Friulian language series: Gjenesi 8, Noè e il diluvi

The eighth chapter of the book of Genesis continues with the story of the flood: il diluvi (the flood); l’arcje di Noè (Noah’s ark).

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Read Gjenesi 8

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: alore (then), visâsi di (to remember), la bestie (beast), ancje (also, too), salvadi (wild), la arcje (ark), mandâ (to send), la tiere (earth), un aiar (wind), la aghe (water), sbassâsi (to lower, to subside), la fontane (fountain, spring), un abìs (deep, abyss), la gatarade (floodgate, watergate), il cîl (heaven, sky), sierâ (to shut, to close), tignî (to keep, to maintain), fer (still, firm), la ploe (rain; also ploie), vignî jù (to come down), ritirâsi (to recede), a planc a planc (bit by bit, little by little), dopo (after), cent e cincuante (one hundred and fifty), il dî (day), setim (seventh), il mês (month), disesiet (seventeen), fermâsi (to halt, to come to a stop), la mont (mount, mountain), continuâ (to continue), fint a (until, as far as), decim (tenth), prin (first), viodi (to see), la spice (top, peak).

Verse 1: Alore Diu si visà di Noè (God then remembered Noah) e di dutis lis bestiis (and all the beasts), ancje di chês salvadiis (even the wild ones [even those wild]), che a jerin cun lui ta l’arcje (that were with him in the ark). Diu al mandà su la tiere un aiar e lis aghis si sbassarin: God sent upon the earth a wind and the waters subsided.

Verse 2: Lis fontanis dal abìs (the fountains of the deep) e lis gataradis dal cîl (and the floodgates of the heaven) a forin sieradis (were shut); al tignì ferme la ploe par no ch’e vignìs jù (he held the water back to stop it from coming down; he held the water back lest it come down [in order that it was not coming down]). The verb sierâ means to shut, to close; for instance, sierâ il barcon means to shut the window. The past participle of sierâ is sierât: the English I shut the window, then, can be expressed in Friulian as o ai sierât il barcon. In the text of this verse, you find: a forin sieradis. Whereas al fo is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb jessi, the third-person plural form is a forin. Observe: il barcon al fo sierât (the window was shut; got shut); lis gataradis a forin sieradis (the floodgates were shut; got shut). Ferme is the feminine form of the adjective fer, meaning firm, still; in the context of this verse, tignî fer can be taken as meaning to hold back (literally, to keep in place [firm]). Vignî jù means to come down, where is the Friulian for down; e vignìs is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet. The subjunctive is used in this verse because the verb follows par no che, which requires it. Observe: la ploe e ven jù (the rain comes down); par no ch’e vegni jù (in order that it does not come down); par no ch’e vignìs jù (in order that it was not coming down).

Verse 3: Lis aghis si ritirarin a planc a planc de tiere: the waters receded bit by bit from the earth. Lis aghis si sbassarin dopo cent e cincuante dîs: at the end of one hundred and fifty days, the waters subsided (the waters subsided after one hundred and fifty days). The adverb planc means slowly; for instance, cjaminâ planc means to walk slowly. Planc can also mean softly, as in fevelâ planc, meaning to speak softly, in a low voice. A planc a planc means little by little, bit by bit. Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verse 4: Tal setim mês, ai disesiet dal mês: in the seventh month, on the seventeenth of the month. Supplementary examples: ai doi dal mês (on the second of the month); ai nûf dal mês (on the ninth of the month); ai dîs dal mês (on the tenth of the month); ai vincj dal mês (on the twentieth of the month); il prin dal mês (the first of the month); l’ultin dal mês (the last of the month). L’arcje si fermà su lis monts di Ararat: the ark came to rest (stopped itself) on the mountains of Ararat.

Verse 5: Lis aghis a continuarin a sbassâsi (the waters continued to subside) fint al decim mês (until the tenth month) e, la prime dì dal decim mês (and, the first day of the tenth month), si vioderin lis spicis des monts (the peaks of the mountains could be seen [were seen]). Ordinals up to tenth (masculine — feminine): prinprime (first); secontseconde (second); tierçtierce (third); cuartcuarte (fourth); cuintcuinte (fifth); sestseste (sixth); setimsetime (seventh); otâfotave (eighth); novesimnovesime (ninth); decimdecime (tenth). Examples: l’otâf mês dal an (the eighth month of the year); la novesime dì dal mês (the ninth day of the month); il decim mês dal an (the tenth month of the year). Friulian names of the days of the week (i dîs de setemane): lunis (Monday); martars (Tuesday); miercus (Wednesday); joibe (Thursday); vinars (Friday); sabide (Saturday); domenie (Sunday). Masculine in gender are lunis, martars, miercus, vinars; feminine in gender are joibe, sabide, domenie. Examples: vuê e je domenie (today is Sunday); cheste sabide (this Saturday); vinars sant (Good Friday). Months of the year (i mês dal an): zenâr (January); fevrâr (February); març (March); avrîl (April); mai (May); jugn (June); lui (July); avost (August); setembar (September); otubar (October); novembar (November); dicembar (December). The months are masculine in gender. Examples: ai doi di març (on the second of March); avost al è l’otâf mês dal an (August is the eighth month of the year); setembar al è il novesim mês dal an, jenfri avost e otubar (September is the ninth month of the year, between August and October).

Versets 6-12

Vocabulary: dopo (after), corante (forty; also cuarante), il dì (day), viergi (to open; also vierzi), la barconete ({little} window), (to make, to do), la arcje (ark), molâ (to release, to send out), il corvat (raven), viodi (to see), la aghe (water), ritirâsi (to recede), jessî (to go out), (to go), tornâ (to return, to come back), spietâ (to await, to wait for), suiâ (to dry), la tiere (earth), alore (then), la colombe (dove), sbassâsi (to lower, to subside), no rivâ a (to be unable to), cjatâ (to find), il puest (place), poiâsi (to set oneself down), taponâ (to cover), ancjemò (yet, still), la face (surface, face), slungjâ (to extend, to stretch out), la man (hand), cjapâ (to take), tirâ dentri (to bring in), daprûf di (alongside), indaûr (again, anew), siet (seven), fûr (out), tornâ dongje (to come back, to return), soresere (towards evening; also sore sere), il ramaçut (sprig), un ulîf (olive tree), gnûf (new, fresh), crevâ (to break off, to pluck off), il bec (beak), capî (to understand), no… altri (no more).

Verse 6: Dopo corante dîs (at the end of forty days [after forty days]), Noè al viergè la barconete (Noah opened the {little} window) che al veve fat ta l’arcje (that he had made in the ark). The Friulian for window is the masculine barcon; as for the feminine barconete, this is used to refer to the smaller windows of vehicles, and even to those of Noah’s ark. Supplementary examples using barcon: vierzi il barcon; sierâ il barcon (to open the window; to shut the window); o ai viert il barcon; o ai sierât il barcon (I opened the window; I shut the window); vierç un tic il barcon; siere un tic il barcon (open the window a little; shut the window a little [second-person singular imperatives]). Another example of barconete: lis barconetis di un automobil (the windows of an automobile). The text of this verse continues: al molà il corvat par viodi se lis aghis si jerin ritiradis (he sent out the raven to see if the waters had receded). Consider: lis aghis si son ritiradis (the waters receded); lis aghis si jerin ritiradis (the waters had receded).

Verse 7: Chel al jessì (it [that one] went out), al lè e al tornà (it went to and fro [it went and returned]) spietant che (until [awaiting that]) lis aghis si fossin suiadis (the waters had dried up) su la tiere (on the earth). The masculine chel refers to the raven: il corvat. Al jessì is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb jessî. The verb jessî (to go out) is not to be confused with jessi (to be).

Verse 8: Alore al molà dopo di lui la colombe (then he sent out the dove after it), par viodi se lis aghis si jerin sbassadis su la tiere (to see if the waters had subsided from the earth).

Verse 9: La colombe (the dove), no rivant a cjatâ un puest par poiâsi (unable to find a place to rest [not coming to find a place to set itself down]), e tornà li di lui ta l’arcje (returned to him in the ark), parcè che l’aghe e taponave ancjemò la face de tiere (for the water yet covered [was yet covering] the face of the earth); lui al slungjà la man (he extended his hand), le cjapà (took it) e le tirà dentri daprûf di sè ta l’arcje (and brought it back into the ark alongside him).

Verse 10: Al spietà indaûr siet dîs (he waited another seven days) e al tornà a molâ la colombe fûr da l’arcje (and again sent the dove out of the ark).

Verse 11: La colombe e tornà dongje soresere (the dove came back towards evening) e ve ch’e veve (and, behold, it had [was having]) un ramaçut di ulîf gnûf (a fresh olive sprig) crevât cul bec (plucked off by its beak). The masculine ulîf refers to an olive tree; the feminine ulive refers to the fruit: an olive. Alore Noè al capì che lis aghis si jerin sbassadis su la face de tiere: then Noah understood that the waters had subsided from the face of the earth.

Verse 12: Al spietà altris siet dîs (he waited another seven days) e al molà la colombe (and sent out the dove) che no tornà dongje altri (which did not come back any more).

Versets 13-17

Vocabulary: la aghe (water), suiâsi (to dry up), dal dut (completely, entirely), la face (surface, face), la tiere (earth, ground), cuant che (when), (to have), sîscent e un (six hundred and one), un an (year), il prin (first), il mês (month), la dì (day), tirâ vie (to remove), il cuviert (covering), la arcje (ark), cjalâ fûr (to look out), viodi (to see), sut (dry), secont (second), vincjesiet (twenty-seven), propit (truly, indeed), alore (then), fevelâ (to speak), cussì (so, thus), saltâ fûr (to come/go out), la femine (wife), il fi (son), dutun cun (along with), il nemâl (animal), la cjar (flesh), un ucel (bird; also uciel), la bestie (beast), strissinâsi (to slither), (to go), il mont (world), la mandrie (herd, mass), jemplâ (to fill).

Verse 13: Lis aghis si suiarin dal dut (the waters dried up completely) su la face de tiere (on the face of the earth) cuant che Noè al veve sîscent e un agns (when Noah was six hundred and one years old [was having six hundred and one years]), tal prin mês (in the first month), la prime dì dal mês (on the first day of the month). Noè al tirà vie il cuviert de arcje: Noah removed the covering of the ark. Al cjalà fûr e al viodè che la face de tiere e jere sute: he looked out and saw that the face of the earth was dry. Sut is the Friulian adjective for dry; its feminine form is sute.

Verse 14: Tal secont mês (in the second month), ai vincjesiet dal mês (on the twenty-seventh of the month), la tiere e jere propit sute dal dut (the earth was altogether dry).

Verse 15: Alore Diu i fevelà cussì a Noè: then God spoke thus to Noah.

Verse 16: Salte fûr de arcje (come out of the ark), tu e la tô femine (you and your wife), i tiei fîs (your sons) e lis feminis dai tiei fîs (and the wives of your sons) dutun cun te (along with you).

Verse 17: Ducj i nemâi che a son cun te (all the animals that are with you), dut ce che al è cjar (all that is flesh), ucei (birds), bestiis (beasts) e dut ce che si strissine su la tiere (and all that slithers on the ground) fasiju saltâ fûr dutun cun te (make them come out along with you); che a ledin pal mont (may they spread out on earth [go throughout the world]), che a fasin mandrie (may they reproduce [make masses]) e che a jemplin la tiere (and may they fill the earth). Observe: fâs (make; second-person singular imperative); fasiju (make them); fasiju saltâ fûr (make them come out). Lâ pal mont translates literally as to go throughout the world; it can be taken here as meaning to spread out (over the face of the earth). The feminine mandrie is the Friulian for herd, mass; fâ mandrie (to make masses) can be taken here as to reproduce.

Versets 18-22

Vocabulary: saltâ fûr (to come/go out), il fi (son), la femine (wife), la bestie (beast), svolâ (to fly), strissinâsi (to slither), la tiere (earth, ground), seont (according to), la raze (kind, sort), la arcje (ark), (to make, to do), dopo (then, after), un altâr (altar), cjoli (to take), il nemâl (animal), mont (clean), un ucel (bird; also uciel), brusâ (to burn), tirâ sù (to breathe in, to take in), il bonodôr (pleasing odour), (to say), dentri di (inside, within), mai altri (never again), maludî (to curse; also maledî), la colpe (fault), un om (man), parcè che (for, because), puartât a (prone to), il mâl (wrong, evil, wickedness), il frut (child), in sù (upwards), no… plui (no more), fruçâ (to destroy), vivi (to live), come che (as, just as), la volte (time), fintremai che (for so long as), durâ (to last, to endure), il mont (world), semenâ (to sow, to seed), seselâ (to harvest, to reap), il frêt (cold), il cjalt (heat), l’istât (summer), l’unvier (winter; also invier), il dì (day), la gnot (night), mancjâ (to be lacking), par mai (never).

Verses 18-19: Noè al saltà fûr cui siei fîs (Noah came out with his sons), la sô femine (his wife) e lis feminis dai siei fîs (and the wives of his sons); e dutis lis bestiis (and all the beasts), dut ce che al svole (all that flies), dut ce che si strissine su la tiere (all that slithers on the ground), seont la lôr raze (according to their kind), a saltarin fûr de arcje (came out of the ark).

Verse 20: Noè i fasè dopo un altâr al Signôr (then Noah built [made] an altar to the Lord): al cjolè di ducj i nemâi monts (he took of all the clean animals) e di ducj i ucei monts (and of all the clean birds) e al brusà dut sul altâr (and burnt the whole on the altar).

Verse 21: Tirâ sù, translating literally as to pull up, to take up, is to be taken here as meaning to breathe in, to take in. You read: il Signôr al tirà sù (the Lord took in) dut chel bonodôr (all that pleasing odour) e al disè dentri di sè (and said to himself [within him]). The Lord says: mai altri no maludissarai la tiere (never again will I curse the earth) par colpe dal om (on account of man [by fault of man]), parcè che l’om al è puartât al mâl (for man is prone to evil) di frut in sù (from the time of his childhood [from child upwards]). No fruçarai plui chei che a vivin, come che o ai fat cheste volte: I will destroy no more those that live, as I have done this time.

Verse 22: Fintremai che al durarà il mont (for so long as the world endures [shall endure]), semenâ e seselâ (sowing and reaping), frêt e cjalt (cold and heat); istât e unviêr (summer and winter), dì e gnot (day and night) no mancjaran par mai (shall never lack). Semenâ and seselâ are used here as nouns, rather than as verbs: il semenâ (sowing, seeding); il seselâ (harvesting, reaping). Also employed as nouns are frêt and cjalt, rather than as adjectives: il frêt (cold); il cjalt (heat); as adjectives, frêt and cjalt mean cold and hot. The names of the four seasons of the year are: vierte (spring); istât (summer); sierade (autumn); invier (winter). Masculine in gender are istât and invier; feminine in gender are vierte and sierade. Examples: un invier crût (a frigid winter); une sierade cjalde (a hot autumn). For winter, the text of this verse uses unviêr, a variant of invier. The Friulian for season is la stagjon; its plural is lis stagjons.