Friulian language series: Gjenesi 13, Abram e Lot si dividin

In this post, you continue to learn Friulian through the Bible; you will study the entirety of the thirteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subjects are Abram e Lot si dividin (Abram and Lot separate) and promessis a Abram (promises to Abram). The Friulian for promise is la promesse; the expression to make a promise, then, is fâ une promesse.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

You will examine the simple future conjugation of the verbs and in the notes for verses 9 and 15, respectively. In the notes for verse 18, you will find the simple past conjugation of the verb fâ. You will also learn, in the notes for verse 7, the names of modern European countries in Friulian.

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of this chapter in the video starts at 4:20. Note that the reader has omitted verses 1 and 2 in his reading; he begins at verse 3.

Verset 1

This first verse presents no new usages. You will recall that dutun cun means together with, along with.

dutun cun Lot
together with Lot

You will also remember that l’Egjit and il Negheb are the Friulian for Egypt and the Negev.

al tornà dal Egjit tal Negheb
he returned from Egypt (in)to the Negev

Verset 2

You can understand un grumon di as meaning a great deal of, a very large amount of. Abram had a great deal of bestiis (beasts, cattle), arint (silver) and aur (gold).

Arint and aur are masculine nouns. Some related usages:

la medaie di aur
la medaie di arint
la medaie di bronç
the gold; silver; bronze medal

al à vinçude la medaie di arint
he won the silver medal
(vinci, to win; past participle vinçut)

l’aur al è un metal
gold is a metal

une monede di aur
a gold coin

cjavei colôr arint
silver-coloured hair

Verset 3

This verse does not present any usages of particular difficulty. You will recall the wording spostant simpri il campament from Gjenesi 12:9. You have also seen the expression fint a before, meaning as far as, until.

dal Negheb al rivà fint a Betel
from the Negev he arrived as far as Bethel

In Gjenesi 12:8, you first encountered the expression plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent).

propit tal lûc
right in the spot
at the very site

che al veve plantade la tende la prime volte
where he had pitched the tent the first time

Verset 4

Là che can be understood as meaning there where, or simply where. Prime means before, previously.

là che al veve fat ancjemò prime
there where he had already made before

You will recall the wording al preà il non dal Signôr from Gjenesi 12:8.

Verset 5

The adjective piçul means small, little; its opposite is grant (big, large).

In Gjenesi 12:16, you encountered besteam minût e grant (small and large livestock); in the current verse, you find the same concept expressed with different words: nemâi piçui e grancj. Nemâi is the plural of nemâl; piçui, the plural of piçul; and grancj, the plural of grant.

You read that Abram had many tents: une vore di tendis. Une vore di, followed by a noun, means a lot of, a great deal of. More examples:

une vore di cjasis
une vore di stradis
une vore di oms
a lot of houses; streets; men

You have already seen une vore (without the di) before an adjective:

restâ une vore mortificât
to become very crestfallen

oms une vore innomenâts
very renowned men

une vore grant
very great

More examples of une vore:

al jere une vore strac
he was very tired

a jerin une vore fuarts
they were very strong

o ai imparât une vore
I have learnt a lot

Verset 6

You find in this verse the adjective piçul in its feminine form piçule.

la tiere e jere masse piçule
the earth was too small

Ducj i doi means both. You will remember the reflexive sistemâsi from Gjenesi 12:10.

You have two examples of masse in this verse, one before an adjective and one before a noun:

e jere masse piçule
it; she was too small

a vevin masse robe
they had too many things
they had too much stuff

The verse ends with:

par podê stâ dutun
to be able to stay together

Verset 7

In this verse, you read that a quarrel erupted:

e nassè une barufe
a quarrel was born
an argument erupted

The argument was between the following people:

fra i pastôrs des mandriis di Abram
between the herders of the herds of Abram

e chei des mandriis di Lot
and those of the herds of Lot

Un pastôr, which you have seen before, is the Friulian for herder, herdsman, shepherd. You will also remember la mandrie, meaning herd, flock.

You have seen the expression in chê volte before; you will recall that it means at that time. The Friulian name for the Perizzites appears in this verse: i perissits, which is the plural of il perissit. The text tells you that, at that time, the Canaanites and the Perizzites lived there:

a jerin a stâ aventi
they lived there
they dwelled there

Remember that the expression used in the above is jessi a stâ, meaning to live, to dwell, to reside.

a son a stâ in campagne
they live in the country

trê agns indaûr o jeri a stâ in Spagne
three years ago I was living in Spain
three years ago I lived in Spain

At this point, it would be good to begin learning the names of modern countries in Friulian. I shall begin here with the European sphere. (Update [2018.08.25]: You will now find the Friulian names for countries in America in the notes for Gjenesi 16:8.)

In Friulian, most country names are used with the definite article. Many names below are feminine and begin with a vowel; the definite article la can contract or not when the following noun begins with a vowel: la Austrie, l’Austrie. I have avoided contracting in the list below so that you can be sure of the gender of the name. If there is no definite article shown, the name is used without it. You will find examples of use after the list.

la Europe (Europe)

la Albanie (Albania), Andore (Andorra), la Austrie (Austria), la Belgjiche (Belgium), la Bielorussie (Belorussia), la Bosgne-Erzegovine (Bosnia-Herzegovina), la Bulgarie (Bulgaria), Cipri (Cyprus), il Cosôf (Kosovo), la Cravuazie (Croatia), la Danimarcje (Denmark), la Estonie (Estonia), la Finlande (Finland), la France (France), la Gjermanie (Germany), la Grecie (Greece), la Irlande (Ireland), la Islande (Iceland), la Italie (Italy), la Letonie (Latvia), il Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein), la Lituanie (Lithuania), il Lussemburc (Luxembourg), la Macedonie (Macedonia), Malte (Malta), la Moldavie (Moldavia), Monaco (Monaco), il Montneri (Montenegro), la Norvegje (Norway), la Ongjarie (Hungary), i Paîs Bas (Netherlands), la Polonie (Poland), il Portugal (Portugal),  il Ream Unît (United Kingdom),  la Republiche Ceche (Czech Republic), la Romanie (Romania), la Russie (Russia), Sant Marin (San Marino), la Serbie (Serbia), la Slovachie (Slovakia), la Slovenie (Slovenia), la Spagne (Spain), la Svezie (Sweden), la Svuizare (Switzerland), la Ucraine (Ukraine), il Vatican (Vatican)

Also: la Catalogne (Catalonia), il Friûl-Vignesie Julie (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), il Gales (Wales), la Irlande dal Nord (Northern Ireland), la Ingletiere (England), il Paîs Basc (Basque Country), la Scozie (Scotland)

Examples of use:

la Cravuazie e je un paîs european
Croatia is a European country

il Lussemburc al è un piçul stât
Luxembourg is a small state

la Albanie e je un paîs de Europe
l’Albanie e je un paîs da l’Europe
Albania is a country of Europe

in France, in Spagne, in Slovenie
in France, in Spain, in Slovenie

in Irlande, in Italie, in Ongjarie
in Ireland, in Italy, in Hungary

in Vatican, in Lussemburc, in Portugal
in the Vatican, in Luxembourg, in Portugal

de France, de Spagne, de Slovenie
from France, from Spain, from Slovenie

de Irlande, de Italie, de Ongjarie
da l’Irlande, da l’Italie, da l’Ongjarie
from Ireland, from Italy, from Hungary

dal Vatican, dal Lussemburc, dal Portugal
from the Vatican, from Luxembourg, from Portugal

tal Ream Unît
dal Ream Unît

in the United Kingdom
from the United Kingdom

tai Paîs Bas
dai Paîs Bas

in the Netherlands
from the Netherlands

Monaco al è un principât
Monaco is a principality

a Monaco, di Malte
in Monaco, from Malta

Verset 8

Now that you know the Friulian la barufe (argument), know that you can also use the verb barufâ (to argue). In this verse, however, you do not find the verb barufâ but cavilâ, also meaning to argue, to quibble. A couple examples:

al cavile su ogni robe
he quibbles about everything little thing

lui e jê a àn barufât dute la gnot
he and she argued all night

From the text:

no vin di cavilâ jo e te
you and I must not argue
(literally, we must not argue, I and you)

In the above, you will recognise the expression vê di, meaning to have to, must. O vin is the first-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb vê.

o vin di barufâ
no vin di barufâ
we must argue
we must not argue

You encounter in this verse for the first time the word nancje. It means nor, neither.

nancje i miei pastôrs cui tiei
nor my herdsmen with yours

A few more examples of nancje, taken from the Grant Dizionari Bilengâl Talian-Furlan:

— Vâstu?
— No. E tu?
— Nancje jo.
— Are you going?
— No, and you?
— Neither am I.

se no tu i vâs tu, no i voi nancje jo
if you are not going, then I am not going either
(i translates as there and goes before the verb)

Above, you reviewed o vin (we have) as the first-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb vê. In the remainder of the verse now, you find o sin (we are), which is the same person and tense, but of the verb jessi.

che nô o sin fradis
because we are brothers

Verset 9

Devant di te means before you, in front of you.

Dividìnsi (let us separate) is the first-person plural imperative form of the reflexive verb dividisi.

dividìn! let us separate (something)!
dividìnsi! let us separate (ourselves)!

In this verse, you learn the Friulian for to go right and to go left:

lâ a drete
lâ a çampe
to go right
to go left

se tu tu vâs a çampe
if you go left

jo o larai a drete
I shall go right

se tu impen tu vûs lâ a drete
if you, on the other hand, want to go right

jo o tignarai la çampe
I shall keep (to) the left

O larai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb lâ. In the chart below, you will find the simple future conjugation of this verb. O tignarai is the same person and tense, but of the verb tignî (to keep). Below the conjugation chart, you will find more examples of la drete and la çampe.

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o larai
tu larâs
al larà

e larà

o larìn
o larês
a laran

Below are more examples of la drete (also expressed as la diestre) and la çampe:

al scrîf cu la çampe
al scrîf cu la diestre

he writes with his left hand
he writes with his right hand

(scrivi, to write)

voltâ a man çampe
to turn to the left

la strade e va a man drete
the street goes to the left

un partît di diestre
un partît di çampe
a right-wing party
a left-wing party
(la politiche, politics)

tignî la diestre
to keep to the right

Verset 10

In this verse, you find the expression alçâ i vôi, meaning to lift one’s eyes; that is, to look up.

La concje, which you have seen before, is a valley, basin. Other more common words for valley are la valade, la val, il cjanâl. In the text, you find the noun concje used in reference to Jordan, which is given here in Friulian as il Gjordan.

The verb bagnâ means to wet, to soak; you read that the concje was bagnade fûr par fûr. You will perhaps remember that fûr par fûr means through and through.

If the verb plantâ means to plant, then splantâ literally means to “unplant.” In the context of this verse, you can understand it as meaning to eradicate, to destroy.

il Signôr al splante Sodome e Gomore
il Signôr al splantà Sodome e Gomore
the Lord destroys Sodom and Gomorrah
the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

Neither of the above, however, is what you find in the text; what you find is:

chest prime che il Signôr al splantàs Sodome e Gomore
this, before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

Prime che (before) is followed by the subjunctive.

prime che al splanti
prime che al splantàs
before he destroys
before he destroyed

In the first of the pair above, you find the coniuntîf presint where it is question of present time; in the second, you find the coniuntîf imperfet where it is question of past time. Here are more examples of this:

al lavore
prime che al lavori
al lavorà
prime che al lavoràs
he works
before he works
he worked
before he worked

al fevele
prime che al feveli
al fevelà
prime che al fevelàs
he speaks
before he speaks
he spoke
before he spoke

al è
prime che al sedi
al fo
prime che al fos
it is
before it is
it was
before it was

Fin dongje means until, as far as.

fin dongje Zoar
until Zoar

Verset 11

You should be able to make out the meaning of this entire verse. A couple notes nonetheless:

al tignì par sè
he kept for himself
(that is, he took)

spostâsi a soreli jevât
to move east, to go east
(literally, to displace oneself to the east)

Verset 12

The only new usage here is la plane, meaning plain.

tes citâts de plane
in the cities of the plain

You will recall that sistemâsi means to set oneself up, to settle. Fint a can translate as far as, until; you can understand it as meaning towards here.

al plantà lis sôs tendis fint a Sodome
he pitched his tents towards Sodom

Verset 13

Perhaps you will recall some of the usages found in this verse, which you have already encountered:

fûr di strade (Gjenesi 6:12)
corrupt, wicked

The Friulian word for street is la strade. The expression fûr di strade, then, means off the (right) path (that is, in the wrong, corrupt, wicked).

robatis (Gjenesi 6:5)
to do evil, wicked things

Une robate (bad thing) derives from la robe (thing).

The expression dal dut means entirely, completely.

la int e jere dal dut fûr di strade
the people were entirely wicked

Cuintri di means against, before. Fâ robatis cuintri dal Signôr, then, translates as to do evil things before the Lord.

You read that the evil things were di no crodi. The verb crodi means to believe; describing something as being di no crodi means that it cannot be believed (in this case, because of the great wickedness of it).

fâ robatis di no crodi
to do unbelievably wicked things

Verset 14

In verse 10, you found prime che (before). In the current verse, you find dopo che (after). Prime che is followed by the subjunctive; dopo che is not.

dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui
after Lot had separated from him

Lot si è dividût di lui
Lot si jere dividût di lui
dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui
Lot separated from him
Lot had separated from him
after Lot had separated from him

Alce is the second-person singular, imperative form of the verb alçâ. The expression cjalâsi dulintor means to look around oneself. Cjaliti is the second-person singular imperative.

alce i vôi
lift your eyes
look up

di li che tu sês
from there where you are
from where you are

cjaliti dulintor
look around yourself

The second-person singular, imperative form of the verb cjalâ is cjale. The e ending changes to i when ti is present in reflexive form: cjaliti.

God tells Abram to look in the four directions around himself: par in sù (upwards; northwards), par in jù (downwards; southwards), de bande de jevade (eastwards), de bande dal amont (westwards). La jevade (literally, the rising) refers to the east; l’amont (literally, the setting) refers to the west.

de bande di soreli jevât
de bande de jevade

de bande di soreli a mont
de bande dal amont

Est al è la direzion viers la jevade dal soreli
east is the direction towards the rising of the sun

Ovest al è la direzion viers l’amont dal soreli
west is the direction towards the setting of the sun

Verset 15

You have another example now of the expression rivâ a fâ, meaning to manage to do. In this verse, rather than fâ, you find viodi.

dute la tiere che tu rivis a viodi
all the land that you manage to see
all the land that you are able to see

O darai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb dâ. You will find this verb conjugated below in the simple future for your reference.

Futûr sempliç

Simple future

o darai
tu darâs
al darà

e darà

o darìn
o darês
a daran

In the text, you read:

jo te darai
I shall give it to you

Te is a contraction of ti + le, where le stands in for la tiere.

jo ti + le darai
= jo te darai

Par simpri means forever.

Verset 16

There are a number of new usages in this verse, including: rivâ adore di fâ (to manage to do), il grignel (grain), contâ (to count). The plural of il grignel is i grignei.

You will remember that verb cressi means to grow, to increase; fâ cressi, then, means to make grow, to make increase.

You first encountered il pulvin (dust) in Gjenesi 2:19.

There are two impersonal usages here:

cuant che si rivarà adore di
when one will manage to

si contarà ancje la tô gjernazie
one will also count your offspring
your offspring will also be counted

Verset 17

You now encounter the verb jevâ for the first time. This verb — perhaps you will have guessed it — means to lift, to raise. You will recognise the relation between the verb jevâ and expressions for east already seen: soreli jevât, la jevade.

The verb jevâ can be used as part of the expression jevâ sù, meaning to lift up.

jevâ sù une scjatule
to lift up a box

The reflexive jevâsi sù, then, means to lift oneself up; that is, to get up, to arise.

jeviti sù
arise, get up

The second-person singular imperative of jevâ is jeve. The same of the reflexive jevâsi, then, is jeviti. In the same way that the e of the imperative cjale becomes i in cjaliti (see verse 14 above), the e of jeve becomes i in jeviti.

The expression girâ ator means to go about, to move about. The second-person singular imperative of girâ is gire.

gire ator par ca e par là
go about here and there
(that is, go about all over the place)

You should be able to understand the rest of the verse.

Verset 18

Other than the placenames Mamre (Mamre) and Ebron (Hebron), there are no new usages in this verse; a couple reminders nonetheless: al lè is the third-person singular, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb lâ, and the Friulian for oak tree is il rôl.

al lè a sistemâsi
he went to dwell
he went to settle

dongje dal rôl di Mamre, che al è a Ebron
near the oak of Mamre, which is in Hebron

You also find in this verse the third-person singular, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb fâ, which is al fasè. Below, you will find the verb conjugated in the simple past for your reference.

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o fasei
tu faseris
al fasè

e fasè

o faserin
o faseris
a faserin