Friulian language series: Gjenesi 12, clamade di Abram

The twelfth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: la clamade di Abram (call of Abram); Abram in Egjit (Abram in Egypt).

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Versets 1-3

Vocabulary: (to say), lassâ (to leave), la tiere (land), la parintât (kin), la cjase (house), il pari (father), (to go), mostrâ (to show), (to make), grant (great), il popul (people), benedî (to bless), deventâ (to become), une vore (very), il non (name), jessi (to be), la benedizion (blessing), maludî (to curse), midiant di (by way of).

Verse 1: Il Signôr i disè a Abram (the Lord said to Abram): lasse la tô tiere (leave your land), la tô parintât (your kin) e la cjase di to pari (and the house of your father) par lâ te tiere che ti mostrarai* (to go into the land which I will show to you). — *Jo o mostrarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mostrâ; in the presence of ti, the atonic o is not expressed: o mostrarai (I will show); ti mostrarai (I will show to you). Observe the following, the infinitives whereof all end in â: o mostrarai (I will show); o fevelarai (I will speak); o lassarai (I will leave); o coparai (I will kill). Familiarise yourself more fully with the Friulian simple future by studying the conjugation table below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the futûr sempliç. This conjugation serves as a model for verbs whose infinitive ends in â.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarai
fevelaraio?
tu
tu fevelarâs
fevelarâstu?
lui
al fevelarà
fevelaraial?

e fevelarà
fevelaraie?

o fevelarìn
fevelarìno?
vualtris
o fevelarês
fevelarêso?
lôr
a fevelaran
fevelarano?

Verse 2: Jo o fasarai di te (I will make of you) un grant popul (a great people), ti benedissarai (I will bless you), o fasarai deventâ une vore grant il to non (I will make your name become very great) e tu tu sarâs une benedizion (and you shall be a blessing). — Three futûr sempliç forms appear in the text of this verse: jo o fasarai (I will make); jo o benedissarai (I will bless); tu tu sarâs (you shall be). The verbs jessi (to be) and (to make) are conjugated below in the futûr sempliç.

Verb: JESSI
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o sarai
saraio?
tu
tu sarâs
sarâstu?
lui
al sarà
saraial?

e sarà
saraie?

o sarìn
sarìno?
vualtris
o sarês
sarêso?
lôr
a saran
sarano?

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fasarai
fasaraio?
tu
tu fasarâs
fasarâstu?
lui
al fasarà
fasaraial?

e fasarà
fasaraie?

o fasarìn
fasarìno?
vualtris
o fasarês
fasarêso?
lôr
a fasaran
fasarano?

Verse 3: O benedissarai (I will bless) chei che ti benedissaran* (those who bless [will bless] you) e o maludissarai (and I will curse) chei che ti maludissaran* (those who curse [will curse] you). Midiant di te a saran benedîts ducj i popui de tiere: by way of you shall all the peoples of the earth be blessed. — *Third-person plural forms of the futûr sempliç.

Versets 4-9

Vocabulary: alore (then), partî (to depart), (to say), ancje (also), (to have), setantecinc (seventy-five), un an (year), lassâ (to leave), puartâ daûrsi (to bear behind oneself), la femine (wife), il fi (son), il fradi (brother), rivâ a (to be able to), dâ dongje (to give alongside), il famei (servant), comprâ (to acquire), metisi (to put oneself), il viaç (journey), la tiere (land), passâ (to pass), il paîs (country), fûr par fûr (through and through), fintremai a (as far as), il lûc (place), sant (holy), dongje di (alongside), il rôl (oak), la volte (time), li (there), jessi a stâ (to dwell), il cananeu (Canaanite), comparî (to appear), (to give), la gjernazie (line), (to make), un altâr (altar), di li (thence), passâ (to pass), la mont (mountain), a soreli jevât (to the east), plantâ (to plant), la tende (tent), in mût di ({in order} to), a soreli a mont (to the west), preâ (to pray), il non (name), podopo (thereupon), spostâ (to move), simpri (ever), il campament (encampment), rivâ (to arrive).

Verse 4: Alore Abram al partì (then Abram departed) come che i veve dit il Signôr (as the Lord had said to him) e ancje Lot al partì cun lui (and also Lot departed with him). Abram al veve setantecinc agns (Abram was seventy-five years old [had seventy-five years]) cuant che al lassà Caran (when he left Haran).

Verses 5-6: Abram al puartà daûrsi (Abram bore behind himself) la sô femine Sarai (his wife Sarai), Lot, fi di so fradi (Lot his brother’s son), dut ce che a vevin rivât a dâ dongje (all that which they had been able to draw together [give alongside]) e ducj i fameis che si veve comprât a Caran (and all the servants who had been acquired at Haran). Si meterin in viaç pe tiere di Canaan (they put themselves in journey for the land of Canaan) e Abram al passà il paîs fûr par fûr (and Abram passed the country through and through) fintremai al lûc sant di Sichem (as far as the holy place of Shechem), dongje dal rôl di More (alongside the oak of Moreh). In chê volte (at [in] that time), li a jerin a stâ i cananeus (the Canaanites were dwelling there).

Verse 7: Il Signôr i comparì a Abram (the Lord appeared to Abram) e i disè (and said to him): cheste tiere je* darai a la tô gjernazie (this land will I give to your line). Alore Abram i fasè un altâr al Signôr (then Abram made an altar to the Lord) che i jere comparît (who had appeared to him). — *Je is a contraction of i + le (unto it + it), where i aligns with a la tô gjernazie and le stands in for cheste tiere.

Verse 8: Di li al passà su la mont (thence he passed upon the mountain), a soreli jevât di Betel (to the east of Bethel), e al plantà la sô tende (and planted his tent) in mût di vê Betel a soreli a mont (as to have Bethel to the west) e Ai a soreli jevât (and Ai to the east). Li i fasè un altâr al Signôr (there he made an altar to the Lord) e al preà il non dal Signôr (and prayed the name of the Lord).

Verse 9: Podopo (thereupon), spostant simpri il campament (ever moving the encampment), al rivà tal Negheb (he arrived in the Negev).

Versets 10-13

Vocabulary: intant (meanwhile), capitâ (to come to pass), la miserie (famine), la tiere (land), (to go), sistemâsi (to settle oneself), là jù (down there), masse (very), neri (grievous), stâ par (to be about to), jentrâ (to enter), (to say), la femine (woman), cjalâ (to look), savê (to know), jessi (to be), biel (fine), a pene che (so soon as), un egjizian (Egyptian), viodi (to see), (to say), copâ (to kill), lassâ (to leave), la vite (life), podê (can), la sûr (sister), in mût che ({in order} that), tratâ (to treat), ben (well), ancje (also), par vie di (on account of), sparagnâ (to spare), in gracie tô (thanks to you).

Verse 10: Intant e capità la miserie (meanwhile the famine came to pass) ta chês tieris (in those lands) e Abram al lè in Egjit (and Abram went into Egypt) par sistemâsi là jù (to settle himself down there), parcè che la miserie e jere masse nere* (for the famine was very grievous). — *Neri is also the Friulian for black; for instance, the Black Plague is termed la peste nere in Friulian.

Verse 11: Cuant che al stave par jentrâ in Egjit (when he was about to enter into Egypt), i disè a la sô femine Sarai (he said to his wife Sarai): cjale mo (look then): jo o sai che tu sês une biele femine (I know that you are a fine woman).

Verse 12: A pene che i egjizians ti viodaran (so soon as the Egyptians see [will see] you), a disaran (they will say): e je la sô femine (she is his wife), e mi coparan (and they will kill me) e te ti lassaran in vite (and you they will leave in life). — A number of third-person plural forms of the futûr sempliç appear in the text of this verse: a viodaran (they will see); a disaran (they will say); a coparan (they will kill); a lassaran (they will let). The futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb  is presented below.

Verb:
Futûr sempliç
Simple future

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o disarai
disaraio?
tu
tu disarâs
disarâstu?
lui
al disarà
disaraial?

e disarà
disaraie?

o disarìn
disarìno?
vualtris
o disarês
disarêso?
lôr
a disaran
disarano?

Verse 13: No podaressistu* mo dî che tu sês mê sûr (could you not then say that you are my sister), in mût che mi tratin+ ben ancje me (that they may treat me well also me) par vie di te (on account of you) e che mi sparagnin in gracie tô? (and that they may spare me thanks to you?). — *Tu tu podaressis (you could) is the second-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb podê. Consider the following: tu podaressis (you could); no tu podaressis (you could not); no podaressistu? (could you not?); no podaressistu dî che tu sês mê sûr? (could you not say that you are my sister?). Familiarise yourself more fully with the Friulian present conditional by studying the conjugation table below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the condizionâl presint; for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, this conjugation serves as a model. +The verb tratâ means to treat; for instance, mi trate come un cjan means he treats me like a dog. Observe the following, where in mût che is followed by the subjunctive: mi trate ben (he treats me well); in mût che me trati ben (that he may treat me well); mi tratin ben (they treat me well); in mût che mi tratin ben (that they may treat me well). The third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint of tratâ takes the same form as the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf.

Verb: FEVELÂ
Condizionâl presint
Present conditional

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelarès
fevelaressio?
tu
tu fevelaressis
fevelaressistu?
lui
al fevelarès
fevelaressial?

e fevelarès
fevelaressie?

o fevelaressin
fevelaressino?
vualtris
o fevelaressis
fevelaressiso?
lôr
a fevelaressin
fevelaressino?

Versets 14-20

Vocabulary: di fat (in fact), rivâ (to arrive), un egjizian (Egyptian), viodi (to see), (to have), biel (fine), la femine (wife), un uficiâl (official), il faraon (pharaoh), (to go), contâ (to recount), la robonone (great wonder), il cont (account), menâ (to lead), il palaç (palace), tratâ ben (to treat well), in gracie di (thanks to), il besteam (cattle), minût (little), grant (great), il mus (ass), il famei (manservant), la sierve (maidservant), la musse (she-ass), il camêl (camel), implaiâ (to plague), la int (people), par vie di (on account of), mandâ (to send), clamâ (to call), (to say), daurman (forthwith), la sûr (sister), cussì (so), cjoli (to take), cumò (now), ve chi (here is), lâsint (to leave), ordenâ (to order), il trop (group), un om (man), fint a (as far as), la frontiere (frontier), la robe (matter).

Verse 14: E di fat (and in fact), cuant che Abram al rivà in Egjit (when Abram arrived in Egypt), i egjizians a vioderin (the Egyptians saw) che al veve une biele femine (that he had a fine wife).Al veve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê. Presented below is the imperfect indicative of vê; for good measure, the same of jessi is also given.

Verb:
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o vevi
vevio?
tu
tu vevis
vevistu?
lui
al veve
vevial?

e veve
vevie?

o vevin
vevino?
vualtris
o vevis
veviso?
lôr
a vevin
vevino?

Verb: JESSI
Imperfet indicatîf
Imperfect indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o jeri
jerio?
tu
tu jeris
jeristu?
lui
al jere
jerial?

e jere
jerie?

o jerin
jerino?
vualtris
o jeris
jeriso?
lôr
a jerin
jerino?

Verse 15: I uficiâi dal faraon le vioderin* (the pharaoh’s officials saw her) e a lerin a contâi robononis sul so cont al faraon (and went to recount great wonders on her account to the pharaoh); e la femine le menarin tal palaç dal faraon (and the woman, she was led [they led her] into the pharaoh’s palace). — *A vioderin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç; consider this form alongside others: a vioderin (they saw); a lerin (they went); a fevelarin (they spoke); a diserin (they said); a faserin (they made); a coparin (they killed); a mangjarin (they ate). Observe now the full passât sempliç conjugation of fevelâ, which serves as a model for verbs whose infinitive ends in â (exceptions include lâ, dâ, fâ).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Passât sempliç
Simple past

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fevelai
fevelario?
tu
tu fevelaris
fevelaristu?
lui
al fevelà
fevelarial?

e fevelà
fevelarie?

o fevelarin
fevelarino?
vualtris
o fevelaris
fevelariso?
lôr
a fevelarin
fevelarino?

Verse 16: E chel* al tratà ben Abram (and that one treated Abram well) in gracie di jê (thanks to her): al rivà a vê (he was able to gain) besteam minût e grant (cattle little and great), mus, fameis, siervis, mussis e camêi+ (asses, menservants, maidservants, she-asses and camels). — *Pharaoh. +The masculine camêl, which ends in l preceded by a vowel, forms its plural as camêi. Observe more instances thereof: nemâl takes the plural form nemâi; arbul takes the plural form arbui; popul takes the plural form popui; nûl takes the plural form nûi.

Verse 17: Ma il Signôr al implaià il faraon (but the Lord plagued the pharaoh) e dute la sô int (and all his people) par vie di Sarai, la femine di Abram (on account of Sarai the wife of Abram). — The Friulian for plague is the feminine plae (standardised plaie); this noun is at the root of the verb implaiâ.

Verse 18: Alore il faraon al mandà a clamâ Abram (then the pharaoh *sent to call* Abram) e i disè (and said to him): ve mi âstu fat? (what have you done to me?). Parcè mo no mi âstu dit daurman (why then did you not say to me forthwith) ch’e jere la tô femine? (that she was your wife?). — *To ‘send to call’ is to send a one to call for another, which is to say that the king of Egypt sent one of his men to summon Abram. I have adopted the literal rendering ‘send to call’ wherever mandâ a clamâ appears.

Verse 19: Parcè âstu dit (why did you say): e je mê sûr (she is my sister), e cussì jo me* ai cjolte par femine? (and so I took her unto myself for wife?). Cumò ve chi la tô femine (now here is your wife): cjolte+ e vatint¬ (take her unto yourself and leave). — *Me is the contraction of mi + le (unto me + her), where le stands in for la femine. +Cjolte is the contraction cjol + ti + le (take + unto yourself + her). ¬Of lâsint (to leave), the second-person singular imperative is vatint; the second-person plural imperative, for information, is laitsint.

Verse 20: Il faraon al ordenà *a un trop di oms* (the pharaoh ordered a group of men) di menâ fint a la frontiere (to lead as far as the frontier) lui, la sô femine e dute la sô robe (him, his wife and all his matter). — *A un trop di oms: literally, unto a group of men.