Friulian language series: Gjenesi 10, liste dai popui

In this post, you continue to learn Friulian by studying the entirety of the tenth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la dissendence dai fîs di Noè (lineage of Noah’s sons).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 10

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 10. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

This first verse tells you this is the lineage of the sons of Noah. La dissendence is Friulian for lineage, descendants. Recall that ve chi means behold, or simply this is.

You have already seen that Sem, Cam and Jafet are the Friulian versions of the names Shem, Ham and Japheth.

The feminine la fiolance means offspring; it is related to the Friulian for son: il fi.

a àn vude fiolance dopo dal diluvi
they had offspring after the flood

In the above, the past participle vût is accorded in the feminine singular as vude, to agree in gender and number with the noun la fiolance immediately following it.

Versets 2-4

Verse 2: This verse lists the sons of Japheth. New names appear: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Mesec, Tiras. These names are the same in English except for Mesec, which is the Friulian version of Meshech.

The sons of Gomer are listed in verse 3: Askenaz (Ashkenaz), Rifat (Riphath), Togarme (Togarmah).

The lineage of Javan is listed in verse 4: Elise (Elishah), Tarsis (Tarshish), i kitim (the Kittim), i dodanim (the Dodanim).

Verset 5

There is no new grammar to point out in this verse, but there is vocabulary to be learnt or reviewed, including: la int (people, family), scomençâ (to start, to begin), dividisi (to divide oneself, to separate oneself), une isule (island, isle; the plural isulis is used here), il forest (foreigner; the plural forescj is used here), seont (according to), il paîs (land, country), il lengaç (speech; language), la tribù (tribe, clan), la gjernazie (offspring).

la int e à scomençât a dividisi
the people began to separate
the people started to split up

ognidun seont il so lengaç
each according to his speech (language)

The Friulian for language is expressed as either la lenghe or il lengaç. A specific tongue (Friulian language, Polish language) is called une lenghe (lenghe is the Friulian for the tongue as a body part); human language in general (speech, speaking) is il lengaç.

Versets 6-7

The sons of Ham are listed in verse 6: Kus (Cush), Misraim (Mizraim), Put (Phut), Canaan (Canaan).

The sons of Cush are listed in verse 7: Sebe (Seba), Avile (Havilah), Sabte (Sabtah), Rame (Raamah), Sabteche (Sabtechah); and the sons of Raamah: Sabe (Shebah), Dedan (Dedan).

Verset 8

Recall that the verb vê, in addition to meaning to have, can also mean to get, to beget, to obtain, etc.

Kus al à vût Nimrod
Cush begot Nimrod

Grant, as an adjective, means big, mighty. As a noun, il grant can be understood as meaning mighty man.

al è stât il prin grant di chest mont
he was the first mighty man of this world

Verset 9

The Friulian for hunter is il cjaçadôr. The adjective brâf means good, skilled, able; its feminine form is brave.

al jere un cjaçadôr brâf
he was a good hunter
he was an able hunter

Recall that denant di means before, in front of: denant dal Signôr (before the Lord).

The reflexive verb dîsi means to be said. Si dîs, then, means it is said; this is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf.

par chel si dîs che
for this reason it is said that

Come Nimrod means like Nimrod.

Compare the following:

un cjaçadôr brâf
il cjaçadôr plui brâf
an able hunter
the most able hunter

It does not appear in this verse, but the Friulian verb for to hunt is cjaçâ, which is related to il cjaçadôr.

cjaçâ un cierf
to hunt a deer

Verset 10

Recall that il paron means ruler, master.

al à scomençât a jessi paron di
he started to be the ruler of

A number of placenames appear in this verse: Babêl (Babel), Uruc (Uruk), Acad (Akkad), Calne (Calneh), Senaar (Shinar).

The Friulian la citât means city; its plural form is lis citâts.

dutis citâts che a son te tiere di Senaar
all (these are) cities that are in the land of Shinar

Verset 11

New placenames appear: Ninive (Nineveh), Recobot-Ir (Rehoboth), Calac (Calah).

Assur (Asshur) is a son of Shem; see verse 22.

Recall that the expression saltâ fûr, depending on the context, can mean to come out, to go out, to go forth, to flow out (of a river), etc.

di li al saltà fûr Assur
from there Asshur came forth

You have seen the expression fâ sù before in the context of a settlement (see Gjenesi 4:17): it means to build, to establish.

al fasè sù Ninive
he built Nineveh

Verset 12

The placename Resen appears, which is the same in English. Fra means between: fra Ninive e Calac (between Nineveh and Calah).

Grande is the feminine form of the adjective grant. Une grande citât means great city, mighty city. E sarès is the feminine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb jessi.

Verset 13

The sons of Mizraim are listed: Lud (Ludim), Anam (Anamim), Laab (Lehabim), Naftuc (Naphtuhim).

Lis tribûs is the plural of la tribù (tribe, clan).

Verset 14

The list of Mizraim’s sons continues: Patros (Pathrusim), Casluc (Casluhim), Caftor (Caphtorim). I filisteus are the Philistines; its singular form is il filisteu.

di li dopo a son saltâts fûr i filisteus
from them (literally, from there) the Philistines later came forth

Versets 15-18

Verse 15: Canaan’s lineage begins. Sidon (Sidon), Chet (Heth). Sidon was his first son: il prin fi.

Verse 16: il gjebuseu (the Jebusite), l’amoreu (the Amorite), il gjergjeseu (the Girgasite).

Verse 17: l’eveu (the Hivite), l’archit (the Arkite), il sinit (the Sinite).

Verse 18: l’arvadit (the Arvadite), il semarit (the Zemarite), l’amatit (the Hamathite). I cananeus are the Canaanites; its singular form is il cananeu. Plui in ca means later on, afterwards. The reflexive verb dispierdisi means to disperse oneself.

lis tribûs dai cananeus si dispierderin
the clans of the Canaanites dispersed

Verset 19

New placenames appear in this verse: Gjerar (Gerar), Gaze (Gaza), Sodome (Sodom), Gomore (Gomorrah), Adme (Admah), Zeboim (Zeboim), Lese (Lasha).

The Friulian il confin means confine, border. De bande di can be understood as on the side of. Fint a translates as until, as far as.

il confin dai cananeus
the border of the Canaanites

al leve di Sidon de bande di Gjerar
it went from Sidon on the Gerar side

fint a Gaze
as far as Gaza

Al leve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb .

Verset 20

This verse does not present any new usages.

Verset 21

A new name appears: Eber, which is the same as in English.

ancje Sem al à vude dissendence
Shem also begot descendants

Versets 22-24

The sons of Shem are listed in verse 22: Elam (Elam), Assur (Asshur), Arpacsad (Arphaxad), Lud (Lud), Aram (Aram).

The sons of Aram are listed in verse 23: Uz (Uz), Cul (Hul), Gheter (Gether), Mas (Mash).

A new name appears in verse 24: Selac (Salah).

Verset 25

Two new names appear: Peleg and Joktan, which are the same in English.

You will recall the expression vê non, meaning to be named (literally, to have name). You will also remember that par vie che means given that, seeing as, due to the fact that.

par vie che la tiere e fo dividude
given that the earth was divided

sot di lui
under him
(that is, in his time, in his days)

The past participle of the verb dividi (to divide) is dividût.

Versets 26-29

Lineage of Joktan: Almodad (Almodad), Selef (Sheleph), Asarmavet (Hazarmaveth), Jerac (Jerah), Adoram (Hadoram), Uzal (Uzal), Dikle (Diklah), Obal (Obal), Abimael (Abimael), Sabe (Sheba), Ofir (Ophir), Avile (Havilah), Jobab (Jobab).

Verset 30

Two new placenames appear: Mese (Mesha), Sefar (Sephar).

You have another example in this verse of the verb stâ, in the sense of to live, to dwell. More precisely, it forms part of the expression jessi a stâ, meaning the same. For example, o soi a stâ in centri means I live in the city centre.

a jerin a stâ de bande di Mese
they lived on the side of Mesha
they lived out in Mesha

The expression in direzion di means in the direction of, towards. The Friulian for direction is la direzion.

in direzion di Sefar
towards Sephar
in the direction of Sephar

The masculine orient means east. La mont dal Orient: mountain of the East.

Verset 31

The verse does not present any new usages.

Verset 32

The masculine il çoc means stock, in the sense of ancestry, lineage, origins.

seont il lôr çoc
according to their stock (origins)

A people is called un popul in Friulian; its plural form is i popui. Un popul is also used in the name of this Bible: Bibie par un popul (Bible for a people).

al è di li che
it is from them (literally, from there) that

a scomençarin a dividisi
they started to split up
they began to divide