Friulian language series: Gjenesi 9, Noè gnûf Adam

The ninth chapter of the book of Genesis tells of: Noè gnûf Adam (Noah, new Adam); la benedizion di Noè (the blessing of Noah).

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Versets 1-2

Vocabulary: benedî (to bless), il fi (son), (to say), cressi (to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule {over}), tignî sot (to keep under), il nemâl (animal), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), balinâ (to tread), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), meti (to put), vuestri (your), la man (hand).

Verse 1: Diu al benedì Noè e i siei fîs (God blessed Noah and his sons) e ur disè (and said unto them): cressêt (increase), multiplicaitsi (multiply yourselves) e jemplait la tiere (and fill the earth). — Three second-person plural imperatives are employed: cressêt, multiplicaitsi, jemplait. Following is how the imperative in Friulian is formed. Abbreviations: 2.ps = second-person singular; 2.pp = second-person plural; 1.pp = first-person plural. (I) Infinitives ending in â. Fevelâ (to speak): fevele (2 ps.); fevelait (2 pp.) ; fevelìn (1 pp.). Jemplâ (to fill): jemple (2.ps); jemplait (2.pp); jemplìn (1.pp). Lavorâ (to work): lavore (2.ps); lavorait (2.pp); lavorìn (1.pp). (II) Infinitives ending in ê or i. Tasê (to keep quiet): tâs (2.ps); tasêt (2.pp); tasìn (1.pp). Parê (to seem): pâr (2.ps); parêt (2.pp); parìn (1.pp). Cjoli (to take): cjol (2.ps); cjolêt (2.pp); cjolìn (1.pp). (III) Infinitives ending in î. Cirî (to seek): cîr (2.ps); cirît (2.pp); cirìn (1.pp). Cusî (to sew): cûs (2.ps); cusît (2.pp); cusìn (1.pp).

Verse 2: Paronait (rule over) e tignît sot (and keep under) ducj i nemâi de tiere (all the animals of the earth) e ducj i ucei dal cîl (and all the birds of the heaven) e dut ce che al baline su la tiere (and all that which treadeth on the earth) e ducj i pes dal mâr (and all the fishes of the sea): *us ai met tes vuestris mans* (I {hereby} put them unto you into your hands). — *Tes is a contraction of in + lis. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. As for us ai, this is a contraction of us + ju (unto you + them). Observe: us ai (unto you + them) met (I put) tes (in{to} + the) vuestris (your) mans (hands).

Versets 3-5

Vocabulary: podê (may), passisi (to sate oneself), movisi (to move oneself), vîf (living), (to give), il vert (green), il prât (field), dome (but), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), vê dentri di sè (to have inside oneself), il sanc (blood), che anzit (what is more), domandâ (to ask {for}), il cont (account), tant a dî (which is to say), la vite (life), il nemâl (animal), un om (man), ognidun (each), il fradi (brother).

Verse 3: O podês (ye may) passisi (sate yourselves) di dut ce che si môf (of all that which moveth itself) e che al è vîf (and which is living); jo us doi dut chest (I give you all this) come che us ai dât il vert dai prâts (as I have given you the green of the fields).O podês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê. The present indicative conjugation of podê is presented below. Si môf is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of movisi. Us means unto you; review: Direct and indirect object pronouns. Jo o doi is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of this verb dâ; the past participle of this verb is dât. Consider: jo o doi; jo o ai dât (I give; I have given); jo us doi; jo us ai dât (I give unto you; I have given unto you). The present indicative conjugation of is presented below. Il prât is uncultivated land covered in grasses; it may be read as field. As an adjective, vert means green; as a noun, and in the context of this verse, il vert may be understood as referring to plantlife.

Verb: PODÊ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o pues
puedio?
tu
tu puedis
puedistu?
lui
al pues*
puedial?

e pues*
puedie?

o podìn
podìno?
vualtris
o podês
podêso?
lôr
a puedin
puedino?

*The Friulian Bible also employs al pò in the masculine of the third-person singular and e pò in the feminine.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o doi
doio?
tu
tu dâs
dâstu?
lui
al da
daial?

e da
daie?

o din
dino?
vualtris
o dais
daiso?
lôr
a dan
dano?

Verse 4: Dome no vês di mangjâ la cjar (but ye are not to eat flesh) ch’e à dentri di sè (which hath inside itself) il so sanc (its blood).O vês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê; it is found employed here as part of vê di, meaning to have to. Review: Present indicative of the verb . Consider: tu âs di mangjâ (thou art to eat), o vês di mangjâ (ye are to eat); no tu âs di mangjâ (thou art not to eat), no vês di mangjâ (ye are not to eat).

Verse 5: Che anzit (what is more) us domandarai cont dal vuestri sanc (I shall ask for account from you for your blood), tant a dî de vuestre vite (which is to say, for your life). Ur domandarai cont a ducj i nemâi (I shall ask for account from all animals); o domandarai cont de vite (I shall ask for account for life) dal om al om (from man unto man), a ognidun di so fradi (from each for his brother).

Versets 6-11

Vocabulary: spandi (to shed), il sanc (blood), un om (man), un altri (another), parcè che (for), il stamp (likeness), (to make), (to go), l’amôr (love), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule {over}), cussì (so), fevelâ (to speak), il fi (son), il pat (pact), vignî daûr di (to come behind), il vivent (living creature), un ucel (bird), il nemâl (animal), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la arcje (ark), ven a stâi (which is to say), no… plui (no more), menâ vie (to lead away), la aghe (water), il diluvi (flood), disfâ (to undo).

Verse 6: Chel che al spant il sanc dal om (that one who sheddeth the blood of man) un altri om al spandarà il so sanc (another man shall shed his blood): parcè che sul stamp di Diu (for after the likeness of God) al è stât fat l’om (was man made).Al spant is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb spandi; in the futûr sempliç, the masculine, third-person singular is al spandarà.

Verse 7: E vualtris lait in amôr (and go ye into love), multiplicaitsi (multiply yourselves), jemplait la tiere (fill the earth) e paronaitle (and rule over it).Lait is the second-person plural imperative of the verb lâ; consider: va (go; second-person singular of the imperative); lait (go; second-person plural of the imperative); tu tu vâs (thou goest; second-person singular of the present indicative); o lais (ye go; second-person plural of the present indicative). The present indicative of is presented below for reference. Note that all the verbs of this verse employ the imperative; the inclusion of vualtris must not lead one to believe that it is question here of the present indicative.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o voi
voio?
tu
tu vâs
vâstu?
lui
al va
vaial?

e va
vadie?

o lin
lino?
vualtris
o lais
laiso?
lôr
a van
vano?

Verse 8: Cussì Diu i fevelà a Noè e ai siei fîs: so did God speak unto Noah and his sons: — Of fevelâ, consider these different forms: Diu al fevele (God speaketh); Diu al fevelà (God spoke); Diu al à fevelât (God hath spoken; God spoke); Diu al fevelarà (God will speak). The presint indicatîf of fevelâ is presented below; this may be considered a model of the present indicative for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, such as pensâ (to think), puartâ (to bear), balâ (to dance).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o feveli
fevelio?
tu
tu fevelis
fevelistu?
lui
al fevele
fevelial?

e fevele
fevelie?

o fevelìn
fevelìno?
vualtris
o fevelais
fevelaiso?
lôr
a fevelin
fevelino?

In using the conjugation above as a model, say the following in Friulian (the infinitives are provided): 1. he singeth (cjantâ); 2. he danceth (balâ); 3. they think (pensâ); 4. I think (pensâ); 5. thou walkest (cjaminâ); 6. she taketh (cjapâ); 7. she beareth (puartâ); 8. we sing (cjantâ); 9. who is speaking? (fevelâ); 10. what think ye of this? (pensâ). — Answers: 1. al cjante; 2. al bale; 3. a pensin; 4. o pensi; 5. tu cjaminis; 6. e cjape; 7. e puarte; 8. o cjantìn; 9. cui fevelial? 10. ce pensaiso di chest?

Verse 9: Ve ch’o fâs un pat cun vualtris (so it is that I make a pact with you), e cun chei che a vegnaran daûr di vualtris (and with those who will come behind you)O fâs is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fâ. As for a vegnaran, this is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vignî. The present indicative conjugations of the verbs  and vignî are presented below for reference.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fâs
fasio?
tu
tu fasis
fasistu?
lui
al fâs
fasial?

e fâs
fasie?

o fasìn
fasìno?
vualtris
o fasês
fasêso?
lôr
a fasin
fasino?

Verb: VIGNÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ven
vegnio?
tu
tu vegnis
vegnistu?
lui
al ven
vegnial?

e ven
vegnie?

o vignìn
vignìno?
vualtris
o vignîs
vignîso?
lôr
a vegnin
vegnino?

Verse 10: e cun ogni vivent che al è cun vualtris (and with every living creature which is with you): ucei (birds), nemâi (animals), dutis lis bestiis salvadiis che a son cun vualtris (all the wild beasts which are with you), cun ducj chei che a son saltâts fûr da l’arcje (with all those which came forth from the ark), ven a stâi cun ducj i nemâi de tiere (which is to say, with all the animals of the earth).

Verse 11: O fâs un pat cun vualtris (I make a pact with you): dut ce che al è (all that which is*), nol sarà plui menât vie (will be led away no more) des aghis dal diluvi (by the waters of the flood); no ’nt sarà plui diluvis par disfâ la tiere (there will be no more floods to undo the earth). — *as in existeth

Versets 12-19

Vocabulary: (to say), ve chi (this is), il segnâl (sign), il pat (pact), (to make), fra (between), il vivent (living creature), la gjenerazion (generation), vignî (to come), meti (to put), un arc (bow), il nûl (cloud), deventâ (to become), la aleance (alliance), la tiere (earth), parâ dongje (to drive alongside), sore (over), viodisi (to be seen), framieç (amidst), impensâsi di (to remember), ven a stâi (which is to say), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), la aghe (water), mai altri (not ever again), il diluvi (flood), disfâ (to undo), par in secula (for all time), vadì (which is to say), il mont (world), il fi (son), saltâ fûr (to come forth), la arcje (ark), il pari (father), trê (three), partî (to depart), tornâ a fâ (to do anew), ripopolâsi (to repopulate oneself).

Verse 12: Diu al disè (God said): ve chi il segnâl dal pat (this is the sign of the pact) che o fasarai fra me e vualtris (which I shall make between me and you) e cun ducj i vivents (and with all the living creatures) che a son cun vualtris (which are with you) par dutis lis gjenerazions a vignî (for all generations to come):

Verse 13: o met il gno arc intai nûi (I am putting my bow into the clouds) e al deventarà un segnâl di aleance (and it will become a sign of alliance) fra me e la tiere (between me and the earth).O met is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb meti. The present indicative of meti is presented below. Nûi is the plural of the masculine nûl (cloud).

Verb: METI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o met
metio?
tu
tu metis
metistu?
lui
al met
metial?

e met
metie?

o metìn
metìno?
vualtris
o metês
metêso?
lôr
a metin
metino?

Verses 14-15: Cuant che o pararai dongje i nûi (when I shall drive the clouds alongside {one another}) sore la tiere (over the earth) e che si viodarà l’arc framieç dai nûi (and the bow will be seen amidst the clouds), jo m’impensarai dal pat (I shall remember the pact) che o vin (which we have) fra me e vualtris (between me and you) e cun ducj i vivents (and with all the living creatures), ven a stâi cun ogni cjar (which is to say, with every flesh); e lis aghis no deventaran mai altri un diluvi (and the waters will not ever again become a flood) par disfâ ogni cjar (to undo every flesh).

Verse 16: Cuant che l’arc al sarà framieç dai nûi (when the bow will be amidst the clouds), jo lu viodarai (I shall see it) e mi impensarai dal pat (and I shall remember the pact) che Diu al à fat (which God hath made) par in secula (for all time) cun ducj i vivents (with all the living creatures), vadì cun ogni cjar (which is to say, with every flesh) ch’e je ta chest mont (which is in this world).

Verse 17: Diu i disè a Noè (God said unto Noah): chest al è il segnâl dal pat (this is the sign of the pact) che o fâs fra me e ogni cjar (which I make between me and every flesh) ch’e je ta chest mont (which is in this world). — Consider the following forms: Diu al dîs (God saith); Diu al disè (God said); Diu al à dit (God hath said; God said); Diu al disarà (God will say). The presint indicatîf of the verb is presented below for reference.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dîs
disio?
tu
tu disis
disistu?
lui
al dîs
disial?

e dîs
disie?

o disìn
disìno?
vualtris
o disês
disêso?
lôr
a disin
disino?

Verse 18: I fîs di Noè (the sons of Noah) che a saltarin fûr da l’arcje (who came forth from the ark) a forin Sem, Cam e Jafet (were Shem, Ham and Japheth). Cam al è il pari di Canaan: Ham is the father of Canaan.

Verse 19: A forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè (these three were the sons of Noah) e partint di lôr (and in departing from them) e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere (the earth populated itself anew).Chescj trê means these three; chescj (these) is the plural of chest (this). Partint is the present participle of partî (to depart).

Versets 20-29

Vocabulary: lavorâ (to work), la tiere (earth), plantâ (to plant), un vignâl (vineyard), midiant che (given that), bevi (to drink), masse (too much), incjocâsi (to inebriate oneself), discrotâsi (to undress oneself), dentri di (inside), la tende (tent), il pari (father), viodi (to see), crot (naked), (to go), contâ (to recount), doi (two), il fradi (brother), cjoli (to take), la manteline (mantle), meti (to put), ducj i doi (both), la spale (shoulder), lâ a cessecûl (to go backwards), cuviergi (to cover), la muse (face), voltâ (to turn), altri (other), la bande (side), sancirâsi (to come unto oneself), vignî a savê (to come to know), la part (part), il fi (son), zovin (young), maladet (cursed), ultin (last), il famei (servant), benedet (blessed), dâi dal ben a (to give good to), podê (to be able), lâ a stâ (to go dwell), dopo di (after), il diluvi (flood), vivi (to live), tresinte e cincuante (three hundred and fifty), un an (year), in dut (in all), nûfcent e cincuante (nine hundred and fifty), po (then), murî (to die).

Verse 20: Noè, che al lavorave la tiere (Noah, who used to work the earth), al plantà un vignâl (planted a vineyard).

Verse 21: Midiant che al veve bevût masse (given that he had drunk too much), si incjocà (he inebriated himself) e si discrotà dentri de tende (and undressed himself inside the tent). — The past participle of bevi is bevût; consider: al à bevût (he hath drunk); al veve bevût (he had drunk). The Friulian for inebriated is cjoc; this adjective is at the root of incjocâsi, meaning to inebriate oneself.

Verse 22: Cam, il pari di Canaan (Ham, the father of Canaan), al viodè che so pari al jere crot (saw that his father was naked) e al lè a contâle (and went to recount it) ai siei doi fradis (unto his two brethren).

Verse 23: Ma Sem e Jafet a cjolerin la manteline (but Shem and Japheth took the mantle), le meterin ducj i doi su pes* spalis e (put it both upon their shoulders and), lant a cessecûl (in going backwards), a cuviergerin il pari (covered their father) che al jere crot (who was naked); a vevin la muse (they had their face) voltade di chê altre bande (turned unto that other side) e no vioderin lôr pari crot (and saw not their naked father). — With singular nouns referring to family members, il and la are omitted before possessive adjectives: lôr pari (their father); tô mari (thy mother); gno fradi (my brother); mê sûr (my sister), and so on. See the notes at verses 24-25 regarding the plural. Review: Friulian possessive adjectives. *Pes is the of contraction of par + lis.

Verses 24-25: Cuant che Noè al tornà a sancirâsi (when Noah came unto himself again), al vignì a savê la part (he came to know the part) che i veve fat il fi plui zovin (which his youngest son had done him) e al disè (and he said): maladet seial Canaan (cursed be Canaan). Che al sedi pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis: let him be for his brethren the last of servants. — With plural nouns referring to family members, the definite articles i and lis are used before possessive adjectives (compare to the absence of the singular definite article seen in the notes at verse 23): pai siei fradis = par + i siei fradis. More examples: (singular) mê fie; cun so fradi; cun so pari; par sô mari; cun sô sûr; (plural) lis lôr fiis; ai siei fradis; dai siei fradis; cui siei fradis; ai lôr fîs.

Verse 26: Benedet seial il Signôr (blessed be the Lord), il Diu di Sem (the God of Shem), e che Canaan al sedi il so famei (and let Canaan be his servant).

Verse 27: Che Diu i dedi dal ben a Jafet (may God give good unto Japheth), che al puedi lâ a stâ (let him be able to go dwell) tes tendis di Sem (in the tents of Shem) e che Canaan al sedi il so famei (and let Canaan be his servant). — Consider: al da; che al dedi (he giveth; may he give); al pues; che al puedi (he is able; let him be able).

Verses 28: Dopo dal diluvi (after the flood), Noè al à vivût tresinte e cincuant’agns (Noah lived three hundred and fifty years).

Verse 29: Noè al à vivût (Noah lived), in dut (in all), nûfcent e cincuant’agns (nine hundred and fifty years), po al murì (then he died). — Review: How to count in Friulian.