Friulian language series: Gjenesi 9, Noè gnûf Adam

Continue now your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis with the ninth chapter, where the subjects are: Noè gnûf Adam (Noah, new Adam); la benedizion di Noè (Noah’s blessing).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 9

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 9. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

You will remember that the Friulian verb for to bless is benedî; as for to curse, this is expressed with the verb maludî (or maledî).

In the words spoken by God, three verbs appear: cressi (to grow, to increase), multiplicâsi (to multiply oneself, to increase) and jemplâ (to fill). None of these three verbs are new to you; in this verse, they are all used in the second-person plural imperative.

cressêt!, grow!
multiplicaitsi!, increase!
jemplait!, fill!

At this point, it would be good to learn how to form the imperative in Friulian in a more comprehensive way. With the following verbs whose infinitives end in â, observe how the imperative is formed:

fevelâ, to speak

  • fevele!, speak! (second-person singular)
  • fevelait!, speak! (second-person plural)
  • fevelìn!, let us speak! (first-person plural)

jemplâ, to fill

  • jemple!, fill! (second-person singular)
  • jemplait!, fill! (second-person plural)
  • jemplìn!, let us fill! (first-person plural)

lavorâ, to work

  • lavore!, work! (second-person singular)
  • lavorait!, work! (second-person plural)
  • lavorìn!, let us work! (first-person plural)

With verbs whose infinitive ends in ê or i, the imperative is formed as follows:

tasê, to be quiet

  • tâs!, be quiet! (second-person singular)
  • tasêt!, be quiet! (second-person plural)
  • tasìn!, let us be quiet! (first-person plural)

parê, to seem, to appear

  • pâr!, seem! (second-person singular)
  • parêt!, seem! (second-person plural)
  • parìn!, let us seem! (first-person plural)

cjoli, to take

  • cjol!, take! (second-person singular)
  • cjolêt!, take! (second-person plural)
  • cjolìn!, let us take! (first-person plural)

The imperative of verbs whose infinitive ends in î will be explored in the notes for the next verse.

Verset 2

The verb paronâ, which you have met before, means to rule, to master. You will recognise it in this verse in its second-person plural imperative form paronait.

As for the new expression tignî sot, it translates literally as to hold under, to keep under; you will understand it as meaning to subjugate, to subdue. In this verse, you find the verb tignî in its second-person plural imperative form tignît.

With verbs whose infinitive ends in î, the imperative is formed as follows:

cirî, to search, to look for

  • cîr!, search! (second-person singular)
  • cirît!, search! (second-person plural)
  • cirìn!, let us search! (first-person plural)

cusî, to sew

  • cûs!, sew! (second-person singular)
  • cusît!, sew! (second-person plural)
  • cusìn!, let us sew! (first-person plural)

In the imperative, the stem of a verb sometimes undergoes a modification of vowel or final consonant; these cases will be dealt with individually as they appear. From the examples of the imperative given above and in the notes for the preceding verse, simply become familiar with the endings.

In Gjenesi 7, you learnt that the Friulian verb balinâ meant to move about.

dut ce che al baline su la tiere
everything that moves about on the earth

In Gjenesi 1, you learnt that i pes dal mâr means fish of the sea. The Friulian for fish (singular) is il pes; its plural form is i pes.

ducj i pes dal mâr
all the fish(es) of the sea

Us ai met translates literally as unto you I put them: us (unto you) ai met (I put them). You will read more about the grammar of this farther along in your study.

Lis vuestris mans is the Friulian for your hands. Tes vuestris mans, then, means in(to) your hands, where tes is a contraction of in + lis. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

You can understand us ai met tes vuestris mans as meaning I give them to you (literally, unto you I put them into the hands; that is, I put them into your hands).

Verset 3

You will remember that the reflexive passisi means to feed on, to sate oneself.

o podês passisi di dut ce che si môf
you may feed on everything that moves

The reflexive verb movisi means to move oneself. Si môf is the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf.

dut ce che si môf
all that which moves itself
everything that moves itself

In the above, o podês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê (can, may, to be able). It would be good to familiarise yourself with the present indicative conjugation of this irregular verb.

Verb: PODÊ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o pues
puedio?
tu
tu puedis
puedistu?
lui
al pues*
puedial?

e pues*
puedie?

o podìn
podìno?
vualtris
o podês
podêso?
lôr
a puedin
puedino?

*The Friulian Bible also uses al pò in the affirmative, masculine, third-person singular; and e pò in the affirmative, feminine, third-person singular.

Recall that the adjective vîf means living, alive; its feminine form is vive.

dut ce che al è vîf
all that which is living
everything that is alive

From the remainder of this verse, you will recall that us means to you; you may wish to review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns. You will also recall that the verb means to give and that its past participle is dât. The first-person singular, presint indicatîf of this verb is jo o doi (I give).

jo o doi
jo o ai dât
I give
I have given

jo us doi
jo us ai dât
I give to you
I have given to you

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb (to give).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o doi
doio?
tu
tu dâs
dâstu?
lui
al da
daial?

e da
daie?

o din
dino?
vualtris
o dais
daiso?
lôr
a dan
dano?

Il prât is uncultivated land covered in grasses; it can be understood in this verse as meaning field. As an adjective, vert means green; as a noun, and in the context of this verse, il vert can be taken as that which is green (that is, plantlife). Il vert dai prâts, then, translates as that which is green of the fields; you can understand this as the plantlife of the fields.

Verset 4

Dome means only; in this verse, it is better understood as but.

O vês is the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê. You find it used here as part of the expression vê di, meaning to have to, must. Review: Present indicative of the verb .

tu âs di mangjâ
o vês di mangjâ
you must eat

no tu âs di mangjâ
no vês di mangjâ
you must not eat

The Friulian for blood, as you have already seen, is il sanc.

dentri di sè
inside of itself

la cjar ch’e à dentri di sè il so sanc
flesh that has inside itself its blood
(that is, flesh with its blood in it)

Verset 5

Che anzit can be taken here as meaning in contrast.

The Friulian il cont means account, reckoning. The expression domandâ cont can be taken as meaning to require a reckoning, to ask to account for. O domandarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb domandâ.

The expression tant a dî means in other words, that is to say. You will remember that the Friulian word for brother is il fradi.

First sentence: che anzit (in contrast) us domandarai cont dal vuestri sanc (from you I shall require a reckoning for your blood), tant a dî de vuestre vite (that is to say, for your life). Second sentence: ur domandarai cont a ducj i nemâi (I shall require a reckoning from all beasts); o domandarai cont de vite (I shall require a reckoning for life) dal om al om (from man to man), a ognidun di so fradi (from each for his brother). The sense of dal om al om, in the context of this verse, is from each man for that of his fellow man.

Verset 6

The verb spandi means to spill, to shed, to spread. Al spant is its masculine, third-person singular form of the presint indicatîf. Its equivalent in the futûr sempliç is al spandarà.

chel che al spant il sanc dal om
he who sheds the blood of man

un altri om al spandarà il so sanc
another man shall shed his blood

You read again in this verse that man was made in the stamp of God, after the manner of God (that is, in the image of God): sul stamp di Diu.

al è stât fat
he was made

Verset 7

You have already come across all the usages of this verse, including the expression lâ in amôr. See verses 22 and 28 of Gjenesi 1.

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb (to go).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o voi
voio?
tu
tu vâs
vâstu?
lui
al va
vaial?

e va
vadie?

o lin
lino?
vualtris
o lais
laiso?
lôr
a van
vano?

Verset 8

This verse does not present any new usages. The only verb appearing in this verse is fevelâ (to speak); therefore, I have taken the opportunity to present its presint indicatîf conjugation below. This can be considered a model of the present indicative for verbs whose infinitive ends in â, such as pensâ (to think), puartâ (to carry), balâ (to dance).

Verb: FEVELÂ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o feveli
fevelio?
tu
tu fevelis
fevelistu?
lui
al fevele
fevelial?

e fevele
fevelie?

o fevelìn
fevelìno?
vualtris
o fevelais
fevelaiso?
lôr
a fevelin
fevelino?

Using the above as a model, translate the following into Friulian (the infinitives are provided):

  1. he singscjantâ
  2. he dancesbalâ
  3. they thinkpensâ
  4. I thinkpensâ
  5. you walkcjaminâ
  6. she takescjapâ
  7. she carriespuartâ
  8. we singcjantâ
  9. who is speaking?fevelâ
  10. what do you think of this?pensâ

Answers:

  1. al cjante
  2. al bale
  3. a pensin
  4. o pensi
  5. tu cjaminis; o cjaminais
  6. e cjape
  7. e puarte
  8. o cjantìn
  9. cui fevelial?
  10. ce pensistu di chest?; ce pensaiso di chest?

Verset 9

In a previous verse, you learnt that the Friulian il pat meant covenant, pact.

ve ch’o fâs un pat cun vualtris
here it is that I make a covenant with you

cun chei che a vegnaran daûr di vualtris
and with those who will come after you

The sense of chei che a vegnaran daûr di vualtris (those who will come after you) is your offspring (to come).

O fâs is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fâ. As for a vegnaran, this is the third-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb vignî.

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verbs (to do, to make) and vignî (to come).

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o fâs
fasio?
tu
tu fasis
fasistu?
lui
al fâs
fasial?

e fâs
fasie?

o fasìn
fasìno?
vualtris
o fasês
fasêso?
lôr
a fasin
fasino?

Verb: VIGNÎ
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o ven
vegnio?
tu
tu vegnis
vegnistu?
lui
al ven
vegnial?

e ven
vegnie?

o vignìn
vignìno?
vualtris
o vignîs
vignîso?
lôr
a vegnin
vegnino?

Verset 10

Un vivent is a living creature.

You will remember that saltâ fûr was used in a previous verse to talk about coming out or leaving the ark: saltâ fûr da l’arcje. In this verse, you find the expression used in the third-person plural of the passât prossim: a son saltâts fûr da l’arcje. The auxiliary is jessi, which is why saltât has been made to agree in gender and number with its subject.

The expression ven a stâi means in other words, that is to say. This is similar to tant a dî from verse 5.

Verset 11

Dut ce che al è means all that is in the sense of all that exists. The expression menâ vie means to take away.

dut ce che al è
all that exists

nol sarà plui menât vie
shall no more be taken away

des aghis dal diluvi
by the waters of the flood

If means to do, then disfâ means to undo.

disfâ la tiere
to undo the earth
(that is, to destroy the earth)

Verset 12

The Friulian il segnâl means sign, mark.

il segnâl dal pat
the sign of the convenant

che o fasarai fra me e vualtris
that I shall make between me and you

In the following, a vignî means to come in the sense of in the future:

par dutis lis gjenerazions a vignî
for all generations to come

Verset 13

O met is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb meti (to put).

The masculine arc in this verse refers to a rainbow; this is not to be confused with the feminine arcje referring to the ark of Noah. The Friulian for cloud is il nûl; its plural form is i nûi. Intai nûi means in the clouds, where in + i come together to form intai. In + i can also contract to form tai.

o met il gno arc intai nûi
I (now) put my rainbow in the clouds

Familiarise yourself now with the present indicative conjugation of the irregular verb meti (to put).

Verb: METI
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o met
metio?
tu
tu metis
metistu?
lui
al met
metial?

e met
metie?

o metìn
metìno?
vualtris
o metês
metêso?
lôr
a metin
metino?

The feminine noun aleance means covenant, alliance. You will remember that the verb deventâ means to become.

al deventarà un segnâl di aleance
it shall become a sign of [the] covenant

fra me e la tiere
between me and the earth

Verset 14

The expression parâ dongje means to bring together, to collect.

cuant che o pararai dongje i nûi
when I shall bring together the clouds
when I shall collect the clouds

sore la tiere
over the earth

In the following, si equates to the impersonal one of English or its use of the passive:

e cuant che si viodarà l’arc
and when one will see the rainbow
and when the rainbow will be seen

framieç dai nûi
between the clouds
amongst the clouds

Verset 15

The expression impensâsi di means to remember, to recall, to call to mind.

jo m’impensarai dal pat
I shall remember the covenant

O vin is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vê.

il pat che o vin fra me e vualtris
the covenant that we have between me and you

Mai altri means never again. Note its use with no:

lis aghis no deventaran mai altri un diluvi
the waters shall never again become a flood

You now come across the verb disfâ again, this time in disfâ ogni cjar (to destroy every flesh).

Verset 16

Par in secula means forever, for all ages to come. As for vadì, it means that is to say.

Ta chest mont translates as in this world. This is the second time that you are encountering the use of ta before chest or chei:

ta chest mont
in this world

ta chei timps (Gjenesi 6:4)
in those times

In this verse, you have three futûr sempliç forms:

al sarà
it will be

o viodarai
I shall see

mi impensarai
I shall remember

Verset 17

This verse presents no new usages. Because the irregular verb (to say) appears in this verse, I have taken the opportunity to present its presint indicatîf conjugation below:

Verb:
Presint indicatîf
Present indicative

affirmative
interrogative
jo
o dîs
disio?
tu
tu disis
disistu?
lui
al dîs
disial?

e dîs
disie?

o disìn
disìno?
vualtris
o disês
disêso?
lôr
a disin
disino?

Verset 18

You will recognise the third-person plural of the passât sempliç in a saltarin.

Remember also that a forin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb jessi.

a forin Sem, Cam e Jafet
they were Shem, Ham and Japheth

You read that Ham is the father of Canaan: Cam al è il pari di Canaan.

Verset 19

Chescj trê means these three. Remember that chescj (these) is the plural form of chest (this).

a forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè
these three were the sons of Noah

The verb partî means to leave; its present participle is partint (leaving). In the text, you read partint di lôr, which you can understand as meaning starting from them.

The reflexive verb popolâsi means to populate oneself; ripopolâsi, then, means to repopulate oneself. Remember that the verb tornâ can be used to express reoccurrence; you examined this in the notes for Gjenesi 8:10.

partint di lôr
starting from them

e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere
the earth repopulated itself*

* Literally, the Friulian says the earth repopulated itself again, where again is communicated through the use of tornâ; including again in the English is redundant given that repopulate already conveys it.

Take note of the two examples in this verse where the subject and verb are inverted from their usual position:

a forin chescj trê i fîs di Noè
= chescj trê a forin i fîs di Noè

e tornà a ripopolâsi la tiere
= la tiere e tornà a ripopolâsi

Verset 20

The Friulian for vineyard is il vignâl. The expression plantâ un vignâl, then, means to plant a vineyard.

Verset 21

Midiant che means given that, owing to the fact that, on account of the fact that. The Friulian verb for to drink is bevi.

midiant che al veve bevût masse
given that he had drunk too much

From the above, you see that the past participle of bevi is bevût.

al à bevût
al veve bevût
he has drunk
he had drunk

It does not appear in this verse, but the Friulian for wine is il vin. The expression to drink wine, then, is bevi vin.

si incjocà
he got drunk
he became inebriated

si discrotà dentri de tende
he got undressed inside the tent

You will recall from Gjenesi 4 that the Friulian for tent is la tende.

The reflexive verb incjocâsi means to get drunk. At the root of this verb is the adjective cjoc, meaning drunk. As for the reflexive discrotâsi, this means to get undressed. At its root, you will recognise the adjective crot, which you will remember from Gjenesi 2 as meaning naked.

al jere cjoc
he was drunk

al jere crot
he was naked

Verset 22

Recall that al lè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. The verb contâ means to tell, to relate.

al lè a contâle
he went to relate it
he went to tell about it

Verset 23

La manteline is a cloak or robe.

Su par can be understood as meaning on.

su pes spalis
on the shoulders

The Friulian la spale means shoulder. Pes is a contraction of par + lis. Review: Contractions involving par.

le meterin ducj i doi su pes spalis
they both put it on their shoulders

The expression lâ a cessecûl means to go backwards; it can be taken in context as to walk backwards. Lant is the present participle of the verb lâ.

lant a cessecûl
walking backwards
(going backwards)

You have met the verb cuvierzi (or cuviergi) before; it means to cover.

a cuviergerin il pari che al jere crot
they covered their father who was naked

The verb voltâ means to turn; its past participle is voltât. La muse refers to the face, or to the cheeks.

a vevin la muse voltade
they had their faces turned

di chê altre bande
to the other side
(that is, the other way)

You will remember that lôr means their; for example, il lôr vignâl (their vineyard). Review: Friulian possessive adjectives. With pari, il is omitted before lôr:

lôr pari crot
their naked father

You have seen other examples of where the definite article is omitted with the names of family members:

so pari (Gjenesi 2:24)
sô mari (Gjenesi 2:24)
so fradi (Gjenesi 4:8)
to fradi (Gjenesi 4:9)
gno fradi (Gjenesi 4:9)

Verset 24

The Friulian adjective sancîr (or sincîr) has a number of different renderings in English, including lucid, clear, sober. The reflexive verb sancirâsi (or sincirâsi) in the context of this verse can be taken as meaning to sober oneself up, to become clear-headed. As for tornâ a sancirâsi, as found in the text, this can be understood as meaning to sober oneself back up, to become clear-headed again.

The expression vignî a savê translates literally as to come to know; the sense of this is to find out. You find the verb vignî used here in its masculine, third-person singular form of the passât sempliç, which is al vignì.

The Friulian la part refers to a bad deed; la part che i veve fat can be understood as meaning the bad deed that he done to him.

The adjective zovin means young. Il fi plui zovin, then, translates as the youngest son.

cuant che Noè al tornà a sancirâsi
when Noah sobered back up
when Noah became clear-headed again

al vignì a savê la part
he came to know the bad deed
he found out about the bad deed

che i veve fat il fi plui zovin
that his youngest son had done to him

Verset 25

The adjective maladet (or maledet) means cursed. As for blessed, which you will find in the next verse, this is expressed as benedet.

maladet seial Canaan
cursed be Canaan
may Canaan be cursed

The above uses the optative subjunctive form seial, from the verb jessi; in the following, the affirmative present subjunctive sedi is used instead:

che al sedi pai siei fradis
let him be for his brothers
may he be for his brothers

l’ultin dai fameis
the last of the servants
the lowest of the servants

The Friulian il famei means servant.

Note in the above that the definite article is used with the plural fradis:

pai siei fradis
= par + i siei fradis

The definite article is omitted before the singular: par so fradi.

More examples: (singular) mê fie, cun so fradi, cun so pari, par sô mari, cun sô sûr; (plural) lis lôr fiis, ai siei fradis, dai siei fradis, cui siei fradis, ai lôr fîs.

Verset 26

In the previous verse, you found maladet (cursed); in this verse, you find benedet (blessed).

benedet seial il Signôr
blessed be the Lord
may the Lord be blessed

che Canaan al sedi il so famei
let Canaan be his servant
may Canaan be his servant

Verset 27

In the notes at verse 3, you saw in the verb charts that the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verbs (to give) and podê (can, be able) are:

al da
al pues
he gives
he can, is able

In this verse, you find these verbs used in the same person of the coniuntîf presint:

che al dedi
che al puedi
let him give
let him be able

che Diu i dedi dal ben a Jafet
let God give good to Japheth
may God give good to Japheth

In the above, il ben is used as a masculine noun meaning good, benefit. The expression used here is dâ dal ben (to give good; that is, to bring good).

che al puedi lâ a stâ
let him be able to go dwell
may he be able to go dwell

You have seen before that the verb stâ means to dwell, to live:

stâ tes tendis di Sem
to dwell in the tents of Shem

Verset 28

The Frulian for 350 is tresinte e cincuante. You have already encountered the language used in this verse.

dopo dal diluvi
after the flood

Verset 29

The Friulian for 950 is nûfcent e cincuante. You have already encountered the language used in this verse. Review: How to count in Friulian.