Friulian language series: Genesis 9, verses 1-19

This post continues your study of the Friulian language as used in the Bible; you will now begin your study of the ninth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is il pat di Diu cun Noè (the covenant of God with Noah). In this post, you will examine verses 1-19; that is, Gjenesi 9:1-19.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

In the notes below for verses 1 and 2, you learn to form the imperative in Friulian. You also learn the present indicative conjugation of a number of irregular verbs: podê and dâ, in the notes for verse 3; lâ, in the notes for verse 7; and vignî, in the notes for verse 9; meti, in the notes for verse 13. The present indicative conjugation of regular verbs whose infinitive ends in â is outlined in the notes for verse 8.

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site.

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of these verses in the video starts at 4:01.

Letôr: Roberta Demartin

Verset 1

You will remember that the Friulian verb for to bless is benedî; its antonym to curse is expressed with the verbs maludî or maledî.

In the words spoken by God, three verbs appear: cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself, to reproduce) and jemplâ (to fill). None of these three verbs are new to you; in this verse, they are all used in the second-person plural imperative.

cressêt!, grow!
multiplicaitsi!, reproduce!
jemplait!, fill!

At this point, it would be good to learn how to form the imperative in Friulian in a more comprehensive way. With the following verbs whose infinitives all end in â, observe how the imperative is formed:

fevelâ, to speak

  • fevele!, speak! (second-person singular)
  • fevelait!, speak! (second-person plural)
  • fevelìn!, let us speak! (first-person plural)

jemplâ, to fill

  • jemple!, fill! (second-person singular)
  • jemplait!, fill! (second-person plural)
  • jemplìn!, let us fill! (first-person plural)

lavorâ, to work

  • lavore!, work! (second-person singular)
  • lavorait!, work! (second-person plural)
  • lavorìn!, let us work! (first-person plural)

With verbs whose infinitive ends in ê or i, the imperative is formed as follows:

tasê, to be quiet

  • tâs!, be quiet! (second-person singular)
  • tasêt!, be quiet! (second-person plural)
  • tasìn!, let us be quiet! (first-person plural)

parê, to seem, to appear

  • pâr!, seem! (second-person singular)
  • parêt!, seem! (second-person plural)
  • parìn!, let us seem! (first-person plural)

cjoli, to take

  • cjol!, take! (second-person singular)
  • cjolêt!, take! (second-person plural)
  • cjolìn!, let us take! (first-person plural)

The imperative of verbs whose infinitive ends in î will be explored in the notes for the next verse.

Verset 2

The verb paronâ, which you have seen before, means to rule, to master. You will recognise it in this verse in its second-person plural, imperative form paronait.

As for the new expression tignî sot, it translates literally as to hold under, to keep under; you will understand it as meaning to subjugate, to subdue. In this verse, you find the verb tignî in its second-person plural, imperative form tignît.

With verbs whose infinitive ends in î, the imperative is formed as follows:

cirî, to search, to look for

  • cîr!, search! (second-person singular)
  • cirît!, search! (second-person plural)
  • cirìn!, let us search! (first-person plural)

cusî, to sew

  • cûs!, sew! (second-person singular)
  • cusît!, sew! (second-person plural)
  • cusìn!, let us sew! (first-person plural)

In the imperative, the stem of a verb sometimes undergoes a modification of vowel or final consonant; these cases will be dealt with individually as they appear. From all the examples of the imperative given above and in the notes for the preceeding verse, simply become familiar with the endings.

In Gjenesi 7, you learnt that the Friulian verb balinâ meant to move about.

dut ce che al baline su la tiere
everything that moves about on the earth

In Gjenesi 1, you learnt that i pes dal mâr are the fishes of the sea. The Friulian for fish (singular) is il pes; its plural form is i pes.

ducj i pes dal mâr
all the fishes of the sea

Lis vuestris mans is the Friulian for your hands. Tes vuestris mans, then, means in your hands, where tes is a contraction of in + lis. You may wish to review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

Verset 3

You will remember that the reflexive passisi means to feed oneself, to nourish oneself; that is, to eat.

o podês passisi di dut ce che si môf
you can eat of everything that moves
you may eat of all that which moves

The reflexive verb movisi means to move oneself. Si môf is the third-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb.

dut ce che si môf
all that which moves itself

In the above, o podês is the second-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb podê (can, may, to be able). It would be good to familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of this irregular verb.

Verb: PODÊ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o pues
puedio?
tu
tu puedis
puedistu?
lui
al pues*
puedial?

e pues*
puedie?

o podìn
podìno?
vualtris
o podês
podêso?
lôr
a puedin
puedino?

*The Friulian Bible also uses al pò in the affirmative, masculine, third-person singular; and e pò in the affirmative, feminine, third-person singular.

You will remember that the adjective vîf means living, alive; its feminine form is vive.

dut ce che al è vîf
all that which is living

From the remainder of this verse, you will recall that us means to you; you may wish to now review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns. You will also recall that the verb means to give and that its past participle is dât. The first-person singular, presint indicatîf of this verb is jo o doi (I give).

jo o doi
jo o ai dât
I give
I have given

jo us doi
jo us ai dât
I give to you
I have given to you

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb (to give).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o doi
doio?
tu
tu dâs
dâstu?
lui
al da
daial?

e da
daie?

o din
dino?
vualtris
o dais
daiso?
lôr
a dan
dano?

Il prât can be understood in this verse as meaning field; in regular usage, this word also means lawn. Il vert (literally, the green [thing]; that is, that which is green) can be understood as meaning herb, plant. Il vert dai prâts, then, means the plants of the field, the herb of the field, etc.

Verset 4

Dome means only; you can understand it more in the sense of but here.

O vês is the second-person plural, presint indicatîf of the verb vê. You find it used here as part of the expression vê di, meaning to have to, must. You may wish to review the present indicative of the verb now.

tu âs di mangjâ
o vês di mangjâ
you must eat

no tu âs di mangjâ
no vês di mangjâ
you must not eat

The Friulian for blood, as you have already seen, is il sanc.

dentri di sè
inside of itself

la cjar ch’e à dentri di sè il so sanc
the flesh that has inside of itself its blood

Verset 5

Che anzit means rather.

The Friulian il cont means account. The expression domandâ cont, then, means to question (literally, to ask account). O domandarai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb domandâ.

The expression tant a dî means in other words, that is to say.

You will remember that the Friulian word for brother is il fradi.

Verset 6

The verb spandi means to spill, to shed, to spread. Al spant is its masculine, third-person singular, presint indicatîf form. Its equivalent in the futûr sempliç is al spandarà.

chel che al spant il sanc dal om
he who sheds the blood of man

un altri om al spandarà il so sanc
another man will shed his blood

You read again in this verse that man was made in the stamp of God (that is, in the image of God): sul stamp di Diu.

al è stât fat
he was made

Verset 7

You have already come across all the usages in this verse, including the expression lâ in amôr. See Gjenesi 1:22 and Gjenesi 1:28.

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb (to go).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o voi
voio?
tu
tu vâs
vâstu?
lui
al va
vaial?

e va
vadie?

o lin
lino?
vualtris
o lais
laiso?
lôr
a van
vano?

Verset 8

This verse does not present any new usages. The only verb appearing in this verse is fevelâ (to speak); I shall thus take this opportunity to present here its presint indicatîf conjugation. This can be considered a model of the present indicative conjugation for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, such as pensâ (to think), puartâ (to carry), balâ (to dance).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o feveli
fevelio?
tu
tu fevelis
fevelistu?
lui
al fevele
fevelial?

e fevele
fevelie?

o fevelìn
fevelìno?
vualtris
o fevelais
fevelaiso?
lôr
a fevelin
fevelino?

Using the above as a model, can you translate the following into Friulian? (The infinitive of the verb you must use is provided.)

  1. he singscjantâ
  2. he dancesbalâ
  3. they thinkpensâ
  4. I thinkpensâ
  5. you walkcjaminâ
  6. she takescjapâ
  7. she carriespuartâ
  8. we singcjantâ
  9. who is speaking?fevelâ
  10. what do you think of this?pensâ

Answers:

  1. al cjante
  2. al bale
  3. a pensin
  4. o pensi
  5. tu cjaminis; o cjaminais
  6. e cjape
  7. e puarte
  8. o cjantìn
  9. cui fevelial?
  10. ce pensistu / ce pensaiso di chest?

Verset 9

In a previous verse, you learnt that the Friulian il pat meant covenant, pact.

ve ch’o fâs un pat cun vualtris
behold, I make a covenant with you

cun chei che a vegnaran daûr di vualtris
and with those who will come after you

O fâs is the first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb fâ. As for a vegnaran, this is the third-person plural, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb vignî.

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verbs (to do, to make) and vignî (to come).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fâs
fasio?
tu
tu fasis
fasistu?
lui
al fâs
fasial?

e fâs
fasie?

o fasìn
fasìno?
vualtris
o fasês
fasêso?
lôr
a fasin
fasino?

Verb: VIGNÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ven
vegnio?
tu
tu vegnis
vegnistu?
lui
al ven
vegnial?

e ven
vegnie?

o vignìn
vignìno?
vualtris
o vignîs
vignîso?
lôr
a vegnin
vegnino?

Verset 10

Un vivent is a living creature.

You will remember that saltâ fûr was used in a previous verse to talk about coming out or leaving the ark: saltâ fûr da l’arcje. In this verse, you find the expression used in the third-person plural of the passât prossim: a son saltâts fûr da l’arcje. The auxiliary is jessi, which is why saltât has been made to agree in gender and number with its subject.

The expression ven a stâi means in other words, that is to say. This is similar to tant a dî from verse 5.

Verset 11

You will understand dut ce che al è as meaning all that is in the sense of all that exists. The expression menâ vie means to take away.

dut ce che al è
all that exists

nol sarà plui menât vie
will no more be taken away

des aghis dal diluvi
by the waters of the flood

If means to do, then disfâ means to undo.

disfâ la tiere
to undo the earth
(that is, to destroy the earth)

Verset 12

The Friulian il segnâl means sign, mark.

il segnâl dal pat
the sign of the convenant
the mark of the pact

che o fasarai fra me e vualtris
that I shall make between me and you

In the following, a vignî means to come in the sense of in the future:

par dutis lis gjenerazions a vignî
for all the generations to come

Verset 13

O met is the first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb meti (to put).

The masculine arc in this verse refers to a rainbow; this is not to be confused with the feminine arcje referring to the ark of Noah. The Friulian for cloud is il nûl; its plural form is i nûi. Intai nûi means in the clouds, where in + i come together to form intai. In + i can also contract to tai.

o met il gno arc intai nûi
I put my rainbow in the clouds

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb meti (to put).

Verb: METI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o met
metio?
tu
tu metis
metistu?
lui
al met
metial?

e met
metie?

o metìn
metìno?
vualtris
o metês
metêso?
lôr
a metin
metino?

The feminine noun aleance means covenant, alliance. You will remember that the verb deventâ means to become.

al deventarà un segnâl di aleance
it will become a sign of [the] covenant

fra me e la tiere
between me and the earth

Verset 14

The expression parâ dongje means to bring together, to collect.

cuant che o pararai dongje i nûi
when I shall bring together the clouds
when I shall collect the clouds

sore la tiere
over the earth

In the following, you have an impersonal usage, where si can be understood as meaning one:

e cuant che si viodarà l’arc
and when one will see the rainbow

framieç dai nûi
between the clouds
amongst the clouds

Verset 15

The expression impensâsi di means to remember, to recall, to call to mind.

jo m’impensarai dal pat
I shall remember the covenant

O vin is the first-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb vê.

il pat che o vin
the covenant that we have

Mai altri means never again. You will note its use with no:

lis aghis no deventaran mai altri un diluvi
the waters will never again become a flood

In this verse, you encounter the verb disfâ again, this time in disfâ ogni cjar (to destroy every flesh).

Verset 16

Par in secula means forever. Vadì can be understood as meaning that is, that is to say.

Ta chest mont means in this world. This is the second time you are encountering the use of ta before chest or chei:

ta chest mont
ta chei timps (Gjenesi 6:4)
in this world
in those times

In this verse, you have three futûr sempliç conjugations:

al sarà
o viodarai
mi impensarai
it will be
I shall see
I shall remember

Verset 17

This verse presents no new usages. Because the irregular verb (to say) appears in this verse, I shall take this opportunity to present its presint indicatîf conjugation.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dîs
disio?
tu
tu disis
disistu?
lui
al dîs
disial?

e dîs
disie?

o disìn
disìno?
vualtris
o disês
disêso?
lôr
a disin
disino?

Verset 18

You will recognise the third-person plural of the passât sempliç in a saltarin.

You will also remember that a forin is the third-person plural, passât sempliç conjugation of the verb jessi.

a forin Sem, Cam e Jafet
they were Shem, Ham and Japheth

The text tells you that Ham is the father of Canaan: Cam al è il pari di Canaan.

Verset 19

Chescj trê means these three. Remember that chescj (these) is the plural form of chest (this).

a forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè
these three were the sons of Noah

The verb partî means to leave; its present participle is partint (leaving). In the text, you read partint di lôr, which you will understand as meaning starting from them.

The reflexive verb popolâsi means to populate oneself; ripopolâsi, then, means to repopulate oneself. You will remember that the verb tornâ can be used to express reoccurrence; you have already examined this in the notes for Gjenesi 8:10.

partint di lôr
starting from them

e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere
the earth repopulated itself again

Take note of the two examples in this verse where the subject and verb are inverted from their usual position:

a forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè
= chescj trê a forin i fîs di Noè

e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere
= la tiere e tornà a ripopolâsi