Friulian language series: Gjenesi 13, Abram e Lot si dividin

In this post, you will examine the entirety of the thirteenth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subjects are Abram e Lot si dividin (Abram and Lot separate) and promessis a Abram (promises to Abram). The Friulian for promise is la promesse; the expression to make a promise, then, is fâ une promesse.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 13

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 13. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

This first verse presents no new usages. Recall that dutun cun means along with, together with.

dutun cun Lot
together with Lot

You will also remember that l’Egjit and il Negheb are the Friulian for Egypt and the Negev.

al tornà dal Egjit tal Negheb
he returned from Egypt into the Negev

Verset 2

You can understand un grumon di as meaning a great deal of, a very large amount of. Abram had a great deal of bestiis (beasts), arint (silver) and aur (gold).

Arint and aur are masculine nouns. Some related usages:

la medaie di aur
la medaie di arint
la medaie di bronç
the gold; silver; bronze medal

al à vinçude la medaie di arint
he won the silver medal
(vinci, to win; past participle vinçut)

l’aur al è un metal
gold is a metal

une monede di aur
a gold coin

cjavei colôr arint
silver-coloured hair

Verset 3

This verse does not present any usages of particular difficulty. You will recall the wording spostant simpri il campament from Gjenesi 12:9. You have also seen the expression fint a before, meaning as far as, until.

dal Negheb al rivà fint a Betel
from the Negev he arrived as far as Bethel

In Gjenesi 12:8, you first encountered the expression plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent).

propit tal lûc
right in the spot
at the very site

che al veve plantade la tende la prime volte
where he had pitched the tent the first time

Verset 4

Là che can be understood as meaning there where, or simply where. Prime means before, previously.

là che al veve fat ancjemò prime un altâr
there where he had previously built (made) an altar

You will recall the wording al preà il non dal Signôr from Gjenesi 12:8.

Verset 5

The adjective piçul means small, little; its opposite is grant (big, large).

In Gjenesi 12:16, you encountered besteam minût e grant (small and large livestock); in the current verse, you find the same concept expressed with different words: nemâi piçui e grancj. Nemâi is the plural of nemâl; piçui, the plural of piçul; and grancj, the plural of grant.

You read that Abram had many tents: une vore di tendis. Une vore di, followed by a noun, means a lot of, a great deal of. More examples:

une vore di cjasis
une vore di stradis
une vore di oms
a lot of houses; streets; men

You have already seen une vore (without the di) before an adjective:

restâ une vore mortificât
to become very crestfallen

oms une vore innomenâts
very renowned men

une vore grant
very great

More examples of une vore:

al jere une vore strac
he was very tired

a jerin une vore fuarts
they were very strong

o ai imparât une vore
I have learnt a lot

Verset 6

You find in this verse the adjective piçul in its feminine form piçule.

la tiere e jere masse piçule
the earth was too small

Ducj i doi means both. You will remember the reflexive sistemâsi from Gjenesi 12:10.

You have two examples of masse in this verse, one before an adjective and one before a noun:

e jere masse piçule
it was too small

a vevin masse robe
they had too many possessions

The verse ends with:

par podê stâ dutun
so as to be able to stay together
in order to be able to stay together

Verset 7

In this verse, you read that a quarrel erupted:

e nassè une barufe
a quarrel was born
an argument erupted

The verb nassi means to be born.

The argument was between the following people:

fra i pastôrs des mandriis di Abram
between the herdsmen of the herds of Abram

e chei des mandriis di Lot
and those of the herds of Lot

Un pastôr, which you have met before, is the Friulian for herder, herdsman, shepherd. You will also remember la mandrie, meaning herd, flock.

You have seen the expression in chê volte before; recall that it means at that time. The Friulian name for the Perizzites appears in this verse: i perissits, which is the plural of il perissit. You read that, at that time, the Canaanites and the Perizzites lived there:

a jerin a stâ aventi
they lived (were living) there
they dwelled (were dwelling) there

The expression used above is jessi a stâ, meaning to live, to dwell, to reside. More examples of this:

a son a stâ in campagne
they live in the country

trê agns indaûr o jeri a stâ in Spagne
three years ago I was living in Spain

At this point, you might be interested in learning the Friulian names of countries in the contemporary world. I shall begin here with the European sphere. In Friulian, most country names are used with the definite article. Many names below are feminine and begin with a vowel; the definite article la can contract or not when the following noun begins with a vowel: la Austrie, l’Austrie. I have avoided contracting in the list below so that you can be sure of the gender of the name. If there is no definite article shown, the name is used without it. You will find examples of use after the list. (Update [2018.08.25]: In the notes for Gjenesi 16:8, you will find the Friulian names of countries in America.)

la Europe (Europe)

la Albanie (Albania), Andore (Andorra), la Austrie (Austria), la Belgjiche (Belgium), la Bielorussie (Belorussia), la Bosgne-Erzegovine (Bosnia-Herzegovina), la Bulgarie (Bulgaria), Cipri (Cyprus), il Cosôf (Kosovo), la Cravuazie (Croatia), la Danimarcje (Denmark), la Estonie (Estonia), la Finlande (Finland), la France (France), la Gjermanie (Germany), la Grecie (Greece), la Irlande (Ireland), la Islande (Iceland), la Italie (Italy), la Letonie (Latvia), il Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein), la Lituanie (Lithuania), il Lussemburc (Luxembourg), la Macedonie (Macedonia), Malte (Malta), la Moldavie (Moldavia), Monaco (Monaco), il Montneri (Montenegro), la Norvegje (Norway), la Ongjarie (Hungary), i Paîs Bas (Netherlands), la Polonie (Poland), il Portugal (Portugal),  il Ream Unît (United Kingdom),  la Republiche Ceche (Czech Republic), la Romanie (Romania), la Russie (Russia), Sant Marin (San Marino), la Serbie (Serbia), la Slovachie (Slovakia), la Slovenie (Slovenia), la Spagne (Spain), la Svezie (Sweden), la Svuizare (Switzerland), la Ucraine (Ukraine), il Vatican (Vatican).

Also: la Catalogne (Catalonia), il Friûl-Vignesie Julie (Friuli-Venezia Giulia), il Gales (Wales), la Irlande dal Nord (Northern Ireland), la Ingletiere (England), il Paîs Basc (Basque Country), la Scozie (Scotland).

Examples of use:

la Cravuazie e je un paîs european
Croatia is a European country

il Lussemburc al è un piçul stât
Luxembourg is a small state

la Albanie e je un paîs de Europe
l’Albanie e je un paîs da l’Europe
Albania is a country of Europe

in France, in Spagne, in Slovenie
in France, in Spain, in Slovenie

in Irlande, in Italie, in Ongjarie
in Ireland, in Italy, in Hungary

in Vatican, in Lussemburc, in Portugal
in the Vatican, in Luxembourg, in Portugal

de France, de Spagne, de Slovenie
from France, from Spain, from Slovenie

de Irlande, de Italie, de Ongjarie
da l’Irlande, da l’Italie, da l’Ongjarie
from Ireland, from Italy, from Hungary

dal Vatican, dal Lussemburc, dal Portugal
from the Vatican, from Luxembourg, from Portugal

tal Ream Unît
dal Ream Unît

in the United Kingdom
from the United Kingdom

tai Paîs Bas
dai Paîs Bas

in the Netherlands
from the Netherlands

Monaco al è un principât
Monaco is a principality

a Monaco, di Malte
in Monaco, from Malta

Verset 8

Now that you know the Friulian la barufe (argument), know that you can also use the verb barufâ (to argue). In this verse, however, you do not find the verb barufâ but cavilâ, also meaning to argue, to quibble. A few examples:

al cavile su ogni robe
he quibbles about everything little thing

lui e jê a àn barufât dute la gnot
he and she argued all night

From the text:

no vin di cavilâ jo e te
you and I must not argue
(literally, we must not argue, I and you)

In the above, you will recognise the expression vê di, meaning to have to, must. O vin is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê.

o vin di barufâ
we must argue

no vin di barufâ
we must not argue

In this verse, you encounter for the first time the word nancje. It means nor, neither. You read:

e nancje i miei pastôrs cui tiei
nor my herdsmen with yours

A few supplementary examples of nancje:

— vâstu?
— no, e tu?
— nancje jo
— are you going?
— no, and you?
— neither am I

se no tu i vâs tu, no i voi nancje jo
if you are not going there, then I am not going there either
(i translates as there and goes before the verb)

Above, you reviewed that o vin (we have) is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. In the remainder of the verse now, you find o sin (we are), which is the same person and tense, but of the verb jessi.

che nô o sin fradis
for we are brothers

Verset 9

Devant di te means before you, in front of you.

Dividìnsi (let us separate ourselves) is the first-person plural imperative form of the reflexive verb dividisi.

dividìn! let us separate (something)!
dividìnsi! let us separate ourselves!

In this verse, you learn the Friulian for to go right and to go left:

lâ a drete
to go right
lâ a çampe
to go left

se tu tu vâs a çampe
if you go left

jo o larai a drete
I shall go right

se tu impen tu vûs lâ a drete
if you instead want to go right

jo o tignarai la çampe
I shall keep (to) the left

O larai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb lâ. In the chart below, you will find the simple future conjugation of this verb. O tignarai is the same person and tense, but of the verb tignî (to keep). Below the conjugation chart, you will find more examples of la drete and la çampe.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o larai
laraio?
tu
tu larâs
larâstu?
lui
al larà
laraial?

e larà
laraie?

o larìn
larìno?
vualtris
o larês
larêso?
lôr
a laran
larano?

Below are more examples of la drete (or la diestre) and la çampe:

al scrîf cu la çampe
he writes with his left hand
al scrîf cu la diestre
he writes with his right hand
(scrivi, to write)

voltâ a man çampe
to turn to the left

la strade e va a man drete
the street goes to the left

un partît di diestre
a right-wing party
un partît di çampe
a left-wing party
(la politiche, politics)

tignî la diestre
to keep to the right

Verset 10

You find the expression alçâ i vôi, meaning to lift one’s eyes; that is, to look up.

La concje, which you have met before, is a valley or basin. Other more common words for valley are la valade, la val, il cjanâl. In the text, you find the noun concje used in reference to Jordan, which is given here in Friulian as il Gjordan (it can also be expressed as il Jordan).

The verb bagnâ means to wet, to soak; you read that the concje was bagnade fûr par fûr. You will perhaps remember that fûr par fûr means through and through.

Splantâ means to destroy.

il Signôr al splante Sodome e Gomore
the Lord destroys Sodom and Gomorrah

il Signôr al splantà Sodome e Gomore
the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

Neither of the above, however, is what you find in the text; what you find is:

chest prime che il Signôr al splantàs Sodome e Gomore
this (was) before the Lord destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah

Prime che (before) is followed by the subjunctive.

al splante
he destroys
prime che al splanti
before he destroys

al splantà
he destroyed
prime che al splantàs
before he destroyed

In prime che al splanti, you find the coniuntîf presint, where it is question of present time; in prime che al splantàs, you find the coniuntîf imperfet, where it is question of past time. More examples of this:

al lavore
he works
prime che al lavori
before he works
al lavorà
he worked
prime che al lavoràs
before he worked

al fevele
he speaks
prime che al feveli
before he speaks
al fevelà
he spoke
prime che al fevelàs
before he spoke

al è
it is
prime che al sedi
before it is
al fo
it was
prime che al fos
before it was

Fin dongje means until, as far as.

fin dongje Zoar
until Zoar

Verset 11

You should be able to make out the meaning of this entire verse. A few notes nonetheless:

al tignì par sè
he kept for himself
(that is, he took, he chose for himself)

spostâsi a soreli jevât
to move east, to go east
(literally, to displace oneself to the east)

Verset 12

The only new usage here is la plane, meaning plain.

tes citâts de plane
in the cities of the plain

You will recall that sistemâsi means to set oneself up, to settle. Fint a can translate as far as, until; you can understand it as meaning towards here.

al plantà lis sôs tendis fint a Sodome
he pitched his tents towards Sodom

Verset 13

Review the meaning of some of the usages found in this verse:

fûr di strade (Gjenesi 6:12)
corrupt, wicked

The Friulian for street, way is la strade. The expression fûr di strade, then, means off the way; that is, wicked.

robatis (Gjenesi 6:5)
evil, wicked things

fâ robatis
to do evil, wicked things

Une robate (bad thing) derives from la robe (thing).

The expression dal dut means entirely, completely.

la int e jere dal dut fûr di strade
the people were entirely wicked

Cuintri di means against. Fâ robatis cuintri dal Signôr, then, translates as to do evil things against the Lord, to commit sinful acts against the Lord.

You read that the evil things were di no crodi. The verb crodi means to believe; describing something as di no crodi means that it cannot be believed (in this case, because of the great wickedness of it).

fâ robatis di no crodi
to do unbelievably wicked things
to commit unbelievably sinful acts

Verset 14

In verse 10, you found prime che (before). In the current verse, you find dopo che (after). Prime che is followed by the subjunctive; dopo che is not.

dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui
after Lot had separated (himself) from him

Lot si è dividût di lui
Lot separated from him
Lot si jere dividût di lui
Lot had separated from him
dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui
after Lot had separated from him

Alce is the second-person singular imperative of the verb alçâ. The expression cjalâsi dulintor means to look around oneself. Cjaliti is the second-person singular imperative of cjalâsi.

alce i vôi
lift your eyes
look up

di li che tu sês
from there where you are
from where you are

cjaliti dulintor
look around yourself
look round about yourself

The second-person singular imperative of the verb cjalâ is cjale. The e ending changes to i when ti is added in reflexive form: cjaliti.

God tells Abram to look in the four directions about himself: par in sù (upwards; that is, to the north), par in jù (downwards; that is, to the south), de bande de jevade (to the east), de bande dal amont (to the west). La jevade (the rising) refers to the east; l’amont (the setting) refers to the west.

de bande di soreli jevât (Gjenesi 2:8)
de bande de jevade
to the east

de bande di soreli a mont
de bande dal amont
to the west

est al è la direzion viers la jevade dal soreli
east is the direction towards the rising of the sun

ovest al è la direzion viers l’amont dal soreli
west is the direction towards the setting of the sun

Verset 15

You have another example now of the expression rivâ a fâ, meaning to manage to do. More precisely, you find rivâ a viodi, meaning to manage to see.

dute la tiere che tu rivis a viodi
all the land that you manage to see
all the land that you are able to see

O darai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb dâ. You will find this verb conjugated below in the simple future for your reference.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç

Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o darai
daraio?
tu
tu darâs
darâstu?
lui
al darà
daraial?

e darà
daraie?

o darìn
darìno?
vualtris
o darês
darêso?
lôr
a daran
darano?

In the text, you read:

jo te darai
I shall give it to you

Te is a contraction of ti + le, where le stands in for la tiere.

jo ti + le darai
= jo te darai

Par simpri means forever.

jo te darai a ti a chei dopo di te par simpri
I shall give it to you and to those after you forever

The sense of “those after you” (chei dopo di te) is your offspring.

Verset 16

There are a number of new usages in this verse, including: rivâ adore di fâ (to manage to do), il grignel (grain), contâ (to count). The plural of grignel is grignei.

You will remember that verb cressi means to grow, to increase; fâ cressi, then, means to make grow, to cause to increase.

You first encountered il pulvin (dust) in Gjenesi 2:19.

There are two impersonal usages here:

cuant che si rivarà adore di
when one will manage to

si contarà ancje la tô gjernazie
one will also count your offspring
your offspring will also be counted

The sense of this verse is that because it is impossible to count the grains of dust on earth, so too shall it be impossible to count Abram’s descendants.

Verset 17

You now encounter the verb jevâ for the first time. This verb — perhaps you will have deduced it — means to lift, to raise. You will recognise its relation to soreli jevât and la jevade, previously encountered.

The verb jevâ can be used as part of the expression jevâ sù, meaning to lift up. Example:

jevâ sù une scjatule
to lift up a box

The reflexive jevâsi sù, then, means to lift oneself up; that is, to get up, to arise.

jeviti sù
arise, get up

The second-person singular imperative of jevâ is jeve. The same of the reflexive jevâsi, then, is jeviti. In the same way that the e of the imperative cjale becomes i in cjaliti (see verse 14 above), the e of jeve becomes i in jeviti.

The expression girâ ator means to go about, to move about. The second-person singular imperative of girâ is gire.

gire ator par ca e par là
go about here and there
(that is, go about all over the place)

Verset 18

Other than the placenames Mamre (Mamre) and Ebron (Hebron), there are no new usages in this verse; a few reminders nonetheless: al lè is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ; the Friulian for oak tree is il rôl.

al lè a sistemâsi
he went to settle

dongje dal rôl di Mamre, che al è a Ebron
near the oak of Mamre, which is in Hebron

You also find in this verse the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb fâ, which is al fasè. Below, you will find the verb conjugated in the simple past for your reference.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fasei
faserio?
tu
tu faseris
faseristu?
lui
al fasè
faserial?

e fasè
faserie?

o faserin
faserino?
vualtris
o faseris
faseriso?
lôr
a faserin
faserino?