Friulian language series: Gjenesi 12:10-20, tentazions in Egjit

Continue now your study of the Friulian language by examining verses 10-20 of the twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt). These verses take you to the end of the chapter. The two posts pertaining to chapter 12 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Read Gjenesi 12:10-20

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 12:10-20. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 10

The sense of la miserie in this verse is famine.

intant e capità la miserie
in the meantime a famine occurred

Ta chês tieris means in those lands. You have seen a number of examples now using ta before chest or chel and its variants:

ta chês tieris
ta chei timps (Gjenesi 6:4)
ta chest mont (Gjenesi 9:16)

The Friulian for Egypt is l’Egjit.

al lè in Egjit
he went to Egypt

The Friulian verb sistemâ means to arrange, to set up, to organise. The reflexive sistemâsi can be understood in this verse as meaning to set oneself up, in the sense of to stay.

par sistemâsi là jù
in order to set himself up down there
(that is, in order to stay down there)

In the above, là jù is the Friulian for down there (literally, there down). Below are related examples to learn:

là sù, up there
là jù, down there

al jere a stâ là sù
he lived up there

là sù in Polonie
là sù a Varsavie
up in Poland
up in Warsaw

là jù in Campanie
là jù a Napul
down in Campania
down in Naples

ca sù, up here
ca jù, down here

ca sù in Friûl
ca jù in Friûl
up here in Friuli
down here in Friuli

In this verse, you read that the famine was severe:

la miserie e jere masse nere
the famine was too severe

In the above, the adjective neri (found here accorded in its feminine form nere) literally means black, dark.

la peste nere
the Black Plague
the Great Plague

Verset 11

You encounter a new usage in this verse: the verb stâ followed by par conveys the sense of to be about to.

cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit
when he was about to enter Egypt

In the above, al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ. You will also remember that Friulian says to enter (into) something: jentrâ in. You first encountered this in jentrâ ta l’arcje (to enter [into] the ark), in Gjenesi 7.

jentrâ in Egjit
to enter Egypt
to go into Egypt

The text continues with cjale mo (look now). Cjale is the second-person singular, imperative form of the verb cjalâ.

Jo o sai is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb savê, which you have already seen before. You may wish to review the Friulian verb savê in its present indicative conjugation.

jo o sai
I know

che tu sês une biele femine
that you are a beautiful woman

Verset 12

The expression a pene che means as soon as.

a pene che i egjizians ti viodaran
as soon as the Egyptians will see you

An Egyptian is un egjizian.

You encounter a number of third-person plural futûr sempliç forms in this verse:

a viodaran, they will see
a disaran, they will say
a coparan, they will kill
a lassaran, they will leave

Take some time now to familiarise yourself with the futûr sempliç conjugation of the irregular verb (to say).

Futûr sempliç
Simple future

o disarai
tu disarâs
al disarà

e disarà

o disarìn
o disarês
a disaran

The expression lassâ in vite means to let live (literally, to leave in life); that is, to not kill.

mi coparan
they will kill me

e te ti lassaran in vite
and you, they will let you live

In the above, te is the stressed form of ti.

ti lassaran in vite
te ti lassaran in vite
they will let you live
you, they will let you live

Note that you would not use tu as the stressed form here because tu is a subject. In the above, the subject is not you, but i egjizians. You in the above is a direct object; as such, you use the direct object forms ti (unstressed, or atonic) and te (stressed, or tonic).

Verset 13

Tu podaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê.

tu podaressis
no tu podaressis
you would be able
you would not be able

no podaressistu?
would you not be able?

no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr?
would you not be able to say that you are my sister?

Look now at the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the present conditional.

Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

o fevelarès
tu fevelaressis
al fevelarès

e fevelarès

o fevelaressin
o fevelaressis
a fevelaressin

The Friulian verb tratâ means to treat.

mi trate come un cjan
he treats me like a dog

mi trate ben
in mût che me trati ben
he treats me well
so that he treats me well

In the above, you see that the expression in mût che is followed by the subjunctive.

mi tratin ben
in mût che mi tratin ben
they treat me well
so that they treat me well

The third-person plural, coniuntîf presint of the verb tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural, presint indicatîf. The same applies, for example, to the verb fevelâ, which, like tratâ, also ends in â in its infinitive form:

al fevele (present indicative)
al feveli (present subjunctive)

a fevelin (present indicative)
a fevelin (present subjunctive)

In fact, for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, it is only in the third-person singular that there is a difference between the presint indicatîf forms and those of the coniuntîf presint. Compare the following, this time using the verb amâ (to love):

o ami (present indicative)
o ami (present subjunctive)

tu amis (present indicative)
tu amis (present subjunctive)

al ame (present indicative)
al ami (present subjunctive)

e ame (present indicative)
e ami (present subjunctive)

o amìn (present indicative)
o amìn (present subjunctive)

o amais (present indicative)
o amais (present subjunctive)

a amin (present indicative)
a amin (present subjunctive)

Consider now the following: in mût che mi tratin ben ancje me. In ancje me, you have the stressed form of mi. This translates literally as so that they treat me well, also me.

The expression par vie di te can be understood as meaning by way of you, on account of you. The similar expression in gracie tô can be understood as meaning thanks to you, on account of you. The expressions here are par vie di and in gracie di.

in gracie dal so talent
thanks to his talent
because of his talent

par vie dal fat che
because of the fact that
by way of the fact that

The Friulian verb sparagnâ means to spare, to save.

in mût che mi sparagnin
so that they spare me

Verset 14

The expression di fat means as a matter of fact, in fact, indeed. The remainder of the language used in this verse should not present any particular difficulties to you.

Appearing in this verse is al veve, which you know is the third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê.

Below you will find a chart outlining the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb vê. For good measure, you will also find below the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb jessi.

Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o vevi
tu vevis
al veve

e veve

o vevin
o vevis
a vevin

Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

o jeri
tu jeris
al jere

e jere

o jerin
o jeris
a jerin

Verset 15

The Friulian for pharaoh is il faraon.

i uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin
the officials of the Pharaoh saw her

In the above, the singular form of i uficiâi is un uficiâl.

Now would be a good time to look at a complete conjugation of the verb fevelâ in the passât sempliç. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the simple past.

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o fevelai
tu fevelaris
al fevelà

e fevelà

o fevelarin
o fevelaris
a fevelarin

In this verse, you find a lerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Below, you will find the entire conjugation of the irregular verb in the simple past.

Passât sempliç
Simple past

o lei
tu leris
al lè

e lè

o lerin
o leris
a lerin

Return now to the text of the verse: the verb contâ means to tell; contâi, then, means to tell him. In the text, you find contâi robononis al faraon, which you can understand as meaning to tell great things to the Pharaoh. The things that were told concerned the woman: sul su cont (about her).

a lerin a contâ
they went to tell

contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon
to tell great things about her to the Pharaoh

In the above, une robone or une robonone is a great, exceptional thing. The root is une robe, meaning thing. In sul so cont, the noun il cont literally means account.

sul lôr cont il Signôr al veve dit…
about them the Lord had said…

You will recall the meaning of the verb menâ, which is to bring, to lead.

la femine le menarin tal palaç
they brought the woman into the palace

You will note in the above the use of both la femine and le (which refers to la femine). More literally, the above translates as the woman, they brought her into the palace.

Depending on the context, il palaç can mean palace, building, apartment block.

il palaç dai congrès
convention centre

Palaç Mantica
Mantica Building

Verset 16

You have seen the use of chel before in the sense of he, the latter. In this verse, chel refers to il faraon.

chel al tratà ben Abram
he treated Abram well

You have another example now of the expression in gracie di, which you first saw in verse 13 above.

in gracie di jê
thanks to her
because of her

Abram came to have (al rivà a vê) the following:

(nouns shown in singular form)

il besteam minût, small livestock
il besteam grant, large livestock
il mus, ass, donkey (male)
la musse, ass, donkey (female)
il famei, slave, servant (male)
la sierve, slave, servant (female)
il camêl, camel

Sheep, for example, are besteam minût; oxen are besteam grant.

La sierve is the feminine form for slave, servant; it also exists in masculine form: il sierf.

Note that il camêl forms its plural as i camêi. You have seen several examples of this plural formation now:

il camêli camêi
il nemâli nemâi
l’arbuli arbui
il populi popui
il nûli nûi

Verset 17

The Friulian verb implaiâ means to plague. It derives from the noun la plae (or plaie), meaning plague.

il Signôr al implaià il faraon
the Lord plagued the Pharaoh

You will recall that la int means people; dute la sô int, then, means all his people.

In this verse, you have another example of the expression par vie di, which you first encountered in verse 13: par vie di Sarai (on account of Sarai, because of Sarai).

Verset 18

The expression mandâ a clamâ can be understood as meaning to send for, to summon. It translates literally as to send to call; that is, to send (one person) to call (another).

il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram
the Pharaoh sent for Abram
the Pharaoh summoned Abram

The Pharaoh asks:

ce mi âstu fat?
what have you done to me?

Daurman means immediately; it can be understood in the sense of right from the start here.

parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman
why now did you not immediately tell me

ch’e jere la tô femine
that she was your wife

Verset 19

In jo me ai cjolte par femine, me is a contraction of mi + le, where le stands in for la femine (Sarai). The reflexive verb cjolisi means to take for oneself, to take unto oneself; its past participle is cjolt.

jo mi + le ai cjolte
= jo me ai cjolte
I took her unto me

Par femine means as wife.

The text continues:

cumò ve chi la tô femine
now behold your wife
here now is your wife

The Pharaoh says: cjolte! (take her!) and vatint! (go away!, leave!).

The second-person singular and plural imperative forms of the verb (to go) are va and lait. As for vatint, found in this verse, this is the second-person singular, imperative form of lâsint (to go away, to get out, to go off, to leave, etc.). Lâsint is composed of + si + int.

vatint! (second-person singular)
(= va + ti + int)
go away!

laitsint! (second-person plural)
(= lait + si + int)
go away!

More examples of this from the Bible:

al tornarà a lâsint come ch’al è vignût (Qoelet 5:14)
he will depart again just as he came

vatint, profete! (Amos 7:12)
go away, (you) seer!
get out, (you) seer!

cumò vatint te tô tiere! (Numars 24:11)
now go away (in)to your land!

laitsint te vuestre tiere! (Numars 22:13)
go away (in)to your land!

il Signôr s’indi lè (Gjenesi 18:33)
the Lord went off
the Lord left, went his way

Verset 20

The verb ordenâ means to order, to command. The noun il trop can be understood as group, squad, troop.

il faraon al ordenà a un trop di oms di…
the Pharaoh ordered a group of men to…

You will note that Friulian has said here to order to someone (to do something); this is why you find a un trop di oms in the text.

The expression fint a, which you have seen before, means as far as, until. Menâ fint a la frontiere, then, means to take (lead) as far as the border. The Friulian la frontiere means border.

menâ fint a la frontiere lui, la sô femine e dute la sô robe
to take as far as the border him, his wife and all his things
(that is, to take him, his wife and all his things to the border)