You will now study the twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subjects are: la clamade di Abram (call of Abram); Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt).
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.
Read Gjenesi 12
The Friulian verb lassâ means to leave; lasse, then, is its second-person singular imperative form.
lasse la tô tiere
leave your land
La parintât is the Friulian for kin, relatives.
lasse la tô parintât
leave your kin
O mostrarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mostrâ (to show).
I shall show
I shall show you
par lâ te tiere che ti mostrarai
to go into the land that I shall show you
Familiarise yourself with the Friulian simple future by studying the conjugation chart below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the futûr sempliç. For this tense, you can use this conjugation as your model for verbs ending in â in their infinitive form.
You find three more futûr sempliç forms in this verse:
o fasarai, I shall make
o benedissarai, I shall bless
tu sarâs, you will be
jo o fasarai di te un grant popul
I shall make of you a great people
I shall make of you a great nation
Une vore means very.
une vore grant
o fasarai deventâ une vore grant il to non
I shall make your name become very great
Une benedizion is the Friulian for blessing. This noun is, of course, related to the verb benedî, meaning to bless.
tu tu sarâs une benedizion
you shall be a blessing
Below, you will find the irregular verbs jessi (to be) and fâ (to make, to do) conjugated in the futûr sempliç.
In addition to the first-person singular futûr sempliç forms o benedissarai (I shall bless) and o maludissarai (I shall curse), you will also recognise the third-person plural futûr sempliç forms a benedissaran (they will bless) and a maludissaran (they will curse).
they will bless
they will bless you
they will curse
they will curse you
o benedissarai chei che ti benedissaran
I shall bless those who will bless you
The expression midiant di, which you have already seen before, means through, via, by means of.
midiant di te a saran benedîts ducj i popui de tiere
through you all the peoples of the earth shall be blessed
they will bless
a saran benedîts
they will be blessed
The verb partî means to leave, to depart.
Abram al partì come che i veve dit il Signôr
Abram departed as the Lord had told him
The Friulian for 75 is setantecinc.
In the following, come che means as; cuant che means when:
come che i veve dit il Signôr
as the Lord had told him
cuant che al lassà Caran
when he left Haran
Daûrsi translates literally as behind oneself (daûr, behind + si, oneself); it can be taken here as meaning with himself.
al puartà daûrsi la sô femine
he took his wife (with himself)
(literally, he brought behind himself his wife)
For Abram, Lot was the fi di so fradi. Do you remember what this familial relation is called in Friulian? (See the notes at verse 31 on the linked page.)
The expression dâ dongje means to gather, to amass, to accumulate.
dut ce che a vevin rivât a dâ dongje
everything that they had managed to amass
Recall that il famei is the Friulian for servant.
ducj i fameis che si veve comprât
all the servants that one had bought
In the above, you have the impersonal construction che si veve comprât (that one had bought). The auxiliary with impersonal constructions of the sort is vê:
si à viodût lis feridis
one saw the wounds
(the wounds were seen)
si à fevelât di te
one spoke about you
(you were spoken about)
This verse ends with:
si meterin in viaç
they set out
(literally, they put themselves in voyage)
pe tiere di Canaan
for the land of Canaan
In the above, the expression metisi in viaç means to set out, to set off. The Friulian il viaç means voyage, trip, journey.
The expression fûr par fûr means through and through, from one end to the other; as for fintremai, its meaning is as far as.
al passà il paîs fûr par fûr
he traversed the land through and through
he passed through the land from one end to the other
fintremai al lûc sant di Sichem
as far as the holy site of Shechem
In the above, the Friulian il lûc means place, site; the adjective sant, which you have seen before, is the Friulian for holy, sacred.
The text continues:
dongje dal rôl di More
by the oak of Moreh
The Friulian for oak tree is il rôl. As for dongje di, it means near, alongside, by.
The text follows with another expression: in chê volte, which can be understood as meaning at that time, then.
In the notes at Gjenesi 10:30, you read that the expression jessi a stâ is employed in the sense of to live, to dwell; there, you found it used in the following: a jerin a stâ de bande di Mese (they lived [were living] on the side of Mesha, they lived [were living] out in Mesha). You also found the following supplementary example of usage: o soi a stâ in centri (I live in the city centre). In the current verse, you now find:
li a jerin a stâ i cananeus
there lived [were living] the Canaanites
The first time that you encountered the verb comparî was in Gjenesi 1:3, when you read: la lûs e comparì. You will remember that it means to appear. From the current verse now:
il Signôr i comparì a Abram
the Lord appeared to Abram
The text continues:
cheste tiere je darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give this land to your offspring
(literally, this land, I shall give it to your offspring)
In the above, you have an example of je, which is a contraction of i + le. Le stands in for la tiere.
i + le darai a la tô gjernazie
= je darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give it to your offspring
If, rather than the feminine la tiere, it were question of a masculine noun instead, jal would have been used. For example, if the text had used il paîs rather than la tiere, you would have found: jal darai a la tô gjernazie, where jal is a contraction of i + lu.
i + lu darai a la tô gjernazie
= jal darai a la tô gjernazie
I shall give it to your offspring
Recall that the Friulian for altar is un altâr.
i fasè un altâr al Signôr
he built [made] an altar to the Lord
che i jere comparît
who had appeared to him
In this verse, you come across soreli jevât (east) again; you now also come across, for the first time, its opposite: soreli a mont (west).
a soreli jevât di Betel
to the east of Bethel
in mût di vê Betel a soreli a mont
so as to have Bethel to the west
in mût di vê Ai a soreli jevât
so as to have Hai to the east
The verb plantâ in this verse can be taken as meaning to pitch. The expression to pitch a tent, then, is expressed in Friulian as plantâ une tende.
The verb preâ means to pray; in the context of this verse, you can understand it as meaning to invoke.
al preà il non dal Signôr
he invoked the name of the Lord
Spostant is the present participle of the verb spostâ, meaning to move. Il campament is the place where a camp has been set up.
spostant simpri il campament
continually moving the camp
(that is, continually journeying)
Simpri means always, continually.
This verse ends with:
al rivà tal Negheb
he arrived in the Negev
The Negev is a mountainous desert region in the south of modern-day Israel.
The sense of la miserie in this verse is famine.
intant e capità la miserie
in the meantime a famine occurred
Ta chês tieris means in those lands. You have seen a number of examples now using ta before chest or chel and its variants:
The Friulian for Egypt is l’Egjit.
al lè in Egjit
he went to Egypt
The Friulian verb sistemâ means to set up, to arrange; the reflexive sistemâsi means to set oneself up, to arrange oneself, to settle (in). In this verse, sistemâsi can be taken as to settle.
par sistemâsi là jù
in order to settle down there
In the above, là jù is the Friulian for down there (literally, there down). Below are related examples to learn:
là sù, up there
là jù, down there
al jere a stâ là sù
he lived (was living) up there
là sù in Polonie
là sù a Varsavie
up in Poland
up in Warsaw
là jù in Campanie
là jù a Napul
down in Campania
down in Naples
ca sù, up here
ca jù, down here
ca sù in Friûl
ca jù in Friûl
up here in Friuli
down here in Friuli
In this verse, you read that the famine was severe:
la miserie e jere masse nere
the famine was too severe
the famine was too great
Neri means black, dark. In the sentence above, neri (found here in its feminine form nere to agree with miserie) is taken in context in the sense of severe, grievous.
Another example of neri:
la peste nere
the Black Plague
the Great Plague
You encounter a new usage in this verse: the verb stâ followed by par conveys the sense of to be about to.
cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit
when he was about to enter Egypt
In the above, al stave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb stâ. You will also remember that Friulian says to enter (into) something: jentrâ in. You first encountered this in jentrâ ta l’arcje (to enter [into] the ark), in Gjenesi 7.
jentrâ in Egjit
to enter Egypt
to go into Egypt
The text continues with cjale mo (look now). Cjale is the second-person singular imperative of the verb cjalâ.
Jo o sai is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb savê, which you have already met. Review the Friulian verb savê in its present indicative conjugation.
jo o sai
che tu sês une biele femine
that you are a beautiful woman
The expression a pene che means as soon as.
a pene che i egjizians ti viodaran
as soon as the Egyptians will see you
An Egyptian is un egjizian.
You encounter a number of third-person plural futûr sempliç forms in this verse:
a viodaran, they will see
a disaran, they will say
a coparan, they will kill
a lassaran, they will leave
Take some time now to familiarise yourself with the futûr sempliç conjugation of the irregular verb dî (to say).
The expression lassâ in vite means to let live (literally, to leave in life); that is, to not kill.
they will kill me
e te ti lassaran in vite
and you, they will let you live
In the above, te is the stressed form of ti.
ti lassaran in vite
they will let you live
te ti lassaran in vite
you, they will let you live
Tu podaressis is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê.
you would be able
no tu podaressis
you would not be able
would you not be able?
no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr?
would you not be able to say that you are my sister?
Look now at the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the present conditional.
The Friulian verb tratâ means to treat. For example, mi trate come un cjan means he treats me like a dog.
mi trate ben
in mût che me trati ben
he treats me well
so that he treats me well
From the above, you see that the expression in mût che is followed by the subjunctive (me trate, but in mût che mi trati).
mi tratin ben
in mût che mi tratin ben
they treat me well
so that they treat me well
The third-person plural coniuntîf presint of the verb tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural presint indicatîf. The same applies, for example, to the verb fevelâ, which, like tratâ, also ends in â in its infinitive form:
al fevele (present indicative)
al feveli (present subjunctive)
a fevelin (present indicative)
a fevelin (present subjunctive)
In fact, for regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â, it is only in the third-person singular that there is a difference between the presint indicatîf forms and those of the coniuntîf presint. Observe the following, this time using the verb amâ (to love):
o ami (present indicative)
o ami (present subjunctive)
tu amis (present indicative)
tu amis (present subjunctive)
al ame (present indicative)
al ami (present subjunctive)
e ame (present indicative)
e ami (present subjunctive)
o amìn (present indicative)
o amìn (present subjunctive)
o amais (present indicative)
o amais (present subjunctive)
a amin (present indicative)
a amin (present subjunctive)
Consider now the following: in mût che mi tratin ben ancje me. In ancje me, you have the stressed form of mi. This translates literally as so that they treat me well, also me.
The expression par vie di te can be understood as meaning by way of you, on account of you. The similar expression in gracie tô can be understood as meaning thanks to you, on account of you. The expressions here are par vie di and in gracie di. Examples:
in gracie dal so talent
thanks to his talent
because of his talent
par vie dal fat che
because of the fact that
by way of the fact that
The Friulian verb sparagnâ means to spare, to save.
in mût che mi sparagnin
so that they spare me
The expression di fat can be taken here as in point of fact. The remainder of the language used in this verse should not present any particular difficulties to you.
Appearing in this verse is al veve, which you know is the third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê.
Below you will find a chart outlining the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb vê. For good measure, you will also find below the imperfect indicative conjugation of the verb jessi.
The Friulian for pharaoh is il faraon.
i uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin
the officials of the Pharaoh saw her
Un uficiâl is an official; in this context, it refers to the courtiers of the Pharaoh.
Now would be a good time to look at a complete conjugation of the verb fevelâ in the passât sempliç. For verbs whose infinitive ends in â, you can use the conjugation below as a model of the simple past.
In this verse, you find a lerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Below, you will find the entire conjugation of the irregular verb lâ in the simple past.
Return now to the text of the verse: the verb contâ means to tell; contâi, then, means to tell him. In the text, you find contâi robononis al faraon, which you can understand as meaning to tell great things to the Pharaoh.
a lerin a contâ
they went to tell
contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon
to tell great things about her to the Pharaoh
From the above, sul su cont can be taken as meaning about her, regarding her. Une robone or une robonone means great thing, exceptional thing. The root is robe, meaning thing.
Recall the meaning of the verb menâ, which is to bring, to lead.
la femine le menarin tal palaç
they brought the woman into the palace
Note the use of both la femine and le (which refers to la femine). The above translates literally as the woman, they brought her into the palace. This form of repetition is not uncommon in Friulian.
Depending on the context, il palaç can mean palace, building, apartment block. A few contemporary examples in a sense other than palace include:
il palaç dai congrès
You have seen the use of chel before in the sense of he, that one. In this verse, chel refers to il faraon.
chel al tratà ben Abram
he treated Abram well
You have another example now of the expression in gracie di, which you first saw in verse 13 above.
in gracie di jê
thanks to her
because of her
Abram came to have (al rivà a vê) the following:
(nouns shown in singular form)
il besteam minût, small livestock (flocks)*
il besteam grant, large livestock (herds)*
il mus, ass, male donkey
la musse, she-ass, female donkey
il famei, male servant, manservant
la sierve, female servant, handmaid, maidservant
il camêl, camel
*Sheep are besteam minût; oxen are besteam grant.
La sierve is the feminine form for servant; its masculine equivalent is il sierf.
Note that il camêl forms its plural as i camêi. You have seen other examples of this plural formation using i:
il camêl –> i camêi
il nemâl –> i nemâi
l’arbul –> i arbui
il popul –> i popui
il nûl –> i nûi
The Friulian verb implaiâ means to plague. It derives from the noun la plae (or plaie), meaning plague.
il Signôr al implaià il faraon
the Lord plagued the Pharaoh
You will recall that la int means people; dute la sô int, then, means all his people.
In this verse, you have another example of the expression par vie di, which you first encountered in verse 13: par vie di Sarai (on account of Sarai, because of Sarai).
The expression mandâ a clamâ can be taken as meaning to send for. It translates literally as to send to call; that is, to send (one person) to call (another).
il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram
the Pharaoh sent for Abram
The Pharaoh asks:
ce mi âstu fat?
what have you done to me?
Daurman means immediately, straight away.
parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman
why then did you not tell me straight away
ch’e jere la tô femine?
that she was your wife?
In jo me ai cjolte par femine, me is a contraction of mi + le, where le stands in for la femine (Sarai). The reflexive verb cjolisi means to take for oneself, to take unto oneself; its past participle is cjolt.
jo mi + le ai cjolte
= jo me ai cjolte
I took her unto myself
Par femine means as wife.
The text continues:
cumò ve chi la tô femine
here now is your wife
The Pharaoh says: cjolte! (take her!) and vatint! (go away!, leave!, be gone!).
The second-person singular and plural imperative forms of the verb lâ (to go) are va and lait. As for vatint, found in this verse, this is the second-person singular imperative of lâsint (to go away, to get out, to go off, to leave, etc.). Lâsint is composed of lâ + si + int.
vatint! (second-person singular)
(= va + ti + int)
laitsint! (second-person plural)
(= lait + si + int)
More examples of lâsint from the Bible:
al tornarà a lâsint come ch’al è vignût (Qoelet 5:14)
he will depart again just as he came
cumò vatint te tô tiere! (Numars 24:11)
now go off to your land!
laitsint te vuestre tiere! (Numars 22:13)
go off to your land!
il Signôr s’indi lè (Gjenesi 18:33)
the Lord departed; left; went off
The verb ordenâ means to order, to command. The noun il trop can be understood as group, squad, troop.
il faraon al ordenà a un trop di oms di…
the Pharaoh ordered a group of men to…
Note that Friulian says to order unto someone to do something; this is why you find a un trop di oms in the text.
The expression fint a, which you have seen before, means as far as, until. Menâ fint a la frontiere, then, means to take (lead) as far as the border, where la frontiere is the Friulian for border. You read: menâ fint a la frontiere (to take as far as the border) lui (him), la sô femine (his wife) e dute la sô robe (and all his things); that is, to take him, his wife and all his possessions to the border.