Friulian language series: Gjenesi 10, liste dai popui

You will now study the text of the tenth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is: la dissendence dai fîs di Noè (lineage of Noah’s sons).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 10

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 10. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Versets 1-4

Vocabulary: ve chi (this is), la dissendence (offspring), il fi (son), la fiolance (offspring, progeny), dopo di (after), il diluvi (flood).

Verse 1: Ve chi la dissendence dai fîs di Noè (this is the lineage of the sons of Noah): Sem, Cam e Jafet (Shem, Ham and Japheth), che a àn vude fiolance dopo dal diluvi (who begot offspring after the flood). Vût is accorded in the feminine singular as vude, to agree in gender and number with the feminine fiolance immediately following it.

Verses 2-4: Sons of Jafet (Japheth): Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Mesec, Tiras. These names are the same in their English versions except for Mesec, which is the Friulian for Meshech. Sons of Gomer (Gomer): Askenaz (Ashkenaz), Rifat (Riphath), Togarme (Togarmah). Sons of Javan (Javan): Elise (Elishah), Tarsis (Tarshish), i kitim (the Kittim), i dodanim (the Dodanim).

Verset 5

Vocabulary: la int (people, family), scomençâ (to start, to begin), dividisi (to split up, to separate), une isule (island, isle), il forest (foreigner, outsider), seont (according to), il paîs (land, country), il lengaç (language), la tribù (tribe, clan), la gjernazie (bloodline).

Cun lôr la int e à scomençât a dividisi: with them the people began to separate; with them the people started to split up. The plural of the feminine isule is isulis: scomençâ a dividisi tes isulis dai forescj (to start to separate into the isles of the outsiders).

Chescj a son i fîs di Jafet: these are the sons of Japheth. Ognidun seont il so lengaç: each according to his language. The Friulian for language is expressed as either la lenghe or il lengaç. Strictly speaking, a specific tongue (Friulian language, Polish language) is called une lenghe (lenghe is also the Friulian for the tongue as a body part); human language in general (speech, speaking) is il lengaç. Seont la lôr tribù e seont la lôr gjernazie: according to their tribe and according to their line.

Versets 6-8

Vocabulary: il fi (son), al à vût (he begot), al è stât (he was), prin (first), il grant (mighty man), chest (this), il mont (world).

Verses 6-7: Sons of Cam (Ham): Kus (Cush), Misraim (Mizraim), Put (Put), Canaan (Canaan). Sons of Kus (Cush): Sebe (Seba), Avile (Havilah), Sabte (Sabtah), Rame (Raamah), Sabteche (Sabteca). Sons of Rame (Raamah): Sabe (Shebah), Dedan (Dedan).

Verse 8: Kus al à vût Nimrod: Cush begot Nimrod. When used in the passât sempliç, the verb takes on the sense of to get, to beget, to obtain. Grant, as an adjective, means big, large, great, mighty. As a noun, and in the context of this verse, il grant can be taken as meaning mighty man: che al è stât il prin grant di chest mont (who was the first mighty man of this world).

Verset 9

Vocabulary: jessi (to be), al jere (he was), il cjaçadôr (hunter), brâf (good, skilled, able), denant di (before, in front of), il Signôr (the Lord), par chel (therefore, for this reason), si dîs (it is said), come (like, as), il plui brâf (the most able).

The Friulian for hunter is il cjaçadôr. The adjective brâf means good, skilled, able; its feminine form (which does not appear in the text of this verse) is brave. Al jere un cjaçadôr brâf: he was a good hunter; he was an able hunter. Denant di means before, in front of: denant dal Signôr (before the Lord).

The reflexive verb dîsi means to be said. Si dîs, then, means it is said; this is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf. Par chel si dîs: for this reason, it is said.

Come Nimrod, il cjaçadôr plui brâf denant dal Signôr: like Nimrod, the most able hunter before the Lord. Observe the following: un cjaçadôr brâf (an able hunter); il cjaçadôr plui brâf (the most able hunter).

It does not appear in the text of this verse, but the Friulian verb for to hunt is cjaçâ, which is related to il cjaçadôr. Example: cjaçâ un cierf (to hunt a deer).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: scomençâ (to start, to begin), jessi (to be), il paron (ruler), dut (all), la citât (city, town), la tiere (land, earth), di li (from there), saltâ fûr (to come forth), fâ sù (to build, to erect), fra (between), grant (great, large), al à vût (he begot), la tribù (tribe), dopo (after, afterwards, later), il filisteu (Philistine).

Verse 10: Il paron means ruler, master. Al à scomençât a jessi paron di: he started to be the ruler of. A number of placenames appear: Babêl (Babel), Uruc (Uruk), Acad (Accad), Calne (Calneh), Senaar (Shinar). The Friulian la citât means city; its plural form is lis citâts. Dutis citâts che a son te tiere di Senaar: all these are cities that (all cities that) are in the land of Shinar.

Verse 11: New placenames appear: Ninive (Nineveh), Recobot-Ir (Rehoboth-Ir), Calac (Calah). Assur (Asshur) is a son of Shem. Saltâ fûr means to go (come) out, to go (come forth. Di li al saltà fûr Assur: from there went forth Asshur. Fâ sù means to build. Al fasè sù Ninive: he built Nineveh.

Verse 12: The placename Resen appears, which is the same in English. Fra means between: fra Ninive e Calac (between Nineveh and Calah). Grande is the feminine form of the adjective grant. Une grande citât means great city. E sarès is the feminine, third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb jessi.

Verse 13: Sons of Misraim (Mizraim): Lud (Ludim), Anam (Anamim), Laab (Lehabim), Naftuc (Naphtuhim). Lis tribûs is the plural of la tribù (tribe, clan): Misraim al à vût lis tribûs di (Mizraim begot the tribes of).

Verse 14: The listing of Mizraim’s sons continues: Patros (Pathrusim), Casluc (Casluhim), Caftor (Caphtorim). I filisteus are the Philistines; its singular form is il filisteu. Che di li dopo a son saltâts fûr i filisteus: whence the Philistines later came forth.

Versets 15-20

Vocabulary: al à vût (he begot), il prin fi (firstborn son), e dopo (and then, and later), un gjebuseu (Jebusite), un amoreu (Amorite), un gjergjeseu (Girgasite), un eveu (Hivite), un archit (Arkite), un sinit (Sinite), un arvadit (Arvadite), un semarit (Zemarite), un amatit (Hamathite), plui in ca (later on, afterwards), la tribù (tribe), un cananeu (Canaanite), dispierdisi (to disperse oneself, to spread out), il confin (border, confine), lâ di (to go from), la bande (side), de bande di (out towards), fint a (up to, as far as), po (then), chescj (these), il fi (son), seont (according to), la gjernazie (bloodline), il lengaç (language), il paîs (land, country).

Verses 15-17: Canaan’s lineage begins: Sidon (Sidon), Chet (Heth). Sidon was his firstborn son: il prin fi. Gjebuseu: Jebusite. Amoreu: Amorite. Gjergjeseu: Girgasite. Eveu: Hivite. Archit: Arkite. Sinit: Sinite.

Verse 18: Arvadit: Arvadite. Semarit: Zemarite. Amatit: Hamathite. I cananeus are the Canaanites; its singular form is il cananeu. Plui in ca means later on, afterwards. The reflexive verb dispierdisi means to disperse oneself, to spread out. Plui in ca lis tribûs dai cananeus si dispierderin: afterwards the clans of the Canaanites dispersed.

Verse 19: New placenames appear in this verse: Gjerar (Gerar), Gaze (Gaza), Sodome (Sodom), Gomore (Gomorrah), Adme (Admah), Zeboim (Zeboiim), Lese (Lasha). The Friulian il confin means confine, border. De bande di can be taken as {out} towards. Fint a translates as until, as far as. You read: il confin dai cananeus (the border of the Canaanites) al leve di Sidon de bande di Gjerar (went [was going] from Sidon out towards Gerar) fint a Gaze (as far as Gaza). Al leve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb . Po de bande di: then from out towards.

Verse 20: See the notes at the fifth verse, where similar language is used.

Versets 21-32

Vocabulary: ancje (also, too, as well), il pari (father), il prin fradi (oldest [first] brother), la dissendence (descendants, lineage), il fi (son), al à vût (he begot), doi (two), il non (name), vê non (to be named), par vie che (given that, owing to), la tiere (land, earth), dividi (to divide), sot di (under), il fradi (brother), ducj chescj (all these), jessi a stâ (to dwell), de bande di (out towards), la direzion (direction), in direzion di (in the direction of), la mont (mount, mountain), orient (east), seont (according to), la gjernazie (bloodline), il lengaç (language), il paîs (land, country), la tribù (tribe), il çoc (stock), di li (from there), il popul (people), scomençâ (to start, to begin), dividisi (to split up, to divide oneself), dopo (after), il diluvi (flood).

Verse 21: A new name appears: Eber, which is the same as in English. Ancje Sem […] al à vude dissendence: Shem begot descendants also. Il prin fradi (literally, first brother) can be taken in the sense of oldest brother: i pari di ducj i fîs di Eber e prin fradi di Jafet (the father of all the sons of Eber and older brother of Japheth).

Verses 22-23: Sons of Sem (Shem): Elam (Elam), Assur (Asshur), Arpacsad (Arpachshad), Lud (Lud), Aram (Aram). Sons of Aram (Aram): Uz (Uz), Cul (Hul), Gheter (Gether), Mas (Mash).

Verse 24: Arpacsad al à vût Selac: Arpachshad begot Shelah.

Verse 25: Eber al à vût doi fîs: Eber begot two sons. Vê non means to be named (literally, to have [the] name). Il prin al veve non Peleg: the firstborn was named Peleg. So fradi al veve non Joktan: his brother was named Joktan. The reasoning behind Peleg’s name is given: par vie che la tiere e fo dividude (given that the earth was divided) sot di lui (under him; that is, in his time). The past participle of the verb dividi (to divide) is dividût.

Verses 26-29: Lineage of Joktan: Almodad (Almodad), Selef (Sheleph), Asarmavet (Hazarmaveth), Jerac (Jerah), Adoram (Hadoram), Uzal (Uzal), Dikle (Diklah), Obal (Obal), Abimael (Abimael), Sabe (Sheba), Ofir (Ophir), Avile (Havilah), Jobab (Jobab). Ducj chescj a son i fîs di Joktan: all these are the sons of Joktan.

Verse 30: Jessi a stâ means to dwell, to reside, to live. For instance, o soi a stâ in centri means I live in the city centre. You read: a jerin a stâ de bande di Mese (they lived [were living] out towards Mesha). In direzion di means in the direction of; the Friulian for direction is la direzion. In direzion di Sefar: in the direction of Sephar. The masculine orient means east. La mont dal Orient: mountain of the East.

Verse 31: Seont il lôr paîs: according to their land (country). See also the notes at the fifth verse, where similar language is used.

Verse 32: Chestis a son lis gjernaziis dai fîs di Noè: these are the lines of the sons of Noah. The masculine il çoc means stock, in the sense of origins. Seont il lôr çoc: according to their stock. A people or nation is un popul in Friulian; its plural form is i popui. Un popul is also used in the name of this Bible: Bibie par un popul (Bible for a people). You read: al è di li (it is from them [from there]) che i popui (that the peoples; that the nations) a scomençarin a dividisi (began to divide [divide themselves]; began to split up) su la tiere (on the earth) dopo dal diluvi (after the flood).