Friulian language series: Gjenesi 13, Abram e Lot si dividin

The thirteenth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: Abram e Lot si dividin (Abram and Lot separate); promessis a Abram (promises to Abram). The Friulian for promise is the feminine promesse; to make a promise, then, is fâ une promesse.

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Read Gjenesi 13

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: la femine (wife), la robe (possessions, substance), tornâ (to return, to come [go] back), (to have), un grumon di (a great deal of), la bestie (beast), l’arint (silver), l’aur (gold), spostâ (to move, to to displace), simpri (always, continually), il campament (camp), rivâ (to arrive, to come), fint a (as far as), propit (right, squarely), il lûc (place, site), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent), la volte (time), fra (between), ancjemò prime (at first), un altâr (altar), preâ (to pray), il non (name), dutun cun (along with), ancje (also, too), il nemâl (animal), piçul (small, little), grant (great, large, big), une vore di (a great deal of), la tende (tent), la tiere (land, earth), masse (too, excessively), sistemâsi (to settle), ducj i doi (both of them), podê (may, can, to be able), stâ dutun (to stay together).

Verse 1: Abram (Abram), cu la sô femine (with his wife) e dute la sô robe (and all his possessions), dutun cun Lot (along with Lot) al tornà dal Egjit tal Negheb (went back into the Negev from Egypt).

Verse 2: Abram al veve un grumon (Abram had [was having] a great deal) di bestiis, di arint e di aur (of beasts, silver and gold). Related language: la medaie di aur (gold medal); la medaie di arint (silver medal); la medaie di bronç (bronze medal); al à vinçude la medaie di arint (he won the silver medal; vinci, to win); l’aur al è un metal (gold is a metal); une monede di aur (a gold coin); cjavei colôr arint (silver-coloured hair).

Verses 3-4: Spostant simpri il campament (continually moving the camp), dal Negheb al rivà fint a Betel (from the Negev he came to Bethel), propit tal lûc che al veve plantade la tende la prime volte (to the very place where had pitched his tent the first time), fra Betel e Ai (between Bethel and Ai), là che al veve fat ancjemò prime un altâr (where he had at first built [made] an altar), e li Abram al preà il non dal Signôr (and there Abram invoked [prayed] the name of the Lord). Spostant simpri il campament: continually moving the camp; that is, setting up and breaking camp in journey onwards.

Verse 5: Lot, che al jere dutun cun Abram (Lot, who was with Abram [who was along with Abram]), al veve ancje lui nemâi piçui e grancj (also had small and large livestock [animals]) e ancje une vore di tendis (as well as a great many tents). Nemâi piçui e grancj: small and large livestock (animals); that is, flocks and herds; sheep and oxen. Consider these plural formations: il nemâl piçûl; i nemâi piçui (small animal; small animals); il nemâl grant; i nemâi grancj (large animal; large animals). Supplementary examples of une vore di (a lot of, a great deal of): une vore di cjasis (a lot of houses, many houses); une vore di stradis (a lot of roads, many roads); une vore di oms (a lot of men, many men). Une vore (without di) before an adjective means very: une vore piçul (very small); une vore grant (very great), une vore innomenât (very renowned). Yet more examples: al jere une vore strac (he was very tired); a jerin une vore fuarts (they were very strong); o ai imparât une vore (I have learnt a lot).

Verse 6: La tiere e jere masse piçule (the land was too limited [too small]) par sistemâsi ducj i doi (that both might settle there [for both to settle]): a vevin masse robe (they had [were having] too many possessions) par podê stâ dutun (to be able to stay together).

Verset 7

Vocabulary: nassi (to arise, to erupt), la barufe (quarrel, argument), fra (between), il pastôr (herdsman), la mandrie (herd, flock), in chê volte (at that time), jessi a stâ (to dwell), aventi (there), il cananeu (Canaanite), il perissit (Perizzite).

The verb nassi is the Friulian for to be born; for instance, al è nassût un frut means a boy was born. In the text of this verse, nassi instead takes on the sense of to arise, to erupt: e nassè une barufe (a quarrel erupted) fra i pastôrs des mandriis di Abram (between the herdsmen of Abram [keepers (pastors) of the herds of Abram]) e chei des mandriis di Lot (and those of Lot [and those of the herds of Lot]); in chê volte (at that time) a jerin a stâ aventi i cananeus e i perissits (the Canaanites and Perizzites dwelt [were dwelling] there). Jessi a stâ means to dwell, to reside; supplementary examples: a son a stâ in campagne (they live in the country); o soi a stâ in centri (I live in the city centre); trê agns indaûr o jeri a stâ in Spagne (three years ago I was living in Spain).

At this point, you might be interested in learning the Friulian names of countries of the contemporary world. Following are those of Europe. In Friulian, most country names are used with the definite article. Many names below are feminine and begin with a vowel; the definite article la can contract or not when the following noun begins with a vowel: la Austrie, l’Austrie. I have avoided contracting in the list below that you might be sure of the gender of the country name. If no definite article is shown, the name is used without it. You will find examples of use after the list. In the notes for Gjenesi 16:8, you will find the Friulian names of countries in America.

la Europe (Europe)

la Albanie (Albania), Andore (Andorra), la Austrie (Austria), la Belgjiche (Belgium), la Bielorussie (Belorussia), la Bosgne-Erzegovine (Bosnia-Herzegovina), la Bulgarie (Bulgaria), Cipri (Cyprus), il Cosôf (Kosovo), la Cravuazie (Croatia), la Danimarcje (Denmark), la Estonie (Estonia), la Finlande (Finland), la France (France), la Gjermanie (Germany), la Grecie (Greece), la Irlande (Ireland), la Islande (Iceland), la Italie (Italy), la Letonie (Latvia), il Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein), la Lituanie (Lithuania), il Lussemburc (Luxembourg), la Macedonie (Macedonia), Malte (Malta), la Moldavie (Moldavia), Monaco (Monaco), il Montneri (Montenegro), la Norvegje (Norway), la Ongjarie (Hungary), i Paîs Bas (Netherlands), la Polonie (Poland), il Portugal (Portugal),  il Ream Unît (United Kingdom),  la Republiche Ceche (Czech Republic), la Romanie (Romania), la Russie (Russia), Sant Marin (San Marino), la Serbie (Serbia), la Slovachie (Slovakia), la Slovenie (Slovenia), la Spagne (Spain), la Svezie (Sweden), la Svuizare (Switzerland), la Ucraine (Ukraine), il Vatican (Vatican).

Also: la Catalogne (Catalonia), il Friûl Vignesie Julie (Friuli Venezia Giulia), il Gales (Wales), la Irlande dal Nord (Northern Ireland), la Ingletiere (England), il Paîs Basc (Basque Country), la Scozie (Scotland).

Examples of use: la Cravuazie e je un paîs european (Croatia is a European country); il Lussemburc al è un piçul stât (Luxembourg is a small state); la Albanie e je un paîs de Europe (da l’Europe) (Albania is a country of Europe); in France; in Spagne; in Slovenie (in France; in Spain; in Slovenia); in Irlande; in Italie; in Ongjarie (in Ireland; in Italy; in Hungary); in Vatican; in Lussemburc; in Portugal (in the Vatican; in Luxembourg; in Portugal); de France; de Spagne; de Slovenie (from France; from Spain; from Slovenia); de Irlande (da l’Irlande); de Italie (da l’Italie); de Ongjarie (da l’Ongjarie) (from Ireland; from Italy; from Hungary); dal Vatican, dal Lussemburc, dal Portugal (from the Vatican; from Luxembourg; from Portugal); tal Ream Unît; dal Ream Unît (in the United Kingdom; from the United Kingdom); tai Paîs Bas; dai Paîs Bas (in the Netherlands; from the Netherlands); Monaco al è un principât (Monaco is a principality); a Monaco; di Malte (in Monaco; from Malta).

Versets 8-13

Vocabulary: alore (then, so), (to say), vê di (must, to have to), cavilâ (to cavil, to quibble), nancje (not even), il pastôr (herdsman), il fradi (brother), devant di (before, in front of), la tiere (land), dividi (to divide, to separate), dividisi (to part ways, to split up), lâ a çampe (to go left), lâ a drete (to go right), impen (instead), volê (to want), tignî la çampe (to keep to the left), alçâ (to raise, to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), dulintor (round about, surrounding), la concje (basin, valley), bagnâ (to water), fûr par fûr (through and through), prime che (before), splantâ (to destroy), il zardin (garden), fin dongje (all the way up to), tignî par sè (to keep for oneself), spostâsi (to move, to relocate), a soreli jevât (to the east), e cussì (and so), un dal altri (from one another), sistemâsi (to settle), la citât (city, town), la plane (plain), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent), fint a (as far as), la int (people, men), dal dut (altogether, entirely), la strade (way, road), fûr di strade (wicked), (to do, to make), cuintri di (against), la robate (wicked thing, wretched act), crodi (to believe).

Verse 8: Alore Abram i disè a Lot (Abram then said to Lot): no vin di cavilâ jo e te (let us not quibble with one another [we have not to cavil I and you]) e nancje i miei pastôrs cui tiei (nor my herdsmen with yours), che nô o sin fradis (for we are brethren).

Verse 9: No âstu devant di te dute la tiere?: have you not all the land before you? Dividìnsi: let us part ways (let us separate ourselves). Abram also says: se tu tu vâs a çampe (if you will go to the left), jo o larai a drete (I will go to the right); se tu impen tu vûs lâ a drete (whereas if you will go [want to go] to the right), jo o tignarai la çampe (I will keep to the left). The feminine drete (or diestre) is the Friulian for right; the feminine çampe means left. Supplementary examples: al scrîf cu la çampe (he writes with his left hand); al scrîf cu la diestre (he writes with his right hand); voltâ a man çampe (to turn to the left); la strade e va a man drete (the road goes to the left); un partît di diestre (a right-wing party); un partît di çampe (a left-wing party); tignî la diestre (to keep to the right). O larai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb (to go); the simple future conjugation of this verb is presented below. O tignarai is in the same person and tense as o larai, but of the verb tignî (to keep).

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o larai
tu larâs
al larà

e larà

o larìn
o larês
a laran

Verse 10: Lot al alçà i vôi (Lot lifted his eyes) e al viodè dulintor (and saw round about) dute la concje dal Gjordan (the entire valley of the Jordan), bagnade fûr par fûr (watered through and through)chest prime che il Signôr al splantàs Sodome e Gomore (this, before the Lord destroyed [was destroying] Sodom and Gomorrah)come il zardin dal Signôr (like the garden of the Lord), come la tiere dal Egjit fin dongje Zoar (like the land of Egypt all the way up to Zoar). Prime che (before) is followed by the subjunctive; consider: al splante; prime che al splanti (he destroys; before he destroys); al splantave; prime che al splantàs (he was destroying; before he was destroying). In prime che al splanti, you find the coniuntîf presint, where it is question of present time; in prime che al splantàs, you find the coniuntîf imperfet, where it is question of past time. Another example: al lavore; prime che al lavori (he works; before he works); al lavorave; prime che al lavoràs (he was working; before he was working).

Verse 11: Lot al tignì par sè (Lot took [kept] for himself) dute la concje dal Gjordan (all the valley of the Jordan) e si spostà a soreli jevât (and relocated to the east), e cussì si dividerin un dal altri (and so they parted ways [and so they separated themselves from one another]).

Verse 12: Abram si sistemà te tiere di Canaan (Abram settled in the land of Canaan) e Lot si sistemà tes citâts de plane (and Lot settled in the cities of the plain); al plantà lis sôs tendis fint a Sodome (he pitched his tents as far as Sodom).

Verse 13: La int di Sodome (the men of Sodom) e jere dal dut fûr di strade (were altogether wicked [forth from {the} way]) e a faseve cuintri dal Signôr robatis di no crodi (and were committing [were doing] unbelievably wretched acts against the Lord). Rather than the feminine, third-person singular e faseve (which agrees with the feminine singular int), you find the variant a faseve, which has the advantage here of avoiding the doubling of e (that is, e e faseve, where the first e means and). That said, e e remains entirely possible in Friulian and can also be found in this Bible.

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: (to say), dopo (after), dividi (to divide, to separate), dividisi (to part ways, to split up), alçâ (to raise, to lift), il voli (eye), cjalâ (to look), dulintor (round about), par in sù (upwards, to the north), par in jù (downwards, to the south), de bande de jevade (to the east), de bande dal amont (to the west), la tiere (land, earth), rivâ a (to be able to, to manage to), viodi (to see), (to give), par simpri (for ever), (to make, to do), cressi (to grow, to increase), la gjernazie (offspring), il pulvin (dust), rivâ adore di (to be able to, to manage to), contâ (to count), il grignel (speck, grain), jevâsi sù (to arise, to get up), girâ ator (to move about, to walk about), par ca e par là (here and there), la tende (tent), (to go), sistemâsi (to settle), dongje di (by, alongside), il rôl (oak tree), un altâr (altar).

Verse 14: Il Signôr i disè a Abram, dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui (the Lord said to Abram, after Lot had gone his way [separated himself from him]): alce i vôi (lift your eyes), e, di li che tu sês (and, from where you are), cjaliti dulintor (look about you): par in sù (northwards [upwards]), par in jù (southwards [downwards]), de bande de jevade e dal amont (eastwards and westwards).

Verse 15: Dute la tiere che tu rivis a viodi (all the land that you are able to see), jo te darai a ti (I will give it to you) e a chei dopo di te (and to those after you) par simpri (for ever). Te is a contraction of ti + le (unto you + it), where le stands in for the feminine tiere. O darai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of dâ; this verb is conjugated below in the simple future for your reference.

Futûr sempliç

Simple future

o darai
tu darâs
al darà

e darà

o darìn
o darês
a daran

Verse 16: O fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie (I will increase [make increase] your offspring) come il pulvin de tiere (like the dust of the earth); cuant che si rivarà adore di contâ i grignei di pulvin de tiere (if one is able [will be able] to count the specks of dust of the earth), alore si contarà ancje la tô gjernazie (so too shall your offspring be counted).

Verse 17: Jeviti sù (arise), gire ator (walk about) par ca e par là (here and there), che cheste tiere (for this land) te darai dute a ti (I will give it all to you).

Verse 18: Abram, cu lis sôs tendis (Abram, with his tents), al lè a sistemâsi (went to settle) dongje dal rôl di Mamre (by the oak of Mamre), che al è a Ebron (which is in Hebron), e li i fasè un altâr al Signôr (and there he built [made] an altar to the Lord). Al fasè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of fâ; this verb is conjugated below in the simple past for your reference.

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o fasei
tu faseris
al fasè

e fasè

o faserin
o faseris
a faserin

See also: Friulian verb conjugation charts.