Friulian language series: Gjenesi 12, clamade di Abram

The twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: la clamade di Abram (call of Abram); Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 12

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 12. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: (to say), lassâ (to leave), la tiere (land), la parintât (kin, relatives), la cjase (house), il pari (father), (to go), mostrâ (to show, to point out), (to make, to do), grant (great, big, large), il popul (people), benedî (to bless), deventâ (to become), une vore (very), il non (name), la benedizion (blessing), maludî (to curse; also maledî), midiant di (through, by way of).

Verse 1: Il Signôr i disè a Abram: the Lord said to Abram. Jo o mostrarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mostrâ; in the presence of ti, the atonic o is not expressed: jo o mostrarai; o mostrarai (I will point out); jo ti mostrarai; ti mostrarai (I will point out to you). The Lord says: lasse la tô tiere (leave your land), la tô parintât (your kin) e la cjase di to pari (and the house of your father) par lâ te tiere che ti mostrarai (to go into the land that I will point out to you). Observe the following, the infinitives of which all end in â: o mostrarai (I will point out); o fevelarai (I will speak); o lassarai (I will leave); o coparai (I will kill). Familiarise yourself more fully with the Friulian simple future by studying the conjugation chart below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the futûr sempliç. This conjugation serves as a model for verbs whose infinitive ends in â.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarai
fevelaraio?
tu
tu fevelarâs
fevelarâstu?
lui
al fevelarà
fevelaraial?

e fevelarà
fevelaraie?

o fevelarìn
fevelarìno?
vualtris
o fevelarês
fevelarêso?
lôr
a fevelaran
fevelarano?

Verse 2: Jo o fasarai di te (I will make of you) un grant popul (a great people), ti benedissarai (I will bless you), o fasarai deventâ une vore grant il to non (I will make your name become very great) e tu tu sarâs une benedizion (and you shall be a blessing). Three futûr sempliç forms appear in the text of this verse: jo o fasarai (I will make); jo o benedissarai (I will bless); tu tu sarâs (you will be). The verbs jessi (to be) and (to make, to do) are conjugated below in the futûr sempliç.

Verb: JESSI
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarai
saraio?
tu
tu sarâs
sarâstu?
lui
al sarà
saraial?

e sarà
saraie?

o sarìn
sarìno?
vualtris
o sarês
sarêso?
lôr
a saran
sarano?

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fasarai
fasaraio?
tu
tu fasarâs
fasarâstu?
lui
al fasarà
fasaraial?

e fasarà
fasaraie?

o fasarìn
fasarìno?
vualtris
o fasarês
fasarêso?
lôr
a fasaran
fasarano?

Verse 3: O benedissarai (I will bless) chei che ti benedissaran (those who bless you) e o maludissarai (and I will curse) chei che ti maludissaran (those who curse you). Midiant di te a saran benedîts ducj i popui de tiere: through you shall all the peoples of the earth be blessed. Lôr a benedissaran (they will bless) and lôr a maludissaran (they will curse) are both third-person plural forms of the futûr sempliç.

Versets 4-9

Vocabulary: alore (then, so), partî (to leave, to depart), (to say), ancje (also, too), (to have), setantecinc (seventy-five), un an (year), lassâ (to leave), puartâ daûr (to take/bring along), la femine (wife), il fi (son), il fradi (brother), rivâ a fâ (to be able to do, to manage to do), dâ dongje (to gather, to accumulate), il famei (servant), comprâ (to buy, to acquire), metisi in viaç (to set out, to head off), la tiere (land), passâ (to pass, to traverse), il paîs (land, country), fûr par fûr (through and through), fintremai a (as far as), il lûc (place, site), sant (holy, sacred), dongje di (by, alongside), il rôl (oak tree), la volte (time), li (there), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il cananeu (Canaanite), comparî (to appear), (to give), la gjernazie (offspring), un altâr (altar), la mont (mount, mountain), a soreli jevât (to the east), plantâ une tende (to pitch a tent), in mût di (so as to), a soreli a mont (to the west), preâ (to pray), il non (name), podopo (then, after), spostâ (to move, to displace), simpri (always, continually), il campament (camp), rivâ (to arrive, to come).

Verse 4: Alore Abram al partì come che i veve dit il Signôr (Abram then left as the Lord had told him) e ancje Lot al partì cun lui (and Lot left with him also). Abram al veve setantecinc agns cuant che al lassà Caran: Abram was seventy-five years old (was having seventy-five years) when he left Haran.

Verse 5: Abram al puartà daûrsi la sô femine Sarai (Abram took with him [brought behind him] his wife Sarai), Lot, fi di so fradi (Lot, his brother’s son), dut ce che a vevin rivât a dâ dongje (all that they had come to accumulate) e ducj i fameis che si veve comprât a Caran (and all the servants that had been acquired in Haran). Dut ce che a vevin rivât a dâ dongje can also be taken as all that they had managed to accumulate; all that they were able to amass. Si meterin in viaç pe tiere di Canaan: they set out for the land of Canaan.

Verse 6: Fûr par fûr is to be taken as from one end to the other, through and through. You read: Abram al passà il paîs (Abram traversed the land) fûr par fûr (through and through) fintremai al lûc sant di Sichem (as far as the sacred place of Shechem), dongje dal rôl di More (by the oak of Moreh). In chê volte translates literally as at that time; it can also be taken more simply as then. In chê volte, li a jerin a stâ i cananeus: the Canaanites were then dwelling there.

Verse 7: Il Signôr i comparì a Abram: the Lord appeared to Abram. The Lord says: cheste tiere je darai a la tô gjernazie (I will give this land to your offspring). Taken literally, cheste tiere je darai a la tô gjernazie translates as: this land I will give it to your offspring; je is a contraction of i + le (unto it + it), where i aligns with a la tô gjernazie and le stands in for cheste tiere. Alore Abram i fasè un altâr al Signôr che i jere comparît: Abram then built (made) an altar to the Lord who had appeared to him.

Verse 8: A soreli jevât means to the east; a soreli a mont means to the west. You read: di li (from there) al passà su la mont (he went [passed] to the mountain), a soreli jevât di Betel (to the east of Bethel), e al plantà la sô tende (and pitched his tent) in mût di vê Betel (so as to have Bethel) a soreli a mont (to the west) e Ai (and Ai) a soreli jevât (to the east). Li i fasè un altâr al Signôr e al preà il non dal Signôr: there he built (made) an altar to the Lord and invoked (prayed) the name of the Lord.

Verse 9: Podopo (then), spostant simpri il campament (continually moving the camp), al rivà tal Negheb (he came to the Negev). The sense of spostant simpri il campament is that of setting up and breaking camp in journey onwards.

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: intant (in the meantime, meanwhile), capitâ (to happen, to occur, to come about), la miserie (famine), la tiere (land), (to go), sistemâ (to settle), là jù (down there), masse (too, excessively), neri (dark, black, grievous), stâ par (to be about to), jentrâ (to go in, to enter), (to say), la femine (woman, wife), cjalâ (to look), mo (now, then), savê (to know), jessi (to be), biel (attractive, fine), a pene che (so soon as), un egjizian (Egyptian), viodi (to see), copâ (to kill), lassâ (to let, to leave), la vite (life), lassâ in vite (to let live), podê (may, can, to be able), la sûr (sister), in mût che (so that), tratâ (to treat, to deal with), ben (well), ancje (also, too), par vie di (on account of), sparagnâ (to spare), in gracie tô (thanks to you).

Verse 10: Intant (in the meantime) e capità la miserie (a famine [the famine] came about) ta chês tieris (in those lands) e Abram al lè in Egjit (and Abram went to Egypt) par sistemâsi là jù (in order to settle down there), parcè che la miserie e jere masse nere (for the famine was much too grievous). Là jù is the Friulian for down there (literally, there down); supplementary examples: là sù (up there); al jere a stâ là sù (he used to live up there); là sù in Polonie; là sù a Varsavie (up in Poland; up in Warsaw); là jù in Campanie; là jù a Napul (down in Campania; down in Naples); ca sù; ca jù (up here; down here); ca sù in Friûl; ca jù in Friûl (up here in Friuli; down here in Friuli). Neri (feminine nere) means black, dark; it is taken here in the sense of severe, grievous, great. Related: la peste nere (the Black Plague, the Great Plague).

Verse 11: Cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit (as he was about to enter Egypt), i disè a la sô femine Sarai (he said to his wife Sarai): cjale mo (look now): jo o sai che tu sês une biele femine (I know that you are a beautiful woman).

Verse 12: A number of third-person plural forms of the futûr sempliç appear in the text of this verse: a viodaran (they will see); a disaran (they will say); a coparan (they will kill); a lassaran (they will let). Abram says: a pene che i egjizians ti viodaran (so soon as the Egyptians see you [will see you]), a disaran (they will say): e je la sô femine (she is his wife), e mi coparan (and they will kill me) e te ti lassaran in vite (whereas you they will let live [will leave in life]). The futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb  is presented below.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disarai
disaraio?
tu
tu disarâs
disarâstu?
lui
al disarà
disaraial?

e disarà
disaraie?

o disarìn
disarìno?
vualtris
o disarês
disarêso?
lôr
a disaran
disarano?

Verse 13: No podaressistu mo dî che tu sês mê sûr (could you not then say that you are my sister), in mût che mi tratin ben ancje me (so that I too am treated well [so that they treat me well, also me]) par vie di te (on account of you) e che mi sparagnin in gracie tô? (and that they spare me thanks to you?). Tu tu podaressis (you would be able, you could) is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê. Consider the following: tu podaressis (you would be able, you could); no tu podaressis (you would not be able, you could not); no podaressistu? (would you not be able?, could you not?); no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr? (would you not be able to say that you are my sister?, could you not say that you are my sister?). Familiarise yourself more fully with the Friulian present conditional by studying the conjugation chart below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint; for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, this conjugation serves as a model. The verb tratâ means to treat; example: mi trate come un cjan (he treats me like a dog). Observe the following, where in mût che is followed by the subjunctive: mi trate ben (he treats me well); in mût che me trati ben (so that he treats me well). Now observe: mi tratin ben (they treat me well); in mût che mi tratin ben (so that they treat me well). The third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint of tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarès
fevelaressio?
tu
tu fevelaressis
fevelaressistu?
lui
al fevelarès
fevelaressial?

e fevelarès
fevelaressie?

o fevelaressin
fevelaressino?
vualtris
o fevelaressis
fevelaressiso?
lôr
a fevelaressin
fevelaressino?

Versets 14-20

Vocabulary: di fat (in point of fact), rivâ (to arrive, to come), un egjizian (Egyptian), viodi (to see), (to have), biel (attractive, fine), la femine (wife), un uficiâl (official), il faraon (pharaoh), (to go), contâ (to tell, to relate), la robonone (wonder), il cont (account), menâ (to bring/take, to lead), il palaç (palace), tratâ ben (to treat well, to deal well with), in gracie di (thanks to), il besteam (livestock), minût (small, little), grant (big, large, great), il mus (ass, donkey), il famei (male servant), la sierve (female servant), la musse (she-ass), il camêl (camel), implaiâ (to plague), la int (people), par vie di (on account of), mandâ a clamâ (to send for), (to say), daurman (at once, straightaway), la sûr (sister), e cussì (and so), cjoli (to take), cumò (now), ve chi (here is, this is), lâsint (to leave, to go away), ordenâ (to order, to instruct), il trop (group), un om (man), fint a (as far as, up to), la frontiere (border, frontier), la robe (possessions, substance).

Verse 14: E di fat (and in point of fact), cuant che Abram al rivà in Egjit (when Abram arrived in Egypt), i egjizians a vioderin (the Egyptians saw) che al veve (that he had [was having]) une biele femine (a beautiful wife). Al veve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê. Presented below is the imperfect indicative of vê; for good measure, the same of jessi is also given.

Verb:
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi
vevio?
tu
tu vevis
vevistu?
lui
al veve
vevial?

e veve
vevie?

o vevin
vevino?
vualtris
o vevis
veviso?
lôr
a vevin
vevino?

Verb: JESSI
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o jeri
jerio?
tu
tu jeris
jeristu?
lui
al jere
jerial?

e jere
jerie?

o jerin
jerino?
vualtris
o jeris
jeriso?
lôr
a jerin
jerino?

Verse 15: Pharaoh’s men are referred to in the text of this verse as officials: uficiâi. They go to Pharaoh to praise Abram’s wife by saying wonderful things about her; the augmentative robonone (wonderful thing, wonder) is formed from robe (thing). You read: i uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin (Pharaoh’s officials saw her) e a lerin a contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon (and went to speak wonders about her [went to tell wonders on her account] to Pharaoh). Sul so cont translates literally as on her account; it is to be taken as meaning about her, regarding her. La femine le menarin tal palaç dal faraon: the woman was taken in Pharaoh’s palace (the woman they took her into the palace of the pharaoh). Near the beginning of this verse, you encounter a vioderin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç. Consider this form alongside others: a vioderin (they saw); a lerin (they went); a fevelarin (they spoke); a diserin (they said); a faserin (they made); a coparin (they killed); a mangjarin (they ate). Observe now the full passât sempliç conjugation of fevelâ, which serves as a model for verbs whose infinitive ends in â (exceptions to this are lâ, dâ, fâ).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelai
fevelario?
tu
tu fevelaris
fevelaristu?
lui
al fevelà
fevelarial?

e fevelà
fevelarie?

o fevelarin
fevelarino?
vualtris
o fevelaris
fevelariso?
lôr
a fevelarin
fevelarino?

Verse 16: E chel (and he [that one]) al tratà ben Abram (treated Abram well) in gracie di jê (thanks to her): al rivà a vê (he came to possess) besteam minût e grant (small and large livestock), mus (asses), fameis (male servants), siervis (female servants), mussis (she-asses) e camêi (and camels). Chel refers to the pharaoh. Besteam minût (small livestock) refers to sheep; besteam grant (large livestock) refers to oxen. The masculine famei is the Friulian for servant; the plural fameis can refer to servants in general regardless of gender but, alongside the feminine sierve (maidservant, handmaid), as it appears in the text of this verse, it refers specifically to male servants: fameis e siervis (male and female servants). The masculine camêl (which ends in l preceded by a vowel) forms its plural as camêi. Observe: camêlcamêi; nemâlnemâi; arbularbui; populpopui; nûlnûi.

Verse 17: Ma il Signôr al implaià il faraon (but the Lord plagued Pharaoh) e dute la sô int (and all his people) par vie di Sarai (on account of Sarai), la femine di Abram (the wife of Abraham). The Friulian for plague is the feminine plaie (the variant plae is used in this Bible); this noun is at the root of the verb implaiâ.

Verse 18: Alore il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram: Pharaoh then sent for Abram. Mandâ a clamâ translates literally as to send to call; that is, to send {one} to call {for another}. Pharaoh asks: ce mi âstu fat? (what have you done to me?). He also asks: parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman ch’e jere la tô femine? (why ever did you not tell me at once that she was your wife?).

Verse 19: Parcè âstu dit (why did you say): e je mê sûr (she is my sister), e cussì jo me ai cjolte par femine? (and so I took her unto myself for wife?). Me is a contraction of mi + le (unto me + her), where le stands in for la femine. Cumò ve chi la tô femine: cjolte e vatint: now here is your wife: take her unto yourself and be gone. Cjolte = cjol + ti + le (take + unto yourself + her). Of lâsint (to leave, to go away), the second-person singular imperative is vatint; the second-person plural imperative is laitsint. These imperatives can be taken as go away, leave, be gone.

Verse 20: Il faraon al ordenà a un trop di oms (Pharaoh ordered [ordered unto] a group of men) di menâ fint a la frontiere (to take as far as the frontier) lui, la sô femine e dute la sô robe (him, his wife and all his possessions). For clarity: Pharaoh ordered a group of men to take him, his wife and all his possessions to the frontier.