Friulian language series: Gjenesi 12, clamade di Abram

You will now study the twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subjects are: la clamade di Abram (call of Abram); Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 12

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 12. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

The Friulian verb lassâ means to leave; lasse, then, is its second-person singular imperative form.

lasse la tô tiere
leave your land

La parintât is the Friulian for kin, relatives.

lasse la tô parintât
leave your kin

O mostrarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mostrâ (to show).

o mostrarai
I shall show
ti mostrarai
I shall show you

par lâ te tiere che ti mostrarai
to go into the land that I shall show you

Familiarise yourself with the Friulian simple future by studying the conjugation chart below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the futûr sempliç. For this tense, you can use this conjugation as your model for verbs ending in â in their infinitive form.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarai
fevelaraio?
tu
tu fevelarâs
fevelarâstu?
lui
al fevelarà
fevelaraial?

e fevelarà
fevelaraie?

o fevelarìn
fevelarìno?
vualtris
o fevelarês
fevelarêso?
lôr
a fevelaran
fevelarano?

Verset 2

You find three more futûr sempliç forms in this verse:

o fasarai, I shall make
o benedissarai, I shall bless
tu sarâs, you will be

jo o fasarai di te un grant popul
I shall make of you a great people
I shall make of you a great nation

Une vore means very.

une vore grant
very great

o fasarai deventâ une vore grant il to non
I shall make your name become very great

Une benedizion is the Friulian for blessing. This noun is, of course, related to the verb benedî, meaning to bless.

tu tu sarâs une benedizion
you shall be a blessing

Below, you will find the irregular verbs jessi (to be) and (to make, to do) conjugated in the futûr sempliç.

Verb: JESSI
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarai
saraio?
tu
tu sarâs
sarâstu?
lui
al sarà
saraial?

e sarà
saraie?

o sarìn
sarìno?
vualtris
o sarês
sarêso?
lôr
a saran
sarano?

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fasarai
fasaraio?
tu
tu fasarâs
fasarâstu?
lui
al fasarà
fasaraial?

e fasarà
fasaraie?

o fasarìn
fasarìno?
vualtris
o fasarês
fasarêso?
lôr
a fasaran
fasarano?

Verset 3

In addition to the first-person singular futûr sempliç forms o benedissarai (I shall bless) and o maludissarai (I shall curse), you will also recognise the third-person plural futûr sempliç forms a benedissaran (they will bless) and a maludissaran (they will curse).

a benedissaran
they will bless
ti benedissaran
they will bless you

a maludissaran
they will curse
ti maludissaran
they will curse you

o benedissarai chei che ti benedissaran
I shall bless those who will bless you

The expression midiant di, which you have already seen before, means through, via, by means of.

midiant di te a saran benedîts ducj i popui de tiere
through you all the peoples of the earth shall be blessed

Compare:

a benedissaran
they will bless

a saran benedîts
they will be blessed

Verset 4

The verb partî means to leave, to depart.

Abram al partì come che i veve dit il Signôr
Abram departed as the Lord had told him

The Friulian for 75 is setantecinc.

In the following, come che means as; cuant che means when:

come che i veve dit il Signôr
as the Lord had told him

cuant che al lassà Caran
when he left Haran

Verset 5

Daûrsi translates literally as behind oneself (daûr, behind + si, oneself); it can be taken here as meaning with himself.

al puartà daûrsi la sô femine
he took his wife (with himself)
(literally, he brought behind himself his wife)

For Abram, Lot was the fi di so fradi. Do you remember what this familial relation is called in Friulian? (See the notes at verse 31 on the linked page.)

The expression dâ dongje means to gather, to amass, to accumulate.

dut ce che a vevin rivât a dâ dongje
everything that they had managed to amass

Recall that il famei is the Friulian for servant.

ducj i fameis che si veve comprât
all the servants that one had bought

In the above, you have the impersonal construction che si veve comprât (that one had bought). The auxiliary with impersonal constructions of the sort is vê:

si à viodût lis feridis
one saw the wounds
(the wounds were seen)

si à fevelât di te
one spoke about you
(you were spoken about)

This verse ends with:

si meterin in viaç
they set out
(literally, they put themselves in voyage)

pe tiere di Canaan
for the land of Canaan

In the above, the expression metisi in viaç means to set out, to set off. The Friulian il viaç means voyage, trip, journey.

Verset 6

The expression fûr par fûr means through and through, from one end to the other; as for fintremai, its meaning is as far as.

al passà il paîs fûr par fûr
he traversed the land through and through
he passed through the land from one end to the other

fintremai al lûc sant di Sichem
as far as the holy site of Shechem

In the above, the Friulian il lûc means place, site; the adjective sant, which you have seen before, is the Friulian for holy, sacred.

The text continues:

dongje dal rôl di More
by the oak of Moreh

The Friulian for oak tree is il rôl. As for dongje di, it means near, alongside, by.

The text follows with another expression: in chê volte, which can be understood as meaning at that time, then.

In the notes at Gjenesi 10:30, you read that the expression jessi a stâ is employed in the sense of to live, to dwell; there, you found it used in the following: a jerin a stâ de bande di Mese (they lived [were living] on the side of Mesha, they lived [were living] out in Mesha). You also found the following supplementary example of usage: o soi a stâ in centri (I live in the city centre). In the current verse, you now find:

li a jerin a stâ i cananeus
there lived [were living] the Canaanites

Verset 7

The first time that you encountered the verb comparî was in Gjenesi 1:3, when you read: la lûs e comparì. You will remember that it means to appear. From the current verse now:

il Signôr i comparì a Abram
the Lord appeared to Abram

The text continues:

cheste tiere je darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give this land to your offspring
(literally, this land, I shall give it to your offspring)

In the above, you have an example of je, which is a contraction of i + le. Le stands in for la tiere.

i + le darai a la tô gjernazie
= je darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give it to your offspring

If, rather than the feminine la tiere, it were question of a masculine noun instead, jal would have been used. For example, if the text had used il paîs rather than la tiere, you would have found: jal darai a la tô gjernazie, where jal is a contraction of i + lu.

i + lu darai a la tô gjernazie
= jal darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give it to your offspring

Recall that the Friulian for altar is un altâr.

i fasè un altâr al Signôr
he built [made] an altar to the Lord

che i jere comparît
who had appeared to him

Verset 8

In this verse, you come across soreli jevât (east) again; you now also come across, for the first time, its opposite: soreli a mont (west).

a soreli jevât di Betel
to the east of Bethel

in mût di vê Betel a soreli a mont
so as to have Bethel to the west

in mût di vê Ai a soreli jevât
so as to have Hai to the east

The verb plantâ in this verse can be taken as meaning to pitch. The expression to pitch a tent, then, is expressed in Friulian as plantâ une tende.

The verb preâ means to pray; in the context of this verse, you can understand it as meaning to invoke.

al preà il non dal Signôr
he invoked the name of the Lord

Verset 9

Spostant is the present participle of the verb spostâ, meaning to move. Il campament is the place where a camp has been set up.

spostant simpri il campament
continually moving the camp
(that is, continually journeying)

Simpri means always, continually.

This verse ends with:

al rivà tal Negheb
he arrived in the Negev

The Negev is a mountainous desert region in the south of modern-day Israel.

Verset 10

The sense of la miserie in this verse is famine.

intant e capità la miserie
in the meantime a famine occurred

Ta chês tieris means in those lands. You have seen a number of examples now using ta before chest or chel and its variants:

ta chês tieris (current verse)
ta chei timps (Gjenesi 6:4)
ta chest mont (Gjenesi 9:16)

The Friulian for Egypt is l’Egjit.

al lè in Egjit
he went to Egypt

The Friulian verb sistemâ means to set up, to arrange; the reflexive sistemâsi means to set oneself up, to arrange oneself, to settle (in). In this verse, sistemâsi can be taken as to settle.

par sistemâsi là jù
in order to settle down there

In the above, là jù is the Friulian for down there (literally, there down). Below are related examples to learn:

là sù, up there
là jù, down there

al jere a stâ là sù
he lived (was living) up there

là sù in Polonie
là sù a Varsavie
up in Poland
up in Warsaw

là jù in Campanie
là jù a Napul
down in Campania
down in Naples

ca sù, up here
ca jù, down here

ca sù in Friûl
ca jù in Friûl
up here in Friuli
down here in Friuli

In this verse, you read that the famine was severe:

la miserie e jere masse nere
the famine was too severe
the famine was too great

Neri means black, dark. In the sentence above, neri (found here in its feminine form nere to agree with miserie) is taken in context in the sense of severe, grievous.

Another example of neri:

la peste nere
the Black Plague
the Great Plague

Verset 11

You encounter a new usage in this verse: the verb stâ followed by par conveys the sense of to be about to.

cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit
when he was about to enter Egypt

In the above, al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ. You will also remember that Friulian says to enter (into) something: jentrâ in. You first encountered this in jentrâ ta l’arcje (to enter [into] the ark), in Gjenesi 7.

jentrâ in Egjit
to enter Egypt
to go into Egypt

The text continues with cjale mo (look now). Cjale is the second-person singular imperative of the verb cjalâ.

Jo o sai is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb savê, which you have already met. Review the Friulian verb savê in its present indicative conjugation.

jo o sai
I know

che tu sês une biele femine
that you are a beautiful woman

Verset 12

The expression a pene che means as soon as.

a pene che i egjizians ti viodaran
as soon as the Egyptians will see you

An Egyptian is un egjizian.

You encounter a number of third-person plural futûr sempliç forms in this verse:

a viodaran, they will see
a disaran, they will say
a coparan, they will kill
a lassaran, they will leave

Take some time now to familiarise yourself with the futûr sempliç conjugation of the irregular verb (to say).

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disarai
disaraio?
tu
tu disarâs
disarâstu?
lui
al disarà
disaraial?

e disarà
disaraie?

o disarìn
disarìno?
vualtris
o disarês
disarêso?
lôr
a disaran
disarano?

The expression lassâ in vite means to let live (literally, to leave in life); that is, to not kill.

mi coparan
they will kill me

e te ti lassaran in vite
and you, they will let you live

In the above, te is the stressed form of ti.

ti lassaran in vite
they will let you live

te ti lassaran in vite
you, they will let you live

Verset 13

Tu podaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê.

tu podaressis
you would be able
no tu podaressis
you would not be able

no podaressistu?
would you not be able?

no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr?
would you not be able to say that you are my sister?

Look now at the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the present conditional.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarès
fevelaressio?
tu
tu fevelaressis
fevelaressistu?
lui
al fevelarès
fevelaressial?

e fevelarès
fevelaressie?

o fevelaressin
fevelaressino?
vualtris
o fevelaressis
fevelaressiso?
lôr
a fevelaressin
fevelaressino?

The Friulian verb tratâ means to treat. For example, mi trate come un cjan means he treats me like a dog.

mi trate ben
in mût che me trati ben
he treats me well
so that he treats me well

From the above, you see that the expression in mût che is followed by the subjunctive (me trate, but in mût che mi trati).

mi tratin ben
in mût che mi tratin ben
they treat me well
so that they treat me well

The third-person plural coniuntîf presint of the verb tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural presint indicatîf. The same applies, for example, to the verb fevelâ, which, like tratâ, also ends in â in its infinitive form:

al fevele (present indicative)
al feveli (present subjunctive)

a fevelin (present indicative)
a fevelin (present subjunctive)

In fact, for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, it is only in the third-person singular that there is a difference between the presint indicatîf forms and those of the coniuntîf presint. Observe the following, this time using the verb amâ (to love):

o ami (present indicative)
o ami (present subjunctive)

tu amis (present indicative)
tu amis (present subjunctive)

al ame (present indicative)
al ami (present subjunctive)

e ame (present indicative)
e ami (present subjunctive)

o amìn (present indicative)
o amìn (present subjunctive)

o amais (present indicative)
o amais (present subjunctive)

a amin (present indicative)
a amin (present subjunctive)

Consider now the following: in mût che mi tratin ben ancje me. In ancje me, you have the stressed form of mi. This translates literally as so that they treat me well, also me.

The expression par vie di te can be understood as meaning by way of you, on account of you. The similar expression in gracie tô can be understood as meaning thanks to you, on account of you. The expressions here are par vie di and in gracie di. Examples:

in gracie dal so talent
thanks to his talent
because of his talent

par vie dal fat che
because of the fact that
by way of the fact that

The Friulian verb sparagnâ means to spare, to save.

in mût che mi sparagnin
so that they spare me

Verset 14

The expression di fat can be taken here as in point of fact. The remainder of the language used in this verse should not present any particular difficulties to you.

Appearing in this verse is al veve, which you know is the third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê.

Below you will find a chart outlining the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb vê. For good measure, you will also find below the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb jessi.

Verb:
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi
vevio?
tu
tu vevis
vevistu?
lui
al veve
vevial?

e veve
vevie?

o vevin
vevino?
vualtris
o vevis
veviso?
lôr
a vevin
vevino?

Verb: JESSI
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o jeri
jerio?
tu
tu jeris
jeristu?
lui
al jere
jerial?

e jere
jerie?

o jerin
jerino?
vualtris
o jeris
jeriso?
lôr
a jerin
jerino?

Verset 15

The Friulian for pharaoh is il faraon.

i uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin
the officials of the Pharaoh saw her

Un uficiâl is an official; in this context, it refers to the courtiers of the Pharaoh.

Now would be a good time to look at a complete conjugation of the verb fevelâ in the passât sempliç. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the simple past.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelai
fevelario?
tu
tu fevelaris
fevelaristu?
lui
al fevelà
fevelarial?

e fevelà
fevelarie?

o fevelarin
fevelarino?
vualtris
o fevelaris
fevelariso?
lôr
a fevelarin
fevelarino?

In this verse, you find a lerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Below, you will find the entire conjugation of the irregular verb in the simple past.

Verb:
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o lei
lerio?
tu
tu leris
leristu?
lui
al lè
lerial?

e lè
lerie?

o lerin
lerino?
vualtris
o leris
leriso?
lôr
a lerin
lerino?

Return now to the text of the verse: the verb contâ means to tell; contâi, then, means to tell him. In the text, you find contâi robononis al faraon, which you can understand as meaning to tell great things to the Pharaoh.

a lerin a contâ
they went to tell

contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon
to tell great things about her to the Pharaoh

From the above, sul su cont can be taken as meaning about her, regarding her. Une robone or une robonone means great thing, exceptional thing. The root is robe, meaning thing.

Recall the meaning of the verb menâ, which is to bring, to lead.

la femine le menarin tal palaç
they brought the woman into the palace

Note the use of both la femine and le (which refers to la femine). The above translates literally as the woman, they brought her into the palace. This form of repetition is not uncommon in Friulian.

Depending on the context, il palaç can mean palace, building, apartment block. A few contemporary examples in a sense other than palace include:

il palaç dai congrès
convention centre

Palaç Mantica
Mantica Building

Verset 16

You have seen the use of chel before in the sense of he, that one. In this verse, chel refers to il faraon.

chel al tratà ben Abram
he treated Abram well

You have another example now of the expression in gracie di, which you first saw in verse 13 above.

in gracie di jê
thanks to her
because of her

Abram came to have (al rivà a vê) the following:

(nouns shown in singular form)

il besteam minût, small livestock (flocks)*
il besteam grant, large livestock (herds)*
il mus, ass, male donkey
la musse, she-ass, female donkey
il famei, male servant, manservant
la sierve, female servant, handmaid, maidservant
il camêl, camel

*Sheep are besteam minût; oxen are besteam grant.

La sierve is the feminine form for servant; its masculine equivalent is il sierf.

Note that il camêl forms its plural as i camêi. You have seen other examples of this plural formation using i:

il camêl –> i camêi
il nemâl –> i nemâi
l’arbul –> i arbui
il popul –> i popui
il nûl –> i nûi

Verset 17

The Friulian verb implaiâ means to plague. It derives from the noun la plae (or plaie), meaning plague.

il Signôr al implaià il faraon
the Lord plagued the Pharaoh

You will recall that la int means people; dute la sô int, then, means all his people.

In this verse, you have another example of the expression par vie di, which you first encountered in verse 13: par vie di Sarai (on account of Sarai, because of Sarai).

Verset 18

The expression mandâ a clamâ can be taken as meaning to send for. It translates literally as to send to call; that is, to send (one person) to call (another).

il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram
the Pharaoh sent for Abram

The Pharaoh asks:

ce mi âstu fat?
what have you done to me?

Daurman means immediately, straight away.

parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman
why then did you not tell me straight away

ch’e jere la tô femine?
that she was your wife?

Verset 19

In jo me ai cjolte par femine, me is a contraction of mi + le, where le stands in for la femine (Sarai). The reflexive verb cjolisi means to take for oneself, to take unto oneself; its past participle is cjolt.

jo mi + le ai cjolte
= jo me ai cjolte
I took her unto myself

Par femine means as wife.

The text continues:

cumò ve chi la tô femine
here now is your wife

The Pharaoh says: cjolte! (take her!) and vatint! (go away!, leave!, be gone!).

The second-person singular and plural imperative forms of the verb (to go) are va and lait. As for vatint, found in this verse, this is the second-person singular imperative of lâsint (to go away, to get out, to go off, to leave, etc.). Lâsint is composed of + si + int.

vatint! (second-person singular)
(= va + ti + int)
go away!

laitsint! (second-person plural)
(= lait + si + int)
go away!

More examples of lâsint from the Bible:

al tornarà a lâsint come ch’al è vignût (Qoelet 5:14)
he will depart again just as he came

cumò vatint te tô tiere! (Numars 24:11)
now go off to your land!

laitsint te vuestre tiere! (Numars 22:13)
go off to your land!

il Signôr s’indi lè (Gjenesi 18:33)
the Lord departed; left; went off

Verset 20

The verb ordenâ means to order, to command. The noun il trop can be understood as group, squad, troop.

il faraon al ordenà a un trop di oms di…
the Pharaoh ordered a group of men to…

Note that Friulian says to order unto someone to do something; this is why you find a un trop di oms in the text.

The expression fint a, which you have seen before, means as far as, until. Menâ fint a la frontiere, then, means to take (lead) as far as the border, where la frontiere is the Friulian for border. You read: menâ fint a la frontiere (to take as far as the border) lui (him), la sô femine (his wife) e dute la sô robe (and all his things); that is, to take him, his wife and all his possessions to the border.