Friulian language series: Gjenesi 13, Abram e Lot si dividin

The thirteenth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: Abram e Lot si dividin (Abram and Lot divide themselves); promessis a Abram (promises to Abram). The Friulian for promise is the feminine promesse.

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Read Gjenesi 13

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Versets 1-6

Vocabulary: la femine (wife), la robe (matter), tornâ (to return), dutun cun (together with), (to have), un grumon di (many), la bestie (beast), l’arint (silver), l’aur (gold), spostâ (to move), simpri (ever), il campament (encampment), rivâ (to arrive), fint a (so far as), propit (squarely), il lûc (place), plantâ (to plant), la tende (tent), prin (first), une volte (one time), fra (between), (to make), ancjemò (yet), prime (before), un altâr (altar), preâ (to pray), il non (name), ancje (too, as well as), il nemâl (animal), piçul (little), grant (great), une vore di (many), la tende (tent), la tiere (land), masse (too {much}), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), ducj i doi (both), podê (to be able), stâ dutun (to dwell together).

Verse 1: Abram (Abram), cu la sô femine (with his wife) e dute la sô robe (and all his matter), dutun cun Lot (together with Lot) al tornà dal Egjit tal Negheb (returned from Egypt into the Negev).

Verse 2: Abram al veve un grumon di bestiis, di arint e di aur: Abram had many beasts, silver and gold. — Related language, for information: la medaie di aur (gold medal); la medaie di arint (silver medal); la medaie di bronç (bronze medal); al à vinçude la medaie di arint (he won the silver medal); l’aur al è un metal (gold is a metal); une monede di aur (a gold coin); cjavei colôr arint (silver-coloured hair). In these supplementary examples, the spelling medaie is the standardised one; the spelling medae also exists.

Verses 3-4: Spostant simpri il campament (ever moving the encampment), dal Negheb al rivà fint a Betel (from the Negev did he arrive so far as Bethel), propit tal lûc che al veve plantade la tende la prime volte (squarely into the place where he had planted his tent the first time), fra Betel e Ai (between Bethel and Ai), là che al veve fat ancjemò prime un altâr (where he had made yet before an altar), e li Abram al preà il non dal Signôr (and there did Abram pray the name of the Lord).

Verse 5: Lot, che al jere dutun cun Abram (Lot, who was together with Abram), al veve ancje lui nemâi piçui e grancj (he, too, had animals little and great) e ancje une vore di tendis (as well as many tents). — Consider these plural formations: il nemâl piçûl; i nemâi piçui (little animal; little animals); il nemâl grant; i nemâi grancj (great animal; great animals). Supplementary examples of une vore di (many): une vore di cjasis (many houses); une vore di feminis (many women); une vore di oms (many men). Une vore (without di) before an adjective means very: une vore piçul (very little); une vore grant (very great), une vore innomenât (very renowned). Yet more examples: al jere une vore strac (he was very tired); a jerin une vore fuarts (they were very mighty); o ai imparât une vore (I have learnt much).

Verse 6: La tiere e jere masse piçule (the land was too little) par sistemâsi ducj i doi (for both to settle themselves): a vevin masse robe (they had too much matter) par podê stâ dutun (to be able to dwell together).

Verset 7

E nassè une barufe (a row was born) fra i pastôrs des mandriis di Abram (between the pastors of the stocks of Abram) e chei des mandriis di Lot (and those of the stocks of Lot); in chê volte a jerin a stâ aventi i cananeus e i perissits (in that time the Canaanites and Perizzites were dwelling there).

Vocabulary: nassi (to be born), la barufe (row), fra (between), il pastôr (pastor), lis mandriis (stocks), une volte (one time), jessi a stâ (to dwell), aventi (there), il cananeu (Canaanite), il perissit (Perizzite).

Jessi a stâ means to dwell. Supplementary examples: a son a stâ in campagne (they dwell in the open country); o soi a stâ in centri (I dwell in the city centre); trê agns indaûr o jeri a stâ in Spagne (three years ago I was dwelling in Spain).

The reader may wish to learn the Friulian names of countries of the contemporary world; following are those of Europe, for reference. In Friulian, most country names are employed with the definite article. Many names below are feminine and begin with a vowel; the definite article la may contract or not when the following noun begins with a vowel: la Austrie, l’Austrie. I have avoided contracting in the list below that the reader may be certain of gender. If no definite article is shown, the name is used without it. Examples of use are found after the list. In the notes at Gjenesi 16:7-8, the Friulian names of countries in America are found.

la Europe (Europe)

la Albanie (Albania), Andore (Andorra), la Austrie (Austria), la Belgjiche (Belgium), la Bielorussie (Belorussia), la Bosgne-Erzegovine (Bosnia-Herzegovina), la Bulgarie (Bulgaria), Cipri (Cyprus), il Cosôf (Kosovo), la Cravuazie (Croatia), la Danimarcje (Denmark), la Estonie (Estonia), la Finlande (Finland), la France (France), la Gjermanie (Germany), la Grecie (Greece), la Irlande (Ireland), la Islande (Iceland), la Italie (Italy), la Letonie (Latvia), il Liechtenstein (Liechtenstein), la Lituanie (Lithuania), il Lussemburc (Luxembourg), la Macedonie (Macedonia), Malte (Malta), la Moldavie (Moldavia), Monaco (Monaco), il Montneri (Montenegro), la Norvegje (Norway), la Ongjarie (Hungary), i Paîs Bas (Netherlands), la Polonie (Poland), il Portugal (Portugal), il Ream Unît (United Kingdom), la Republiche Ceche (Czech Republic), la Romanie (Romania), la Russie (Russia), Sant Marin (San Marino), la Serbie (Serbia), la Slovachie (Slovakia), la Slovenie (Slovenia), la Spagne (Spain), la Svezie (Sweden), la Svuizare (Switzerland), la Ucraine (Ukraine), il Vatican (Vatican).

Also: la Catalogne (Catalonia), il Friûl Vignesie Julie (Friuli Venezia Giulia), il Gales (Wales), la Irlande dal Nord (Northern Ireland), la Ingletiere (England), il Paîs Basc (Basque Country), la Scozie (Scotland).

Examples of use: la Cravuazie e je un paîs european (Croatia is a European country); il Lussemburc al è un piçul stât (Luxembourg is a little state); la Albanie e je un paîs de Europe (da l’Europe) (Albania is a country of Europe); in France; in Spagne; in Slovenie (in France; in Spain; in Slovenia); in Irlande; in Italie; in Ongjarie (in Ireland; in Italy; in Hungary); in Vatican; in Lussemburc; in Portugal (in the Vatican; in Luxembourg; in Portugal); de France; de Spagne; de Slovenie (from France; from Spain; from Slovenia); de Irlande (da l’Irlande); de Italie (da l’Italie); de Ongjarie (da l’Ongjarie) (from Ireland; from Italy; from Hungary); dal Vatican, dal Lussemburc, dal Portugal (from the Vatican; from Luxembourg; from Portugal); tal Ream Unît; dal Ream Unît (in the United Kingdom; from the United Kingdom); tai Paîs Bas; dai Paîs Bas (in the Netherlands; from the Netherlands); Monaco al è un principât (Monaco is a principality); a Monaco; di Malte (in Monaco; from Malta).

Versets 8-13

Vocabulary: alore (then), (to say), vê di (to have to), cavilâ (to cavil), e nancje (nor), il pastôr (pastor), il fradi (brother), devant di (before), la tiere (land), dividisi (to divide oneself), (to go), la çampe (left), la drete (right), impen (instead), volê (to will), tignî (to keep), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), viodi (to see), dulintor (all round), la concje (basin), bagnâ (to wet), fûr par fûr (through and through), prime che (before), splantâ (to unplant), il zardin (garden), fin dongje (so far as alongside), spostâsi (to move oneself), a soreli jevât (to the east), e cussì (and so), altri (other), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), la citât (city), la plane (plain), plantâ (to plant), la tende (tent), fint a (so far as), la int (people), dal dut (altogether), la strade (way), fûr di strade (off the way), (to do), cuintri di (against), la robate (wicked matter), crodi (to believe).

Verse 8: Alore Abram i disè a Lot (then Abram said to Lot): no vin di cavilâ jo e te (we have not to cavil, I and thou) e nancje i miei pastôrs cui tiei (nor my pastors with thine), che nô o sin fradis (for we are brethren).

Verse 9: No âstu devant di te (hast thou not before thee) dute la tiere? (all the land?). Dividìnsi: let us divide ourselves. Se tu tu vâs a çampe (if thou goest to the left), jo o larai a drete (I will go to the right); se tu impen tu vûs lâ a drete (if thou instead wilt go to the right), jo o tignarai la çampe (I will keep left). — The feminine noun drete (also diestre, gjestre) identifies the right-hand side, whereas the feminine çampe identifies the left. Supplementary examples: al scrîf cu la çampe (he writes with his left hand [with the left]); al scrîf cu la diestre (he writes with his right hand [with the right]); voltâ a man çampe (to turn left [to left hand]); la strade e va a man drete (the road goes right [to right hand]); un partît di diestre (a right-wing party); un partît di çampe (a left-wing party); tignî la diestre (to keep right). O larai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb (to go); the simple future conjugation of this verb is presented below. O tignarai is in the same person and tense as o larai, but of the verb tignî (to keep).

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o larai
laraio?
tu
tu larâs
larâstu?
lui
al larà
laraial?

e larà
laraie?

o larìn
larìno?
vualtris
o larês
larêso?
lôr
a laran
larano?

Verse 10: Lot al alçà i vôi (Lot lifted his eyes) e al viodè dulintor (and saw all round) dute la concje dal Gjordan (the entire basin of the Jordan), bagnade fûr par fûr (wetted through and through)chest prime che il Signôr al splantàs* Sodome e Gomore (this before the Lord unplanted Sodom and Gomorrah)come il zardin dal Signôr (like the garden of the Lord), come la tiere dal Egjit fin dongje Zoar (like the land of Egypt so far as alongside Zoar). — *The Lord’s unplanting of Sodom and Gomorrah was his destruction of it; I have rendered splantâ as to unplant, rather than, say, as to destroy, for it is composed of s + plantâ (un + plant); furthermore, it may be the case that splantâ was employed given that mention of the garden of the Lord is made in this verse, which, as we read in Gjenesi 2:8, was planted by the Lord: in this way, God planted the garden and unplanted Sodom and Gomorrah, and I would not that this nuance of language be lost in translation. My rendering of splantâ as to unplant in the sense of to destroy continues wherever it is used in the chapters ahead.

Verses 11-12: Lot al tignì par sè (Lot kept for himself) dute la concje dal Gjordan (all the basin of the Jordan) e si spostà a soreli jevât (and moved himself to the east), e cussì si dividerin un dal altri (and so they divided themselves the one from the other): Abram si sistemà te tiere di Canaan (Abram settled himself in the land of Canaan) e Lot si sistemà tes citâts de plane (and Lot settled himself in the cities of the plain); al plantà lis sôs tendis fint a Sodome (he planted his tents so far as Sodom).

Verse 13: La int di Sodome (the people of Sodom) e jere dal dut *fûr di strade* (were altogether off the way) +e a faseve+ cuintri dal Signôr robatis di no crodi (and would do unbelievably wicked matters against the Lord). — *In regard to morality, to be fûr di strade (off the way) is to be wicked. +Rather than the feminine, third-person singular e faseve (which agrees with the feminine singular int), we find the variant a faseve, which, at least here, has the advantage of avoiding the doubling of e (as in e e faseve, where the first e means and). That said, e e faseve is not only possible but standard in Friulian, and the use of e e is also found in this Bible; for instance: chê e cjapà sù e e parturì Cain, from Gjenesi 4:1.

Versets 14-18

Vocabulary: (to say), dopo (after), dividisi (to divide oneself), alçâ (to lift), il voli (eye), cjalâ (to look), dulintor (all round), (up), (down), la bande (side), la jevade (arising), l’amont (setting), la tiere (land, earth), rivâ a (to be able to), viodi (to see), (to give), par simpri (for ever), (to make), cressi (to increase), la gjernazie (line), il pulvin (dust), rivâ adore di (to be able to), contâ (to count), il grignel (grain), jevâsi sù (to arise), girâ ator (to move about), par ca e par là (here and there), la tende (tent), (to go), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), dongje di (alongside), il rôl (oak), un altâr (altar).

Verse 14: Il Signôr i disè a Abram (the Lord said to Abram), dopo che Lot si jere dividût di lui (after Lot had divided himself from him): alce i vôi e (lift thine eyes and), di li che tu sês (whence thou art), cjaliti dulintor (look all round thee): par in sù (to the north), par in jù (to the south), de bande de jevade e dal amont (towards the east and the west). — Taken literally, par in sù means upwards; par in jù means downwards; the feminine jevade refers to the arising of the sun; the masculine amont refers to the setting of the sun.

Verse 15: Dute la tiere che tu rivis a viodi (all the land which thou art able to see), *jo te darai a ti* (I will give it to thee) e a chei dopo di te par simpri (and to those after thee for ever). — *Te is a contraction of ti + le (unto thee + it), where le stands in for the feminine tiere. O darai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of dâ; this verb is conjugated below in the simple future for reference.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç

Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o darai
daraio?
tu
tu darâs
darâstu?
lui
al darà
daraial?

e darà
daraie?

o darìn
darìno?
vualtris
o darês
darêso?
lôr
a daran
darano?

Verse 16: O fasarai cressi la tô gjernazie (I will make thy line increase) come il pulvin de tiere (like the dust of the earth); cuant che si rivarà adore di contâ i grignei di pulvin de tiere (when one is [will be] able to count the grains of dust of the earth), alore si contarà ancje la tô gjernazie (then shall be counted also thy line).

Verse 17: Jeviti sù (arise), gire ator par ca e par là (move about here and there), che cheste tiere te darai dute a ti (for all this land will I give to thee).

Verse 18: Abram, cu lis sôs tendis (Abram, with his tents), al lè a sistemâsi (went to settle himself) dongje dal rôl di Mamre (alongside the oak of Mamre), che al è a Ebron (which is at Hebron), e li i fasè un altâr al Signôr (and there he made an altar to the Lord).Al fasè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of fâ; this verb is conjugated below in the simple past for reference.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fasei
faserio?
tu
tu faseris
faseristu?
lui
al fasè
faserial?

e fasè
faserie?

o faserin
faserino?
vualtris
o faseris
faseriso?
lôr
a faserin
faserino?

See also: Friulian verb conjugation tables.