Friulian language series: Gjenesi 14, Chedorlaomer

The subject of which the fourteenth chapter of the book of Genesis treats is: la campagne di Chedorlaomer (Chedorlaomer’s campaign).

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Read Gjenesi 14

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Versets 1-2

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), il re (king), la vuere (war), fâ vuere cuintri di (to make war against), ven a stâi (that is to say).

The plural of the masculine re (king) is rês. A faserin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb fâ. The first two verses read: cuant che Amrafel al jere re di Senaar (when Amraphel was king of Shinar), Arioc re di Elasar (Arioch king of Ellasar), Chedorlaomer re di Elam (Chedorlaomer king of Elam) e Tideal re di Goim (and Tidal king of Goiim), chescj rês a faserin vuere (these kings made war) cuintri di Bere re di Sodome (against Bera king of Sodom), Bisre re di Gomore (Birsha king of Gomorrah), Sinab re di Adme (Shinab king of Admah), Semeber re di Zeboim (Shemeber king of Zeboiim) e il re di Bele (and the king of Bela), ven a stâi Zoar (that is to say, Zoar).

Supplementary examples of vuere: lâ in vuere (to go to war); jessi in vuere (to be at war); declarâ vuere (to declare war); la Grande Vuere (Great War; that is, First World War); la prime vuere mondiâl (First World War); la seconde vuere mondiâl (Second World War); il criminâl di vuere (war criminal).

Supplementary examples of re: il re di Spagne (King of Spain); tratâ come un re (to treat like a king); mi trate come un re (he treats me like a king). Learn also: la regjine (queen); il princip (prince); la principesse (princess). Related to these are the Friulian names of chess pieces: il re (king); la regjine (queen); il roc (rook); il cjaval (knight); l’alfîl (bishop); il pedon (pawn). Scac: check; scac mat: check mate. The game of chess itself is called i scacs.

Verset 3

Vocabulary: chescj chi (these ones), dâsi dongje (to come together), la valade (valley), il mâr (sea), il sâl (salt).

Chescj chi si derin dongje te valade di Sidim: all the latter (these ones) came together in the valley of Siddim. The sense of the latter’s having come together is that they joined forces. Chescj chi translates literally as these here; that is, these ones. A derin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb dâ; of the reflexive dâsi, it is si derin. You will find below the simple past conjugation of the verb dâ.

Che al sarès il mâr dal Sâl: which is (would be) the Salt Sea. The Friulian for salt is the masculine sâl. Il mâr dal Sâl (literally, Sea of the Salt) refers to the Dead Sea. Alongside the masculine sâl, learn the Friulian for pepper: il pevar. For example, zontâ un tic di pevar means to add a pinch of pepper. Al sarès (he would be; it would be) is the masculine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the the verb jessi (to be). Supplementary examples: l’ideâl al sarès de vê une machine (the ideal [situation] would be to have a car); sigûr al sarès miôr par ducj (it would certainly be better for all). The condizionâl presint of the verb jessi is presented below. See also: Friulian conjugation charts.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dei
derio?
tu
tu deris
deristu?
lui
al dè
derial?

e dè
derie?

o derin
derino?
vualtris
o deris
deriso?
lôr
a derin
derino?

Verb: JESSI
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarès
saressio?
tu
tu saressis
saressistu?
lui
al sarès
saressial?

e sarès
saressie?

o saressin
saressino?
vualtris
o saressis
saressiso?
lôr
a saressin
saressino?

Verset 4

Vocabulary: tignî sot (to subject), dodis (twelve), un an (year), par dodis agns (for twelve years), ma però (but), tredicesim (thirteenth), fâ cuintri (to rebel).

Chedorlaomer ju veve tignûts sot par dodis agns: Chedorlaomer had subjected them for twelve years. Tignî sot is to be understood as meaning to subject, to rule over; taken literally, it translates as to keep under. Of tignî, the past participle of tignût; it is found here in its masculine plural form tignûts to agree in gender and number with ju preceding it. Consider: al veve tignût sot (he had subjected); ju veve tignûts sot (he had subjected them).

Ma però, tal tredicesim an, i faserin cuintri: but in the thirteenth year, they rebelled against him. The Friulian for thirteenth can be expressed a number of different ways: decim tierç, diesim tierç, tredicesim. Ordinal numbers are presented below.

Ordinal numbers up to tenth, in both masculine and feminine form: prin, prime (first); secont, seconde (second); tierç, tierce (third); cuart, cuarte (fourth); cuint, cuinte (fifth); sest, seste (sixth); setim, setime (seventh); otâf, otave (eighth); novesim, novesime (ninth); decim, decime (tenth).

One way to express the ordinal numbers for eleventh to nineteeth is to put decim before the masculine forms of those listed above, and decime before the feminine; for example, il secul decim prin means the eleventh century. Following this model: decim prin, decime prime (eleventh); decim secont, decime seconde (twelfth); decim tierç, decime tierce (thirteenth); decim cuart, decime cuarte (fourteenth); decim cuint, decime cuinte (fifteenth); decim sest, decime seste (sixteenth); decim setim, decime setime (seventeenth); decim otâf, decime otave (eighteenth); decim novesim, decime novesime (nineteenth). Variant: Decim might be expressed as diesim (diesim prin, diesim secont, etc.).

Ordinal numbers from twentieth to hundreth: vincjesim, vincjesime (twentieth); vincjesim prin, vincjesime prime (twenty-first); vincjesim secont, vincjesime seconde (twenty-second); vincjesim tierç, vincjesime tierce (twenty-third); vincjesim cuart, vincjesime cuarte (twenty-fourth); vincjesim cuint, vincjesime cuinte (twenty-fifth); vincjesim sest, vincjesime seste (twenty-sixth); vincjesim setim, vincjesime setime (twenty-seventh); vincjesim otâf, vincjesime otave (twenty-eighth); vincjesim novesim, vincjesime novesime (twenty-ninth); trentesim, trentesime (thirtieth); cuarantesim, cuarantesime (fortieth); cincuantesim, cincuantesime (fiftieth); sessantesim, sessantesime (sixtieth); setantesim, setantesime (seventieth); otantesim, otantesime (eightieth); novantesim, novantesime (ninetieth); centesim, centesime (hundredth).

Ordinal numbers from hundred-and-first beyond: centesim prin, centesime prime (hundred-and-first); centesim secont, centesime seconde (hundred-and-second); dusintesim, dusintesime (two-hundredth); tresintesim, tresintesime (three-hundredth); cuatricentesim, cuatricentesime (four-hundredth); cinccentesim, cinccentesime (five-hundredth); sîscentesim, sîscentesime (six-hundredth); sietcentesim, sietcentesime (seven-hundredth); votcentesim, votcentesime (eight-hundredth); nûfcentesim, nûfcentesime (nine-hundredth); milesim, milesime (thousandth); milesim prin, milesime prime (thousand-and-first); milcinccentesim, milcinccentesime (one-thousand-and-five-hundredth); milcinccentdecim, milcinccentdecime (one-thousand-five-hundred-and-tenth); doi milesim, doi milesime (two-thousandth); cent milesim, cent milesime (one-hundred-thousandth); dusinte milesim, dusinte milesime (two-hundred-thousandth); tresinte milesim, tresinte milesime (three-hundred-thousandth); milionesim, milionesime (millionth); un miliardesim, un miliardesime (billionth).

It is often possible to avoid using ordinal numbers in the spoken language; in the same way that the fifteenth chapter can also be expressed in English as chapter fifteen, Friulian can say il cjapitul cuindis (chapter fifteen). In spoken language, with the names of monarchs, popes, etc., the ordinal number up to fifth is used; after that, it is the cardinal (fourteen, fifteen, etc.): Elisabete I (Elizabeth I; in spoken language: Elisabete prime); Zuan Pauli II (John Paul II; in spoken language: Zuan Pauli secont); Elisabete II (Elizabeth II; in spoken language: Elisabete seconde); Carli V (Charles V; in spoken language: Carli cuint); Carli VI (Charles VI; in spoken language: Carli sîs); Luîs XIV (Louis XIV; in spoken language: Luîs cutuardis); Luîs XVI (Louis XVI; in spoken language: Luîs sedis).

Versets 5-7

Vocabulary: cuatuardicesim (fourteenth), un an (year), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il re (king), cun lui (with him), fruçâ (to defeat), la plane (plain), la mont (mount, mountain), fint a (as far as), tacâ (to start, to begin), il desert (desert), il gîr (rotation, turn), grant (great, big), capitâ (to come upon), la fontane (fountain, spring), il judizi (judgement), valadì (that is to say), la pestadice (decimation), dut (all, entire), il teritori (territory), ancje (also, too), stâ (to dwell).

Verses 5-6: Tal cuatuardicesim an, a rivarin Chedorlaomer e i rês che a jerin cun lui: in the fourteenth year, Chedorlaomer and the kings who were with him came. Rather than decim cuart seen in the notes for verse 4, you find here the variant cuatuardicesim. The text continues: a fruçarin i refaim a Astarot-Karnaim (they defeated the Refaim at Ashteroth-Karnaim), i zuzim a Am (the Zuzim at Ham), i emim te plane di Kiriataim (the Emim in the plain of Kiriathaim), i urits su lis monts di Seir fint a El-Paran (the Horites in the mountains of Seir as far as El-Paran) là che al tache il desert (where the desert starts).

Verse 7: A faserin un grant gîr: they made a wide turn back (they made a great rotation). A capitarin te fontane dal Judizi, valadì a Kades: they came upon the fountain of Judgement, that is to say, (they came) to Kadesh. Fâ une pestadice (literally, to carry out [make] a decimation) can be taken as to decimate: a faserin une pestadice in dut il teritori (they decimated the entire territory [they carried out (made) a decimation in all the territory]) dai amalecits (of the Amalekites) e ancje dai amoreus (and also of the Amorites) che a stavin a Azazon-Tamar (who dwelt [were dwelling] in Hazazon-Tamar).

Versets 8-11

Vocabulary: alore (so, then), il re (king), vadì (that is to say), saltâ fûr (to go forth), la schirie (military formation, military line-up), metisi in schirie (to deploy oneself), cuintri di (against), la valade (valley), cuatri (four), cinc (five), plen di (full of), il poç (pit, well), il catram (tar, pitch), scjampâ (to flee), colâ (to fall), dentri (in, inside), chei altris (the others, the other ones), la mont (mount, mountain), vinçi (to prevail, to win), puartâ vie (to carry away), la robe (possessions, substance), la mangjative (food), lâsint (to leave, to depart).

Verses 8-9: Alore il re di Sodome (then the king of Sodom), il re di Gomore (the king of Gomorrah), il re di Adme (the king of Admah), il re di Zeboim (the king of Zeboiim) e il re di Bele (and the king of Bela), vadì Zoar (that is to say, Zoar), a saltarin fûr (went forth) e si meterin in schirie cuintri di lôr (and deployed themselves against them) te valade di Sidim (in the valley of Siddim), cuintri Chedorlaomer re di Elam (against Chedorlaomer king of Elam), Tideal re di Goim (Tidal king of Goiim), Amrafel re di Senaar (Amraphel king of Shinar) e Arioc re di Elasar (and Arioch king of Ellasar), cuatri rês a cinc (four kings against five [four kings to five]).

Verse 10: La valade di Sidim e jere plene di poçs di catram: the valley of Siddim was full of tar pits (full of pits of tar). Plen is the Friulian for full; plen di means full of. You find here the feminine form plene, to agree in gender with the feminine valade. Scjampant il re di Sodome e il re di Gomore a colarin dentri: (whilst) fleeing, the king of Sodom and the king of Gomorrah fell in (that is, they fell into the pits). Chei altris a scjamparin su la mont: the others fled to the mountain. Supplementary examples of colâ: colâ dal barcon (to fall out the window); o soi colât smontant de coriere (I fell [whilst] getting off the coach; smontâ, to get off, to alight; la coriere, motorcoach, bus); mi è colât il libri di man (I dropped the book [the book fell from the hand unto me]); vuê e cole la nêf (it is snowing today [the snow is falling today]; vuê, today; la nêf, snow); il soldat al è colât in bataie (the soldier died [fell] in battle; la bataie, battle); la cjase e je colade (the house collapsed [fell]); chest an Nadâl al cole di domenie (this year Christmas falls on a Sunday).

Verse 11: Chei che a vevin vinçût (those who had prevailed), a puartarin vie di Sodome e di Gomore (carried away from Sodom and Gomorrah) dute la robe (all the possessions) e dute la mangjative (and all the food) e s’int lerin (and left). For clarity: the victors seized all the possessions and food of Sodom and Gomorrah and left. Supplementary examples of vinci: vinci un concors (to win a contest); vinci une bataie (to win a battle); vinci il prin premi (to win first prize). S’int lerin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of lâsint. Lâsint is composed of + si + int. Consider: s’int lè (he left); s’int lerin (they left). More examples of lâsint are presented in the notes at Gjenesi 12:19.

Verset 12

Vocabulary: prin di (before), lâsint (to leave, to depart), cjapâ (to take), ancje (also, too), il nevôt (nephew), dut (all), la robe (possessions, substance), jessi a stâ (to dwell).

The text of this verse reads: prin di lâsint (before leaving), a cjaparin ancje Lot (they also took Lot), il nevôt di Abram (the nephew of Abram), e dute la sô robe (and all his possessions); lui al jere a stâ a Sodome (he was dwelling in Sodom).

Names of family members in Friulian: l’om (husband), la femine (wife), il pari (father), la mari (mother), il fî (son), la fie (daughter), il frut (boy), la frute (girl), il fradi (brother), la sûr (sister), il barbe (uncle), la agne (aunt), il nevôt (nephew; grandson), la gnece (niece; granddaughter), il nono, il von (grandfather), la none, la ave, la veve (grandmother), il cusin (male cousin), la cusine (female cousin), il zinar (son-in-law), la brût (daughter-in-law), il missêr (father-in-law), la madone (mother-in-law), il cugnât (brother-in-law), la cugnade (sister-in-law), il padreul (step-father), la madrigne (step-mother).

Supplementary examples: gno barbe nus à fat un biel regâl (my uncle gave us a nice gift); i barbis a son vignûts ducj a cjase nestre domenie (all the uncles came over to our place on Sunday); barbe Toni, cemût stâstu? (uncle Tony, how are you?); o soi lât a cjatâ mê agne (I went to visit my aunt); o soi une vore tacât a mês agnis (I am very attached to my aunts); o soi deventât barbe, al è nassût il gno prin nevôt (I have become an uncle; my first nephew has been born); o soi ancje jo nono, o ai doi nevôts (I too am a grandfather; I have two grandchildren); la none ur vûl tant ben a dutis lis gnecis (grandmother very much loves all her granddaughters); lâ a cjatâ i nonos (to go visit the grandparents); von di pari; von di bande di pari (paternal grandfather); von di mari; von di bande di mari (maternal grandfather); lâ a cjatâ i vons (to go visit the grandparents); mê ave no mostre ducj i agns che e à (my grandmother does not show her age); cemût di to cugnât? (how is your brother-in-law?; what has become of your brother-in-law?); to fradi e tô cugnade a son une biele cubie (your brother and sister-in-law make a fine couple); mê sûr e gno cugnât a stan ben dongje (my sister and brother-in-law are good together); cusin di pari; cusin di bande di pari (paternal cousin); cusin dret (first [direct] cousin); cusin secont (second cousin).

Versets 13-16

Vocabulary: scjampâ (to flee), vignî (to come), visâ (to inform), un ebreu (Hebrew), jessi a stâ (to dwell), dongje di (by, alongside), il rôl (oak), il fradi (brother), la bande (side), jessi de bande di (to be on the side of, to be allied with), cuant che (when), savê (to know), il nevôt (nephew), cjapâ (to take), il presonîr (prisoner, captive), clamâ dongje (to call together), la int (people), il famei (servant), in dut (in all, altogether), tresinte e disevot (three hundred and eighteen), cori daûr (to pursue), fint a (as far as), tacâ vie (to set out), la gnot (night), sparniçât (spread out), il pest (crushing, trouncing), dâ un pest (to deliver a crushing defeat), plui in sù di (north of), podê (can, to be able), tornâ a vê (to regain), la robe (possessions, substance), ancje (also, too), la femine (woman).

Verse 13: Un di chei scjampâts (one of [those who had] fled) al vignì a visâ Abram l’ebreu (came to inform Abram the Hebrew), che al jere a stâ dongje dal rôl di Mamre, l’amoreu (who was dwelling by the oak of Mamre the Amorite), fradi di Escol e di Aner (brother of Eshkol and Aner); lôr a stavin de bande di Abram (they were allied with [were on the side of] Abram).

Verse 14: Cuant che Abram al vignì a savê (when Abram came to know) che so nevôt lu vevin cjapât presonîr (that his nephew had been taken captive [that they had taken his nephew prisoner]), al clamà dongje dute la sô int (he called together all his men), i fameis (the servants), in dut tresinte e disevot di lôr (three hundred and eighteen of them in all), e ur corè daûr fint a Dan (and pursued them as far as Dan). Al corè is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb cori (to run). Taken literally, cori daûr translates as to run after, to run behind; the sense of it is to pursue, to give chase.

Verse 15: Lui e la sô int a tacarin vie pe gnot (he and his men set out by night), ducj sparniçâts (all spread about); ur dè un pest (he delivered them a crushing defeat [unto them he gave a crushing]) e ur corè daûr fint a Cobe (and pursued them as far as  Hobah), plui in sù di Damasc (north of Damascus [farther up from Damascus]). Pe gnot means by night; pe is a contraction of par + la. When used in the context of cardinal directions, (up) is to be taken as north; similarly, (down) is taken as south: plui in jù di Rome (south of Rome). Related: In Gjenesi 13:14, God tells Abram to look in the four directions about him: par in sù (upwards; that is, to the north), par in jù (downwards; that is, to the south), de bande de jevade (to the east), de bande dal amont (to the west).

Verse 16: Al podè (he was able) tornâ a vê (to regain) dute la sô robe (all his possessions) e ancje so nevôt Lot e dute la sô robe (and also his nephew Lot and all his possessions), ancje lis feminis e la int (the women and people too). For clarity: he was successful in regaining all his possessions; he also brought back his nephew Lot and all his possessions, and the women and the rest of the people. Tornâ a followed by an infinitive conveys the sense of again, anew: tornâ a vê (to get anew; that is, to regain).

Versets 17-24

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), tornâ indaûr (to return), dopo di (after), la scopule (smack, blow, beating), dâ une buine scopule (to deliver a crushing blow), il re (king), vignî incuintri (to come to meet), la valade (valley), intant (meanwhile), presentâ (to present), il pan (bread), il vin (wine), il predi (priest), Diu l’Altissim (God Most High), benedî (to bless), la peraule (word), de bande di (by, on the part of), il cîl (heaven, sky), la tiere (earth), meti (to put, to place), il nemì (enemy, foe), la man (hand), (to give), la decime (tenth part, tithe), (to say), la int (people), tignî (to keep), la robe (possessions, substance), rispuindi (to respond), alçâ (to raise), denant di (before), tocjâ (to touch), no… ni… ni (neither… nor… nor), il fîl (thread), la coree (strap, lace), il sandul (sandal), cussì (thus, so), podê (can, to be able), slargjâsi (to become prosperous), in gracie di (thanks to, because of), volê (to want), nuie (nothing), dome (only), mangjâ (to eat), la part (portion, share), spietâi a (to be owing to), un om (man), il dirit (right).

Verse 17: Cuant che Abram al tornà indaûr (when Abram returned) dopo di vêi dade une buine scopule a Chedorlaomer (after having delivered a crushing blow to Chedorlaomer [after having given a good beating to Chedorlaomer]) e ai rês che a jerin cun lui (and to the kings who were with him), il re di Sodome i vignì incuintri (the king of Sodom came to meet him) te valade di Save (in the valley of Shaveh), ch’e sarès la valade dal Re (which is [would be] the Valley of the King). Observe: (to give); vê dât (to have given); vêi dât (to have given to him); dopo di vêi dât (after having given to him).

Verse 18: Intant Melchisedek (meanwhile, Melchizedek), re di Salem (king of Salem), al presentà pan e vin (brought out [presented] bread and wine): al jere predi di Diu l’Altissim (he was a priest of God Most High). The Friulian adjective alt means high; it is found here in superlative form: altissim (highest, most high).

Verses 19-20: Lu benedì cun chestis peraulis: he blessed him with these words. The blessing is worded: benedet seial Abram (blessed be Abram) de bande dal Diu l’Altissim (by God Most High), che al à fat cîl e tiere (who made heaven and earth) e benedet seial Diu l’Altissim (and blessed be God Most High) che al à metût i tiei nemîs (who put your foes) tes tôs mans (into your hands). Observe: la tô man (your hand); lis tôs mans (your hands); te tô man (in[to] your hand); tes tôs mans (in[to] your hands). Consult: Friulian possessive adjectives. E Abram i dè lis decimis di dut: and Abram gave him tenths of all.

Verse 21: Dopo, il re di Sodome i disè a Abram: then the king of Sodom said to Abram. Dami la int e tegniti la robe: give me the people and keep the possessions for yourself. Da is the second-person singular imperative of the verb (to give); dami means give me (give to me). Tegniti is also a second-person singular imperative; it means keep for yourself. The second-person singular imperative of tignî (to keep) is ten. When ti is added, the gn reappears: ten (keep); tegniti (keep for yourself).

Verses 22-23: With infinitives ending in â, the first-person singular of the present indicative ends in i. Observe: (alçâ) jo o alci; (fevelâ) jo o feveli; (amâ) jo o ami; (cjatâ) jo o cjati; (pensâ) jo o pensi. Abram says: o alci la man (I raise my hand) denant di Diu l’Altissim (before God Most High), che al à fat cîl e tiere (who made heaven and earth), no tocjarai ni un fîl (I shall touch neither a thread) ni une coree di sandul (nor a sandal strap), no tocjarai nuie di ce che al è to (I shall touch nothing of that which is yours); cussì no tu podarâs dî (thus shall you not be able to say): Abram si è slargjât in gracie di me (Abram has become prosperous thanks to me). Tu tu podarâs is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb podê. The second-person singular is particular in that the atonic (unstressed) tu does not disappear in the presence of no. Consider the following: jo o podarai; jo no podarai (I shall be able; I shall not be able); tu tu podarâs; tu no tu podarâs (you will be able; you will not be able); jo o soi; jo no soi (I am; I am not); tu tu sês; tu no tu sês (you are; you are not). Related usages to learn: la scarpe (shoe); lis coreis des scarpis (shoelaces); laçâ lis scarpis (to tie one’s shoes).

Verse 24: No vuei vê nuie: I claim (want) nothing. Dome ce che la mê int e à mangjât: only that which my men have eaten. La part che ur spiete ai oms che a son vignûts cun me, Aner, Escol e Mamre: the share that is owing to the men who came with me — Aner, Eshkol and Mamre. Lôr a varan dirit a la lôr part: they ought to have a right to their share. A varan (they will have) is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vê; the use of the futur sempliç in this verse is particular in that it conveys the sense of ought, should rather than will, shall. Three conjugation charts are included below: the simple future of vê, and the simple past of and jessi.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o varai
varaio?
tu
tu varâs
varâstu?
lui
al varà
varaial?

e varà
varaie?

o varìn
varìno?
vualtris
o varês
varêso?
lôr
a varan
varano?

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vei
verio?
tu
tu veris
veristu?
lui
al vè
verial?

e vè
verie?

o verin
verino?
vualtris
o veris
veriso?
lôr
a verin
verino?

Verb: JESSI
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o foi
forio?
tu
tu foris
foristu?
lui
al fo
forial?

e fo
forie?

o forin
forino?
vualtris
o foris
foriso?
lôr
a forin
forino?

See also: Friulian conjugation charts.