Friulian language series: Gjenesi 9, Noè gnûf Adam

The ninth chpater of the book of Genesis tells of: Noè gnûf Adam (Noah, new Adam); la benedizion di Noè (Noah’s blessing).

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Versets 1-2

Vocabulary: benedî (to bless), il fi (son), (to say), cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself; also moltiplicâsi), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth, ground), paronâ (to rule over, to dominate), tignî sot (to subject, to subdue), il nemâl (animal), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il cîl (heaven, sky), balinâ (to move about, to stir), il pes (fish), il mâr (sea), meti (to put, to place), vuestri (your), la man (hand).

Verse 1: Diu al benedì Noè e i siei fîs e ur disè (God blessed Noah and his sons and said to them): cressêt (increase), multiplicaitsi (multiply) e jemplait la tiere (and fill the earth). In the words spoken by God, you find three second-person plural imperatives: cressêt, multiplicaitsi, jemplait. Following is how to form the imperative in Friulian. Abbreviations: 2.ps = second-person singular; 2.pp = second-person plural; 1.pp = first-person plural. (I) Infinitives ending in â. Fevelâ (to speak): fevele (2 ps.); fevelait (2 pp.) ; fevelìn (1 pp.). Jemplâ (to fill): jemple (2.ps); jemplait (2.pp); jemplìn (1.pp). Lavorâ (to work): lavore (2.ps); lavorait (2.pp); lavorìn (1.pp). (II) Infinitives ending in ê or i. Tasê (to be quiet): tâs (2.ps); tasêt (2.pp); tasìn (1.pp). Parê (to seem): pâr (2.ps); parêt (2.pp); parìn (1.pp). Cjoli (to take): cjol (2.ps); cjolêt (2.pp); cjolìn (1.pp). (III) Infinitives ending in î. Cirî (to seek): cîr (2.ps); cirît (2.pp); cirìn (1.pp). Cusî (to sew): cûs (2.ps); cusît (2.pp); cusìn (1.pp).

Verse 2: Paronait (rule over) e tignît sot (and subdue [keep under]) ducj i nemâi de tiere (all the animals of the earth) e ducj i ucei dal cîl (and all the birds of the heaven) e dut ce che al baline su la tiere (and all that stirs on the ground) e ducj i pes dal mâr (and all the fishes of the sea): us ai met tes vuestris mans (I put them into your hands [unto you I put them in your hands]). Tignî means to keep, to maintain, and sot means under, below: tignî sot translates literally as to keep under; it is to be taken as meaning to subject, to subdue. Lis vuestris mans means your hands; tes vuestris mans, then, means in your hands, where tes is a contraction of in + lis. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. As for us ai, this is a contraction of us + ju (unto you + them); taken literally: us ai (unto you + them) met (I put) tes (in + the) vuestris (your) mans (hands).

Versets 3-5

Vocabulary: podê (may, can, to be able), passisi (to sate oneself), movisi (to move oneself), vîf (alive, living), (to give), il vert (plantlife, green plants, vegetation), il prât (field), dome (only, but), vê di (must, to have to), mangjâ (to eat), la cjar (flesh), vê dentri di sè (to have within one, to contain), il sanc (blood), che anzit (rather, but), il cont (account, reckoning), domandâ cont (to ask to account for, to require a reckoning), tant a dî (that is to say), la vite (life), il nemâl (animal), un om (man), ognidun (each one), il fradi (brother).

Verse 3: O podês (you may) passisi (sate yourselves) di dut ce che si môf (of all that moves) e che al è vîf (and is living); jo us doi dut chest (to you I give all these [all this]) come che us ai dât il vert dai prâts (as I have given you the plantlife [the green] of the fields). O podês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê. The present indicative conjugation of podê is presented below. Si môf is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of movisi. Us means unto you. Review: Direct and indirect object pronouns. Jo o doi is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of this verb dâ; the past participle of this verb is dât. Consider: jo o doi; jo o ai dât (I give; I have given); jo us doi; jo us ai dât (I give to you; I have given to you). The present indicative conjugation of is presented below. Il prât is uncultivated land covered in grasses; it can be taken as field. As an adjective, vert means green; as a noun, and in the context of this verse, il vert can be taken as that which is green (that is, plantlife, green plants, vegetation).

Verb: PODÊ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o pues
puedio?
tu
tu puedis
puedistu?
lui
al pues*
puedial?

e pues*
puedie?

o podìn
podìno?
vualtris
o podês
podêso?
lôr
a puedin
puedino?

*The Friulian Bible also uses al pò in the masculine of the third-person singular and e pò in the feminine.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o doi
doio?
tu
tu dâs
dâstu?
lui
al da
daial?

e da
daie?

o din
dino?
vualtris
o dais
daiso?
lôr
a dan
dano?

Verse 4: Dome no vês di mangjâ la cjar (but you are not to eat flesh) ch’e à dentri di sè (that has within it) il so sanc (its blood). O vês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê; you find it used here as part of vê di, meaning to have to, must. Review: Present indicative of the verb . Consider: tu âs di mangjâ; o vês di mangjâ (you are to eat [have to eat]); no tu âs di mangjâ; no vês di mangjâ (you are not to eat [have not to eat]).

Verse 5: Che anzit us domandarai cont dal vuestri sanc (but I shall require a reckoning from you for your blood), tant a dî de vuestre vite (that is to say, for your life). The text continues: ur domandarai cont a ducj i nemâi (I shall require a reckoning from all beasts); o domandarai cont de vite (I shall require a reckoning for life) dal om al om (from man to man), a ognidun di so fradi (from each for his brother). O domandarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb domandâ. Us domandarai cont dal vuestri sanc can be taken literally as unto you I shall ask account of your blood; the sense of this is I shall require a reckoning from you for your blood; I shall ask you to account for your blood. The sense of dal om al om, in the context of this verse, is from each man for that of his fellow man.

Versets 6-11

Vocabulary: spandi (to spill, to shed), il sanc (blood), un om (man), un altri (another), parcè che (because, for), il stamp (form, manner, stamp), (to make, to do), lâ in amôr (to mate, to reproduce), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself; also moltiplicâsi), jemplâ (to fill), la tiere (earth), paronâ (to rule over, to dominate), cussì (so, thus), fevelâ (to speak), il fi (son), ve che (here it is that, now), il pat (pact, covenant), vignî daûr di (to come after, to follow), il vivent (living creature), un ucel (bird; also uciel), il nemâl (animal), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), la arcje (ark), ven a stâi (that is to say), no… plui (no more), menâ vie (to take away, to carry off), la aghe (water), il diluvi (flood), disfâ (to destroy).

Verse 6: Chel che al spant il sanc dal om (he who sheds the blood of man) un altri om al spandarà il so sanc (another man shall shed his blood): parcè che sul stamp di Diu (for in the image of God [after the manner (stamp) of God]) al è stât fat l’om (was man made). Al spant is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb spandi; in the futûr sempliç, the masculine, third-person singular is al spandarà.

Verse 7: E vualtris lait in amôr (and so reproduce [and you reproduce]), multiplicaitsi (multiply), jemplait la tiere (fill the earth) e paronaitle (and rule over it). Lait is the second-person plural imperative of the verb lâ; consider: lait (go; imperative); o lais (you go, you are going; present indicative). The present indicative of is presented below.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o voi
voio?
tu
tu vâs
vâstu?
lui
al va
vaial?

e va
vadie?

o lin
lino?
vualtris
o lais
laiso?
lôr
a van
vano?

Verse 8: Cussì Diu i fevelà a Noè e ai siei fîs: thus spoke God to Noah and his sons. Of fevelâ, consider these different forms: Diu al fevele (God speaks); Diu al fevelà (God spoke); Diu al à fevelât (God has spoken; God spoke); Diu al fevelarà (God will speak). The presint indicatîf of fevelâ is presented below; this can be considered a model of the present indicative for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, such as pensâ (to think), puartâ (to carry), balâ (to dance).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o feveli
fevelio?
tu
tu fevelis
fevelistu?
lui
al fevele
fevelial?

e fevele
fevelie?

o fevelìn
fevelìno?
vualtris
o fevelais
fevelaiso?
lôr
a fevelin
fevelino?

Using the conjugation above as a model, say the following in Friulian (the infinitives are provided):

  1. he singscjantâ
  2. he dancesbalâ
  3. they thinkpensâ
  4. I thinkpensâ
  5. you walkcjaminâ
  6. she takescjapâ
  7. she carriespuartâ
  8. we singcjantâ
  9. who is speaking?fevelâ
  10. what do you think of this?pensâ

Answers:

  1. al cjante
  2. al bale
  3. a pensin
  4. o pensi
  5. tu cjaminis; o cjaminais
  6. e cjape
  7. e puarte
  8. o cjantìn
  9. cui fevelial?
  10. ce pensistu di chest?; ce pensaiso di chest?

Verse 9: Ve ch’o fâs un pat cun vualtris (I now establish [make] my covenant with you), e cun chei che a vegnaran daûr di vualtris (and with those who will come after you). The masculine pat is cognate with the English pact. O fâs is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fâ. As for a vegnaran, this is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vignî. The present indicative conjugations of the verbs  and vignî are presented below.

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fâs
fasio?
tu
tu fasis
fasistu?
lui
al fâs
fasial?

e fâs
fasie?

o fasìn
fasìno?
vualtris
o fasês
fasêso?
lôr
a fasin
fasino?

Verb: VIGNÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ven
vegnio?
tu
tu vegnis
vegnistu?
lui
al ven
vegnial?

e ven
vegnie?

o vignìn
vignìno?
vualtris
o vignîs
vignîso?
lôr
a vegnin
vegnino?

Verse 10: E cun ogni vivent che al è cun vualtris (and with every living creature that is with you): ucei (birds), nemâi (animals), dutis lis bestiis salvadiis che a son cun vualtris (all the wild beasts that are with you), cun ducj chei che a son saltâts fûr da l’arcje (with all those that came out of the ark), ven a stâi cun ducj i nemâi de tiere (that is to say, with all the animals of the earth).

Verse 11: O fâs un pat cun vualtris (I establish [make] a covenant with you): dut ce che al è (everything that exists [all that is]), nol sarà plui menât vie (shall be carried away no more) des aghis dal diluvi (by the waters of the flood); no ’nt sarà plui diluvis par disfâ la tiere (there shall be no more floods to destroy the earth).

Versets 12-19

Vocabulary: (to say), ve chi (this is, here is), il segnâl (sign), il pat (pact, covenant), (to make, to do), fra (between), il vivent (living creature), la gjenerazion (generation), vignî (to come), meti (to put, to place), un arc (bow), il nûl (cloud), deventâ (to become), la aleance (alliance), la tiere (earth), parâ dongje (to bring together, to gather), sore (above, over), viodi (to see), framieç (amongst), impensâsi di (to remember), ven a stâi (that is to say), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), la aghe (water), mai altri (never again), il diluvi (flood), disfâ (to destroy), par in secula (for all ages), vadì (that is to say), il mont (world), il fi (son), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), la arcje (ark), il pari (father), trê (three), partî (to leave, to depart), tornâ a fâ (to do again), ripopolâsi (to repopulate oneself).

Verse 12: God speaks: ve chi il segnâl dal pat (this is the sign of the covenant) che o fasarai fra me e vualtris (that I shall establish [shall make] between me and you) e cun ducj i vivents (and with all living creatures) che a son cun vualtris (that are with you) par dutis lis gjenerazions a vignî (for all generations to come).

Verse 13: O met il gno arc (I put my bow) intai nûi (in the clouds) e al deventarà un segnâl di aleance (and it shall become a sign of the pact [alliance]) fra me e la tiere (between me and the earth). O met is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb meti. The present indicative of meti is presented below. Nûi is the plural of the masculine nûl, meaning cloud.

Verb: METI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o met
metio?
tu
tu metis
metistu?
lui
al met
metial?

e met
metie?

o metìn
metìno?
vualtris
o metês
metêso?
lôr
a metin
metino?

Verses 14-15: Cuant che o pararai dongje (when I bring [shall bring] together) i nûi sore la tiere (the clouds above the earth) e che si viodarà l’arc framieç dai nûi (and the bow is seen [will be seen] amongst the clouds), jo m’impensarai dal pat (I shall remember the covenant) che o vin (that we have) fra me e vualtris (between me and you) e cun ducj i vivents (and with all living creatures), ven a stâi cun ogni cjar (that is to say, with every flesh); e lis aghis no deventaran mai altri un diluvi (and the waters shall never again become a flood) par disfâ ogni cjar (to destroy every flesh).

Verse 16: Cuant che l’arc al sarà framieç dai nûi (when the bow is [will be] amongst the clouds), jo lu viodarai (I shall see it) e mi impensarai dal pat (and I shall remember the covenant) che Diu al à fat (that God has established [made]) par in secula (for all ages) cun ducj i vivents (with all living creatures), vadì cun ogni cjar (that is to say, with every flesh) ch’e je ta chest mont (that is in this world).

Verse 17: Diu i disè a Noè: God said to Noah. Consider the following forms: Diu al dîs (God says); Diu al disè (God said); Diu al à dit (God has said; God said); Diu al disarà (God will say). The presint indicatîf of the verb is presented below. God says: chest al è il segnâl dal pat (this is the sign of the covenant) che o fâs fra me e ogni cjar (that I establish [make] between me and every flesh) ch’e je ta chest mont (that is in this world).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dîs
disio?
tu
tu disis
disistu?
lui
al dîs
disial?

e dîs
disie?

o disìn
disìno?
vualtris
o disês
disêso?
lôr
a disin
disino?

Verse 18: I fîs di Noè che a saltarin fûr da l’arcje a forin Sem, Cam e Jafet: the sons of Noah who came out of the ark were Shem, Ham and Japheth. Cam al è il pari di Canaan: Ham is the father of Canaan.

Verse 19: A forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè (these three were the sons of Noah) e partint di lôr (and starting with them [and departing from them]) e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere (the earth repopulated itself; the earth populated itself anew). Chescj trê means these three; chescj (these) is the plural of chest (this). Partint is the present participle of partî (to leave, to depart).

Versets 20-29

Vocabulary: lavorâ (to work, to till), la tiere (earth, soil), plantâ (to plant), un vignâl (vineyard), midiant che (given that), bevi (to drink), masse (too much), incjocâsi (to become drunk), discrotâsi (to undress oneself), dentri di (inside, within), la tende (tent), il pari (father), viodi (to see), crot (naked), (to go), contâ (to tell, to relate), doi (two), il fradi (brother), cjoli (to take), la manteline (mantle), meti (to put, to place), ducj i doi (both of them), la spale (shoulder), lâ a cessecûl (to walk [go] backwards), cuviergi (to cover; also cuvierzi), la muse (face), voltâ (to turn), la bande (side), di chê altre bande (to the other side, to the other way), sancirâsi (to sober up), tornâ a sancirâsi (to sober back up), vignî a savê (to come to know, to find out), la part (deed), il fi (son), zovin (young), maladet (cursed, damned), ultin (last), il famei (servant), ancje (also, too), benedet (blessed), dâi dal ben a (to deal generously with), podê (may, can, to be able), lâ a stâ (to go to dwell), dopo di (after, following), il diluvi (flood), vivi (to live), tresinte e cincuante (three hundred and fifty), un an (year), in dut (in all, altogether), nûfcent e cincuante (nine hundred and fifty), po (then), murî (to die).

Verse 20: Noè, che al lavorave la tiere (Noah, who used to till the soil; Noah, who tilled [was tilling; was working] the earth]), al plantà un vignâl (planted a vineyard).

Verse 21: Midiant che al veve bevût masse (because he had drunk too much), si incjocà (he became drunk) e si discrotà dentri de tende (and got undressed inside the tent). The past participle of bevi is bevût; consider: al à bevût (he has drunk); al veve bevût (he had drunk). The Friulian for drunk (as in intoxicated) is cjoc; this adjective is at the root of incjocâsi, meaning to get drunk.

Verse 22: Cam, il pari di Canaan (Ham, the father of Canaan), al viodè che so pari al jere crot (saw that his father was naked) e al lè a contâle (and well to tell about it) ai siei doi fradis (to his two brothers).

Verse 23: Ma Sem e Jafet a cjolerin la manteline (but Shem and Japheth took a mantle), le meterin ducj i doi su pes spalis (placed it upon both their shoulders) e, lant a cessecûl (and, walking backwards), a cuviergerin il pari (covered their father) che al jere crot (who was naked); a vevin la muse (they had their faces [they were having their face]) voltade di chê altre bande (turned the other way) e no vioderin lôr pari crot (and did not see their naked father). Pes is a contraction of par + lis. With singular nouns referring to family members, il and la are omitted before possessive adjectives: lôr pari (their father); tô mari (your mother); gno fradi (my brother); mê sûr (my sister), and so on. See the notes at verse 25 regarding the plural. Review: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Verse 24: Cuant che Noè al tornà a sancirâsi (when Noah became sober again [when Noah sobered back up]), al vignì a savê la part (he came to know the deed) che i veve fat il fi plui zovin (that his youngest son had done to him). Consider: sancirâsi (to sober up, to become clear-headed); tornâ a sancirâsi (to sober back up, to become clear-headed again).

Verse 25: Maladet seial Canaan: cursed be Canaan. Che al sedi pai siei fradis l’ultin dai fameis: may he be to his brothers (for his brothers) the lowest of servants (the last of the servants). With plural nouns referring to family members, the definite articles i and lis are used before possessive adjectives (compare to the absence of the singular definite article seen in the notes at verse 23): pai siei fradis = par + i siei fradis. More examples: (singular) mê fie; cun so fradi; cun so pari; par sô mari; cun sô sûr; (plural) lis lôr fiis; ai siei fradis; dai siei fradis; cui siei fradis; ai lôr fîs.

Verse 26: Benedet seial il Signôr (blessed be the Lord), il Diu di Sem (the God of Shem), e che Canaan al sedi il so famei (and may Canaan be his servant).

Verse 27: Che Diu i dedi dal ben a Jafet (may God deal generously with Japheth [give good to Japheth]), che al puedi lâ a stâ (may he go to dwell [may he be able to go to dwell]) tes tendis di Sem (in the tents of Shem) e che Canaan al sedi il so famei (and may Canaan be his servant). Consider: al da; che al dedi (he gives; may he give); al pues; che al puedi (he is able; may he be able).

Verses 28-29: Dopo dal diluvi (after the flood), Noè al à vivût tresinte e cincuant’agns (Noah lived three hundred and fifty years). Noè al à vivût, in dut, nûfcent e cincuant’agns, po al murì: Noah lived nine hundred and fifty years in all, then he died. Review: How to count in Friulian.