This post continues your study of the Friulian language as used in the Bible; you will now begin your study of the eleventh chapter of the Book of Genesis, where the subject is la torate di Babêl (tower of Babel). In this post, you will examine verses 1-9; that is, Gjenesi 11:1-9.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).
Below, in the notes for the first verse, the imperfect indicative conjugation of regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â is outlined. You will also learn, in the notes for verse 4, how to use the imperative in the negative.
The Friulian text that you will study was prepared by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.
Before you begin your study below, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:
- Read and hear Gjenesi 11:1-9 in a new window on bibie.org
- Read and hear Gjenesi 11:1-9 in this same window on bibie.org
The reading of these verses in the video starts at 0:00 and ends at 1:40.
As you have seen before, the verb fevelâ means to speak. You have also studied the verb fevelâ in its present indicative conjugation as a model for verbs ending in â in their infinitive form, in the notes for verse 8 on that page.
In the current verse, you find fevelâ used its masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf conjugation: al fevelave.
dut il mont al fevelave la stesse lenghe
the whole world spoke the same language
the whole world used to speak the same language
The verb doprâ means to use. In this verse, you also find this verb used in its masculine, third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf conjugation: al doprave.
dut il mont al doprave lis stessis peraulis
the whole world used the same words
the whole world used to use the same words
The Friulian for word is la peraule.
Compare these pairs, using the Friulian word for same:
la stesse lenghe
lis stessis lenghis
the same language
the same languages
il stes risultât
i stes risultâts
the same result
the same results
Take some time now to study the conjugation chart below, showing the verb fevelâ conjugated in the imperfet indicatîf. For this tense, you can use this conjugation as your model for verbs ending in â in their infinitive form.
Imperfect indicative of fevelâ
(I was speaking; used to speak)
(I was speaking; used to speak?)
(you were speaking; used to speak)
(you were speaking; used to speak?)
(he was speaking; used to speak)
(he was speaking; used to speak?)
(she was speaking; used to speak)
(she was speaking; used to speak?)
(we were speaking; used to speak)
(we were speaking; used to speak?)
(you were speaking; used to speak)
(you were speaking; used to speak?)
(they were speaking; used to speak)
(they were speaking; used to speak?)
You will perhaps remember the use of soreli jevât (east; literally, risen sun) from Gjenesi 2:8. In the current verse, you find soreli jevât used in the expression plaçâsi a soreli jevât. The reflexive verb plaçâsi means to position oneself, to place oneself. In the context of this verse, you can understand it as meaning to settle.
si plaçarin a soreli jevât
they settled in the east
(literally, they placed themselves in the east)
The Friulian la concje means valley, basin. Rivâ tune concje, then, means to arrive at a valley (literally, to arrive in a valley). You will remember that intune or tune is a contraction of in + une.
In Gjenesi 10, you saw that the Friulian Senaar (placename) is equivalent to the English Shinar.
The reflexive verb fermâsi means to stop oneself.
si fermarin li
they stopped there
This verse begins with the expression dîsi un cul altri, meaning to say to one another, where un cul altri literally means one with the other.
si diserin un cul altri
they said to one another
Dai as used in this verse is an interjection meaning come on, go to, etc.
The Friulian il modon means brick. Fâ modons, then, translates as to make bricks.
The reflexive verb metisi translates literally as to put oneself, to set oneself. For example, to put oneself to work can be rendered in Friulian as metisi a lavorâ. Metisi a fâ modons, as found in this verse, means to put oneself to making bricks; that is, to undertake making bricks. More precisely, in this verse, you read:
dai, metìnsi a fâ modons
come on, let us put ourselves to making bricks
(that is, come on, let us undertake making bricks)
Metìn is the first-person plural imperative form of the verb meti. Metìnsi is its reflexive equivalent.
let us put!
let us put ourselves!
This is not the first time that you are seeing this si ending in the imperative. You have already seen it in multiplicaitsi, from Gjenesi 1:28. Multiplicait is the second-person plural imperative form of the verb multiplicâ. Multiplicaitsi is its reflexive equivalent.
The verb cuei means to cook; cueiju, then, means to cook them.
metìnsi a cueiju tal fûc
let us put ourselves to cooking them in the fire
(that is, let us undertake cooking them in the fire)
The Friulian il fûc means fire.
You will perhaps recall that impen di means in place of.
a dopravin il modon impen dal clap
they used brick in place of stone
a dopravin il catram impen de malte
they used pitch in place of mortar
In the above, il clap means stone; il catram is tar, pitch; and la malte is mortar.
You will have recognised a dopravin as being the third-person plural, imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb doprâ.
he was speaking; used to speak
he was using; used to use
they were speaking; used to speak
they were using; used to use
Fasìno is the interrogative form of o fasìn, which is the second-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb fâ. You can consult the present indicative conjugation of the verb fâ here, in the notes for verse 9 on that page.
do we make?
parcè no fasìno?
we do not make
why do we not make?
The Friulian word for tower is la torate. La torate di Babêl, then, is the tower of Babel. The top of the tower is referred to in this verse as la spice; you have already seen this noun before, in lis spicis des monts.
The expression rivâ fint in cîl can be understood as meaning to reach the heaven, or more literally to arrive as far as the heaven.
rivâ cu la spice fint in cîl
to arrive with the top as far as the heaven
(that is, to reach the heaven with its top)
More precisely, in the text you read: une torate ch’e rivi cu la spice fint in cîl. E rivi is the feminine, third-person singular, coniuntîf presint conjugation of the verb rivâ. The present subjunctive e rivi is used here rather than the present indicative e rive because the tower has not yet been created; the construction of it is still a proposition.
la torate e rive cu la spice fint in cîl
the tower reaches the heaven with its top
(the tower already exists)
parcè no fasìno une torate ch’e rivi cu la spice fint in cîl?
why do we not make a tower that reaches (may reach) the heaven with its top?
(the tower does not yet exist)
The expression fâsi un non means to make a name for oneself. Fasìn is its second-person plural imperative form; its reflexive equivalent is fasìnsi.
let us make!
let us make ourselves!
fasìnsi un non
let us make ourselves a name
let us make a name for ourselves
In the negative, the Friulian imperative works as follows:
no stâ a fevelâ (second-person singular)
do not speak
no stait a fevelâ (second-person plural)
do not speak
no stin a fevelâ (first-person plural)
let us not speak
In the text, you find:
no stin a dividisi
let us not divide ourselves
ator pal mont
around the world
You will recall that pal is a contraction of par + il; that is, ator par + il mont. Ator par means around.
Can you now say the following in Friulian? The expression to waste time in Friulian is pierdi timp (literally, to lose time).
- do not waste time (second-person singular)
- do not waste time (second-person plural)
- let us not waste time (first-person plural)
- no stâ a pierdi timp
- no stait a pierdi timp
- no stin a pierdi timp
The expression vignî jù means to come down. As for the expression dâ une cjalade, this translates as to take a look (literally, to give a look).
il Signôr al vignì jù
the Lord came down
a dâi une cjalade a la citât
to take a look at the city
In this verse, you find another expression: butâ sù (to build, to erect).
la torate che i oms a stavin butant sù
the tower that the men were building
al sta rivant
he is arriving (now)
The second example of the pair above emphasises the in-process nature of the action.
The wording from the text la torate che i oms a stavin butant sù conveys the sense of the tower that the men were (in the process of) building (at that moment).
In al sta rivant from the example above, al sta is the masculine, third-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb stâ; it is followed by rivant, which is the present participle of the verb rivâ.
In a stavin butant sù from the text, a stavin is the third-person plural, imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb stâ; it is followed by butant, which is the present participle of the verb butâ.
al sta cjalant
al sta tornant
al sta doprant
he is (in the process of) looking; returning; using (at this moment)
a stan cjalant
a stan tornant
a stan doprant
they are (in the process of) looking; returning; using (at this moment)
al stave cjalant
al stave tornant
al stave doprant
he was (in the process of) looking; returning; using (at that moment)
a stavin cjalant
a stavin tornant
a stavin doprant
they were (in the process of) looking; returning; using (at that moment)
You will remember that ve means behold; in this verse, you find ju (them) suffixed to it.
Un popul sôl means a single people, one people. The masculine sôl (single, one) becomes sole in feminine form.
The Friulian il cjaveç refers to one of the two extremities of a thing; it is related to the noun il cjâf (head). For example, di un cjaveç al altri dal mont means from one end of the world to the other. In the context of this verse, il cjaveç can be understood as meaning beginning, starting point.
chest al è dome il cjaveç
this is only the beginning
di ce che a àn voe di fâ
of that which they want to do
The Friulian la voe (or la voie) means longing, will, desire. The expression vê voe di fâ (or vê voie di fâ) can be understood as meaning to want to do, to feel like doing, to long to do, etc.
o ai voie di lâ vie
I want to leave
I want to go away
(literally, I have [the] desire to go away)
The text continues:
se a van indenant cussì
if they continue like this
a rivaran a fâ
they shall succeed in doing
dut ce che a volaran
all that which they shall desire
everything that they shall desire
The expression lâ indenant translates literally as to go forwards, to go ahead. It is used here in the sense of to continue.
You will recall that the expression rivâ a fâ means to manage to do, to succeed in doing.
A rivaran and a volaran are the third-person plural, futûr sempliç conjugations of the verbs rivâ and volê.
Like dai seen above, anìn is an interjection meaning come on, go to.
The verb dismontâ as used in this verse means to descend, to go down. It is used here in combination with jù (down). Dismontìn is its first-person plural imperative form.
let us go down
let us descend
The verb confusionâ means to confuse.
confusionìnju tal lôr lengaç
let us confuse them in their language
In the above, you will recognise confusionìn as being the first-person plural imperative form, to which ju (them) has been suffixed.
In these verses, you have encountered two words for language: la lenghe and il lengaç. Strictly speaking, in contemporary usage, la lenghe refers to a specific tongue spoken by a group of people (Friulian language, Polish language, Ukrainian language, etc.), whereas il lengaç refers to language in the sense of human speech in general; for example, la facoltât dal lengaç (capacity, faculty of language).
The verb capî means to understand. You find this verb used here in reflexive form, along with un cul altri (one another).
par che no rivin a capîsi un cul altri
so that they do not succeed in understanding one another
The verb sparniçâ means to scatter.
il Signôr ju sparniçà par dut il mont
the Lord scattered them all over the world
In the sixth verse, you encountered the expression lâ indenant, in the sense of to continue. In the current verse, you find it expressed as lâ indevant, with the same meaning. Both indenant and indevant mean ahead.
no lerin plui indevant
they continued no more
they no longer went ahead
cu la lôr citât
with their city
A lerin, which you have seen before, is the third-person plural, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb lâ.
You will remember that the expression meti non means to name.
i meterin non Babêl
they named it Babel
In the above, the indirect i (literally, to it) is used because Friulian says to put name to something. The above translates literally as to it they put name Babel.
Alì means there.
al è stât alì che
it was there that
il Signôr al à confusionât il lengaç di ducj i oms
the Lord confused the language of all men
In this verse, you find the verb sparniçâ used reflexively: sparniçâsi (to scatter oneself).
si son sparniçâts
they scattered themselves
par dut il mont
all over the world
Si son sparnicâts is the third-person plural, passât prossim conjugation of the reflexive verb sparniçâsi.