its superlative form (most high).

The Friulian for priest is il predi.

al jere predi di Diu l’Altissim
he was a priest of God Most High

Versets 19-20

Learn or review the following: benedî (to bless), la peraule (word), benedet seial (may he be blessed), de bande di (with; literally, on the side of), il nemì (enemy, foe), la decime part (one tenth part; tithe), lis decimis (tenths; tithes).

The plural of il nemì is i nemîs.

al à metût i tiei nemîs tes tôs mans
he has delivered (put) your enemies into your hands

If the use of tôs is unclear to you, review Friulian possessive adjectives.

i dè lis decimis di dut
he gave him tenths (tithes) of everything

Verset 21

Dami is a second-person singular imperative meaning give me.

da!
give!
dami!
give to me!

Tegniti is also a second-person singular imperative; it means keep for yourself. The verb here is tignî (to keep).

ten!
keep!
tegniti!
keep for yourself!

tegniti la robe
keep the goods for yourself

The second-person singular imperative of tignî is ten. When ti is added, the gn reappears: tegniti.

Verset 22

You will remember that the verb rispuindi means to respond; denant di means before, in front of.

The expression alçâ la man means to raise one’s hand.

o alci la man
I raise my hand
(literally, I raise the hand; my is understood)

denant di Diu l’Altissim
before God Most High

Through the verb fevelâ, you have seen that an infinitive ending in â takes, in its first-person singular of the present indicative, the ending i. Look now at more examples of this:

fevelâ –> jo o feveli
alçâ –> jo o alci
amâ –> jo o ami
cjatâ –> jo o cjati
pensâ –> jo o pensi

Verset 23

From this verse, learn or review the following: tocjâ (to touch), il fîl (thread), la coree ([shoe]lace, strap), il sandul (sandal), slargjâsi (to become rich), in gracie di (thanks to).

no tocjarai ni un fîl ni une coree di sandul
I shall touch neither a thread nor a sandal strap

The sense of tocjâ (to touch) here is rather to take; that is, I shall take neither a thread nor a sandal strap (of what is yours).

no tocjarai nuie di ce che al è to
I shall not take (touch) anything of that which is yours

cussì no tu podarâs dî
you will thus not be able to say
you will in this way not be able to say

Tu tu podarâs is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb podê. The second-person singular is particular in that the atonic (unstressed) tu does not disappear in the presence of no. Study the following:

jo o podarai
I shall be able
jo no podarai
I shall not be able

tu tu podarâs
you will be able
tu no tu podarâs
you will not be able

jo o soi
I am
jo no soi
I am not

tu tu sês
you are
tu no tu sês
you are not

You have already met the expression in gracie di; in Gjenesi 12 (verses 13 and 16), you encountered in gracie tô and in gracie di jê. In the current verse, you now have in gracie di me, meaning thanks to me, because of me.

Abram si è slargjât in gracie di me
Abram became rich thanks to me
(literally, Abram broadened himself thanks to me)

The basic sense of the verb slargjâ is to extend, to enlarge, to broaden, to widen. It is used here in the sense of to make rich. The reflexive slargjâsi can be taken as meaning to become rich.

La coree can be used to talk about shoelaces; for example: lis coreis des scarpis (shoelaces). The Friulian for shoe is la scarpe. The expression laçâ lis scarpis means to tie one’s shoes, to lace up one’s shoes. The verb laçâ comes from the noun il laç, which is another word for (shoe)lace. A few more examples related to shoes:

comprâ un pâr di scarpis
to buy a pair of shoes

la suele de scarpe
the sole of the shoe

la solete de scarpe
the insole of the shoe
un pâr di soletis
a pair of insoles

une scarpe sportive
a sports shoe, an athletic shoe
(sportîf, athletic)

e à sù scarpis di piel
she has leather shoes on
she is wearing leather shoes

(vê sù, to have on; la piel, skin, leather)

meti sù lis scarpis
to put on one’s shoes
gjavâ fûr lis scarpis
to take off one’s shoes

chestis scarpis a son masse stretis, mi covente un numar di plui
these shoes are too tight; I need a larger size

In the above, the adjective stret means tight; its feminine form is strete. Mi covente (from the verb coventâ, to be necessary) means it is necessary unto me; it is understood in the sense of I need, I require. Un numar di plui translates literally as a number more; that is, a bigger number, a bigger size.

Verset 24

This final verse begins with:

no vuei vê nuie
I do not want to take (have) anything

O vuei is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb volê.

The text continues:

dome ce che la mê int e à mangjât
only that which my people have eaten

e la part che ur spiete ai oms
and the portion due to the men

che a son vignûts cun me
who have come with me

The verb spietâ is to be taken here as meaning to be due.

Three names appear: Aner (Aner), Escol (Eschol), Mamre (Mamre). The text then continues with the expression vê dirit a, meaning to be entitled to, to have the right to. Un dirit is a right.

lôr a varan dirit a la lôr part
they should be entitled to their portion
(literally, they will be entitled to their portion)

A varan is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vê. Below, you will find three conjugation charts: the simple future of vê, and the simple past of and jessi. You will find links to all conjugation charts here.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varai
varaio?
tu
tu varâs
varâstu?
lui
al varà
varaial?

e varà
varaie?

o varìn
varìno?
vualtris
o varês
varêso?
lôr
a varan
varano?

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vei
verio?
tu
tu veris
veristu?
lui
al vè
verial?

e vè
verie?

o verin
verino?
vualtris
o veris
veriso?
lôr
a verin
verino?

Verb: JESSI
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o foi
forio?
tu
tu foris
foristu?
lui
al fo
forial?

e fo
forie?

o forin
forino?
vualtris
o foris
foriso?
lôr
a forin
forino?