Continue now your study of the Friulian language by examining verses 10-20 of the twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt). These verses take you to the end of the chapter. The two posts pertaining to chapter 12 can be found here.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.
Read Gjenesi 12:10-20
To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 12:10-20. An archived version of the text can be found here.
The sense of la miserie in this verse is famine.
intant e capità la miserie
in the meantime a famine occurred
Ta chês tieris means in those lands. You have seen a number of examples now using ta before chest or chel and its variants:
The Friulian for Egypt is l’Egjit.
al lè in Egjit
he went to Egypt
The Friulian verb sistemâ means to set up, to arrange. The reflexive sistemâsi can take on the sense of to set oneself up, to arrange oneself, to settle (in); in this verse, it can be taken in the sense of to settle, to stay.
par sistemâsi là jù
in order to settle down there
In the above, là jù is the Friulian for down there (literally, there down). Below are related examples to learn:
là sù, up there
là jù, down there
al jere a stâ là sù
he lived (was living) up there
là sù in Polonie
là sù a Varsavie
up in Poland
up in Warsaw
là jù in Campanie
là jù a Napul
down in Campania
down in Naples
ca sù, up here
ca jù, down here
ca sù in Friûl
ca jù in Friûl
up here in Friuli
down here in Friuli
In this verse, you read that the famine was severe:
la miserie e jere masse nere
the famine was too severe
the famine was too great
Neri means black, dark. In the sentence above, neri (found here in its feminine form nere to agree with miserie) is taken in context in the sense of severe, grievous.
Another example of neri:
la peste nere
the Black Plague
the Great Plague
You encounter a new usage in this verse: the verb stâ followed by par conveys the sense of to be about to.
cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit
when he was about to enter Egypt
In the above, al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ. You will also remember that Friulian says to enter (into) something: jentrâ in. You first encountered this in jentrâ ta l’arcje (to enter [into] the ark), in Gjenesi 7.
jentrâ in Egjit
to enter Egypt
to go into Egypt
The text continues with cjale mo (look now). Cjale is the second-person singular imperative of the verb cjalâ.
Jo o sai is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb savê, which you have already met. Review the Friulian verb savê in its present indicative conjugation.
jo o sai
che tu sês une biele femine
that you are a beautiful woman
The expression a pene che means as soon as.
a pene che i egjizians ti viodaran
as soon as the Egyptians will see you
An Egyptian is un egjizian.
You encounter a number of third-person plural futûr sempliç forms in this verse:
a viodaran, they will see
a disaran, they will say
a coparan, they will kill
a lassaran, they will leave
Take some time now to familiarise yourself with the futûr sempliç conjugation of the irregular verb dî (to say).
The expression lassâ in vite means to let live (literally, to leave in life); that is, to not kill.
they will kill me
e te ti lassaran in vite
and you, they will let you live
In the above, te is the stressed form of ti.
ti lassaran in vite
they will let you live
te ti lassaran in vite
you, they will let you live
Tu podaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê.
you would be able
no tu podaressis
you would not be able
would you not be able?
no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr?
would you not be able to say that you are my sister?
Look now at the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the present conditional.
The Friulian verb tratâ means to treat. For example, mi trate come un cjan means he treats me like a dog.
mi trate ben
in mût che me trati ben
he treats me well
so that he treats me well
From the above, you see that the expression in mût che is followed by the subjunctive (me trate, but in mût che mi trati).
mi tratin ben
in mût che mi tratin ben
they treat me well
so that they treat me well
The third-person plural coniuntîf presint of the verb tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural presint indicatîf. The same applies, for example, to the verb fevelâ, which, like tratâ, also ends in â in its infinitive form:
al fevele (present indicative)
al feveli (present subjunctive)
a fevelin (present indicative)
a fevelin (present subjunctive)
In fact, for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, it is only in the third-person singular that there is a difference between the presint indicatîf forms and those of the coniuntîf presint. Observe the following, this time using the verb amâ (to love):
o ami (present indicative)
o ami (present subjunctive)
tu amis (present indicative)
tu amis (present subjunctive)
al ame (present indicative)
al ami (present subjunctive)
e ame (present indicative)
e ami (present subjunctive)
o amìn (present indicative)
o amìn (present subjunctive)
o amais (present indicative)
o amais (present subjunctive)
a amin (present indicative)
a amin (present subjunctive)
Consider now the following: in mût che mi tratin ben ancje me. In ancje me, you have the stressed form of mi. This translates literally as so that they treat me well, also me.
The expression par vie di te can be understood as meaning by way of you, on account of you. The similar expression in gracie tô can be understood as meaning thanks to you, on account of you. The expressions here are par vie di and in gracie di. Examples:
in gracie dal so talent
thanks to his talent
because of his talent
par vie dal fat che
because of the fact that
by way of the fact that
The Friulian verb sparagnâ means to spare, to save.
in mût che mi sparagnin
so that they spare me
The expression di fat can be taken here as in point of fact. The remainder of the language used in this verse should not present any particular difficulties to you.
Appearing in this verse is al veve, which you know is the third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê.
Below you will find a chart outlining the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb vê. For good measure, you will also find below the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb jessi.
The Friulian for pharaoh is il faraon.
i uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin
the officials of the Pharaoh saw her
Un uficiâl is an official; in this context, it refers to the courtiers of the Pharaoh.
Now would be a good time to look at a complete conjugation of the verb fevelâ in the passât sempliç. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the simple past.
In this verse, you find a lerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Below, you will find the entire conjugation of the irregular verb lâ in the simple past.
Return now to the text of the verse: the verb contâ means to tell; contâi, then, means to tell him. In the text, you find contâi robononis al faraon, which you can understand as meaning to tell great things to the Pharaoh.
a lerin a contâ
they went to tell
contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon
to tell great things about her to the Pharaoh
From the above, sul su cont can be taken as meaning about her, regarding her. Une robone or une robonone means great thing, exceptional thing. The root is robe, meaning thing.
Recall the meaning of the verb menâ, which is to bring, to lead.
la femine le menarin tal palaç
they brought the woman into the palace
Note the use of both la femine and le (which refers to la femine). The above translates literally as the woman, they brought her into the palace. This form of repetition is not uncommon in Friulian.
Depending on the context, il palaç can mean palace, building, apartment block. A few contemporary examples in a sense other than palace include:
il palaç dai congrès
You have seen the use of chel before in the sense of he, that one. In this verse, chel refers to il faraon.
chel al tratà ben Abram
he treated Abram well
You have another example now of the expression in gracie di, which you first saw in verse 13 above.
in gracie di jê
thanks to her
because of her
Abram came to have (al rivà a vê) the following:
(nouns shown in singular form)
il besteam minût, small livestock (flocks)*
il besteam grant, large livestock (herds)*
il mus, ass, donkey (male)
la musse, ass, donkey (female)
il famei, male servant, manservant
la sierve, female servant, handmaid, maidservant
il camêl, camel
*Sheep are besteam minût; oxen are besteam grant.
La sierve is the feminine form for servant; its masculine equivalent is il sierf.
Note that il camêl forms its plural as i camêi. You have seen other examples of this plural formation using i:
il camêl –> i camêi
il nemâl –> i nemâi
l’arbul –> i arbui
il popul –> i popui
il nûl –> i nûi
The Friulian verb implaiâ means to plague. It derives from the noun la plae (or plaie), meaning plague.
il Signôr al implaià il faraon
the Lord plagued the Pharaoh
You will recall that la int means people; dute la sô int, then, means all his people.
In this verse, you have another example of the expression par vie di, which you first encountered in verse 13: par vie di Sarai (on account of Sarai, because of Sarai).
The expression mandâ a clamâ can be taken as meaning to send for, to summon. It translates literally as to send to call; that is, to send (one person) to call (another).
il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram
the Pharaoh sent for Abram
the Pharaoh summoned Abram
The Pharaoh asks:
ce mi âstu fat?
what have you done to me?
Daurman means immediately, straight away.
parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman
why then did you not tell me straight away
ch’e jere la tô femine?
that she was your wife?
In jo me ai cjolte par femine, me is a contraction of mi + le, where le stands in for la femine (Sarai). The reflexive verb cjolisi means to take for oneself, to take unto oneself; its past participle is cjolt.
jo mi + le ai cjolte
= jo me ai cjolte
I took her unto myself
Par femine means as wife.
The text continues:
cumò ve chi la tô femine
here now is your wife
The Pharaoh says: cjolte! (take her!) and vatint! (go away!, leave!, be gone!).
The second-person singular and plural imperative forms of the verb lâ (to go) are va and lait. As for vatint, found in this verse, this is the second-person singular imperative of lâsint (to go away, to get out, to go off, to leave, etc.). Lâsint is composed of lâ + si + int.
vatint! (second-person singular)
(= va + ti + int)
laitsint! (second-person plural)
(= lait + si + int)
More examples of lâsint from the Bible:
al tornarà a lâsint come ch’al è vignût (Qoelet 5:14)
he will depart again just as he came
cumò vatint te tô tiere! (Numars 24:11)
now go off to your land!
laitsint te vuestre tiere! (Numars 22:13)
go off to your land!
il Signôr s’indi lè (Gjenesi 18:33)
the Lord departed; left; went off
The verb ordenâ means to order, to command. The noun il trop can be understood as group, squad, troop.
il faraon al ordenà a un trop di oms di…
the Pharaoh ordered a group of men to…
Note that Friulian says to order unto someone to do something; this is why you find a un trop di oms in the text.
The expression fint a, which you have seen before, means as far as, until. Menâ fint a la frontiere, then, means to take (lead) as far as the border, where la frontiere is the Friulian for border. You read: menâ fint a la frontiere (to take as far as the border) lui (him), la sô femine (his wife) e dute la sô robe (and all his things); that is, to take him, his wife and all his possessions to the border.