Friulian language series: Gjenesi 8, Noè e il diluvi

In this post, you will study the entirety of the eighth chapter of the book of Genesis through the Friulian language. As in the last chapter, the subject is il diluvi (flood) and l’arcje di Noè (Noah’s ark). You will also learn the Friulian names for the days, months and seasons in this post.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 8

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 8. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

The expression visâsi di means to remember.

Diu si visà di Noè
God remembered Noah

The Friulian un aiar means wind. As for the verb mandâ, it means to send.

Diu al mandà un aiar
God sent a wind

The reflexive verb sbassâsi means to lower, to decrease, to diminish (oneself). You find this verb used in the third-person plural of the passât sempliç:

lis aghis si sbassarin
the waters decreased
the waters diminished

The above is the opposite of the following, which you encountered in verses 17 and 18 of Gjenesi 7:

lis aghis a cresserin
the waters increased

lis aghis si alçarin
the waters rose

Verset 2

In Gjenesi 7:11, it was question of lis risultivis dal abìs; in the current verse, you find lis fontanis dal abìs. The Friulian la fontane means fountain.

You will recall that lis gataradis dal cîl are the watergates of the heaven, the floodgates of the heaven; that is, the openings in the celestial ocean through which the waters pour and rain down upon the earth.

The verb sierâ means to shut, to close. For example, sierâ il barcon means to shut the window. The past participle of sierâ is sierât. The English I shut the window, then, can be expressed in Friulian as o ai sierât il barcon.

In the text, you read: a forin sieradis. Recall that al fo is the third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb jessi; the third-person plural form is a forin.

il barcon al fo sierât
the window was shut; got shut

lis gataradis a forin sieradis
the floodgates were shut; got shut

You have come across the Friulian adjective fer before; it means firm, solid. Its feminine form is ferme. You will perhaps remember having encountered this adjective in the phrase su la tiere ferme (on firm land; that is, on dry land). In this verse, you can understand the expression tignî fer as meaning to hold tight, to hold back, to restrain. The verb tignî means to keep, to hold.

tignî ferme la ploe
to hold back the rain

In the above, the adjective ferme agrees in gender with la ploe.

This verse ends with:

par no ch’e vignìs jù
so that it was not coming down
(that is, so that it would not come down)

In the above, you will understand it as standing in for the rain: par no che la ploe e vignìs jù.

The expression vignî jù literally means to come down, where means down. E vignìs is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb vignî. The subjunctive is used here because of the presence of the expression par no che. Par no ch’e vignìs jù can be taken literally as so that it was not coming down.


la ploe e ven jù
the rain comes down

par no ch’e vegni jù
so that it does not come down

par no ch’e vignìs jù
so that it was not coming down

In the above, e ven is the feminine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb vignî. E vegni is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint.

In idiomatic English, so that it was not coming down is better expressed as so that it would not come down.

Verset 3

The reflexive verb ritirâsi means to pull oneself back.

lis aghis si ritirarin
the waters pulled back
(that is, the waters abated)

The Friulian adverb planc means slowly. For example, cjaminâ planc means to walk slowly. Planc can also mean softly, as in fevelâ planc, meaning to speak softly, in a low voice. The expression a planc a planc means little by little, bit by bit.

lis aghis si ritirarin a planc a planc
the waters pulled back little by little
(that is, the waters gradually abated)

You come across the reflexive sbassâsi again:

lis aghis si sbassarin
the waters decreased
the waters diminished

dopo cent e cincuante dîs
after one hundred and fifty days

The Friulian for 150 is cent e cincuante. Review Friulian cardinal numbers.

Verset 4

Recall that setim means seventh. In the Bible, you have already encountered it in its feminine form in la setime zornade (the seventh day). In this verse, you find it in its masculine form:

tal setim mês
in the seventh month

As for ai disesiet dal mês, you will remember that this means on the seventeenth of the month. You first encountered this wording in Gjenesi 7:11. A few more examples of this: ai doi dal mês, ai nûf dal mês, ai dîs dal mês, ai vincj dal mês.

The first day of the month can be expressed in Friulian as il prin dì dal mês or la prime dì dal mês; the last day of the month can be expressed as l’ultin dì dal mês or l’ultime dì dal mês.

The reflexive verb fermâsi means to stop oneself, to come to a stop, to come to rest.

l’arcje si fermà
the ark came to a stop
the ark came to rest

su lis monts di Ararat
on the mountains of Ararat

Recall that the Friulian la mont means mount, mountain.

Verset 5

The Friulian verb for to continue is continuâ.

lis aghis a continuarin a sbassâsi
the waters continued to decrease
the waters went on diminishing

Fint a means until.

fint al decim mês
until the tenth month

Add now to your vocabulary the following:

otâf, otave, eighth
novesim, novesime, ninth
decim, decime, tenth

l’otâf mês dal an
the eighth month of the year

la novesime dì dal mês
the ninth day of the month

il decim mês dal an
the tenth month of the year

Review: (masculine) prin, secont, tierç, cuart, cuint, sest, setim, otâf, novesim, decim; (feminine) prime, seconde, tierce, cuarte, cuinte, seste, setime, otave, novesime, decime.

Now is a good time to learn the Friulian names of the days of the week (i dîs de setemane) and of the months of the year (i mês dal an).

Months: zenâr (January), fevrâr (February), març (March), avrîl (April), mai (May), jugn (June), lui (July), avost (August), setembar (September), otubar (October), novembar (November), dicembar (December).

The months are masculine in gender.

ai doi di març
on the second of March

avost al è l’otâf mês dal an
August is the eighth month of the year

setembar al è il novesim mês dal an, jenfri avost e otubar
September is the ninth month of the year, between August and October

Days: lunis (Monday), martars (Tuesday), miercus (Wednesday), joibe (Thursday), vinars (Friday), sabide (Saturday), domenie (Sunday).

Masculine in gender are lunis, martars, miercus, vinars; feminine in gender are joibe, sabide, domenie.

vuê e je domenie
today is Sunday

cheste sabide
this Saturday

vinars sant
Good Friday

This verse ends with the following: si vioderin lis spicis des monts. This can be taken two ways in English: one saw the tops of the mountains or the tops of the mountains were seen (were visible).

In reference to mountains, the Friulian la spice means top: la spice de mont (top of the mountain, mountaintop).

In si vioderin, you will recognise the third-person plural of the passât sempliç.

Verset 6

From Gjenesi 3:5, you will remember the reflexive verb vierzisi (or viergisi) meaning to open oneself: si vierzaran i vuestris vôi (your eyes will open themselves; or simply, your eyes will open). In the current verse, you find viergi (or vierzi) which means to open (something).

Noè al viergè la barconete
Noah opened the (little) window

The Friulian for window, which you saw above in the notes pertaining to verse 2, is il barcon. As for la barconete, this is used to refer to the smaller windows of a vehicle, and even to those of Noah’s ark. Al viergè is, of course, the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of viergi.

More examples using barcon:

vierzi il barcon
sierâ il barcon
to open the window
to shut the window

o ai viert il barcon
o ai sierât il barcon
I opened the window
I shut the window

vierç un tic il barcon!
siere un tic il barcon!
open the window a little!
shut the window a little!

Another example of barconete:

lis barconetis di un automobil
the windows of an automobile

The Friulian verb molâ means to release. The black bird known as a raven is il corvat.

al molà il corvat
he released the raven
he sent out the raven

Noah sent forth the raven to see if the waters had abated:

par viodi se
in order to see if

lis aghis si jerin ritiradis
the waters had pulled back


lis aghis si son ritiradis
lis aghis si jerin ritiradis
the waters pulled back
the waters had pulled back

Verset 7

In this verse, you encounter the verb jessî (to go out, to exit), not to be confused with jessi (to be).

chel al jessì
it went out
it went forth

In the above, chel refers to il corvat. Al jessì is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb jessî.

In the following, the expression used is lâ e tornâ:

al lè e al tornà
it went back and forth
it went to and fro

Literally, lâ e tornâ translates as to go and to return; it is used in the sense of to go back and forth. Al lè is the masculine, third-person singular of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ.

The Friulian verb spietâ means to wait. Its present participle is spietant (waiting). As for the verb suiâ, it means to dry; its reflexive form suiâsi means to dry oneself, to get dried up.

spietant che lis aghis si fossin suiadis
waiting for the waters to get dried up

A sedin, which you have already seen, is the third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi. Its equivalent in the coniuntîf imperfet is a fossin. In the above, the subjunctive has been used because of the presence of spietant che.

More examples, this time using par che, which also requires the subjunctive:

par che a sedin fats
par che a fossin fats
so that they are done
so that they were done

par che al sedi pussibil
par che al fos pussibil
so that it is possible
so that it was possible

Verset 8

After the raven, Noah releases the dove: alore al molà (then he released; then he sent out) dopo di lui (after it; after him; that is, after the raven) la colombe (the dove).

In verse 6, you encountered: par viodi se lis aghis si jerin ritiradis. In the current verse, you read: par viodi se lis aghis si jerin sbassadis.

lis aghis si jerin ritiradis
lis aghis si jerin sbassadis
the waters had pulled back
the waters had decreased

Verset 9

This verse contains much vocabulary that you have already seen, so you will have a chance to review certain usages.

The verb rivâ means to arrive; it can be used as part of the expression rivâ a fâ, which means to succeed in doing, to manage to do. The present participle of the verb rivâ is rivant (arriving, succeeding, managing).

no rivant a cjatâ un puest
not managing to find a place
(that is, being unable to find a place)

The verb poiâ, which you encounter here for the first time, means to set down; for example, poiâ une scjatule par tiere (to put a box on the ground, to set a box down on the ground). The reflexive poiâsi, then, means to set oneself down.

cjatâ un puest par poiâsi
to find a place to set oneself down
(in this context, to find a place to land)

Because the dove found no place to land, she returned to Noah in the ark: e tornà li di lui ta l’arcje. Li di lui can be understood here as unto him, with him; e tornà li di lui, then, can be taken as she returned to him (to Noah). Li di can be used to convey the sense of amongst, at the place of. Here is another example of this: lâ li dal miedi (to go to the doctor). The Friulian for medical doctor is il miedi.

The dove found no place to land because the earth was still covered in water. You will perhaps recall the verb taponâ (to cover) from Gjenesi 1:11.

l’aghe e taponave ancjemò la face de tiere
the water was still covering the face of the earth

E taponave is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb taponâ.

Another expression from this verse that you have already encountered is slungjâ la man, meaning to extend one’s hand. You first came across it in Gjenesi 3:22.

lui al slungjà la man
he extended his hand

le cjapà
he took her
(that is, he caught her)

le tirà dentri daprûf di sè ta l’arcje
he pulled her inside with him into the ark
(that is, he brought her in with him into the ark)

In the above, the expression tirâ dentri literally means to pull inside; you will understand it here as meaning to bring in.

You have already come across the expression daprûf di; it means near to, next to, with. Daprûf di sè, then, means next to him, with him. You first encountered daprûf di in the phrase daprûf di te (next to you, near you, with you), from Gjenesi 6:21.

Verset 10

Indaûr can be taken here as meaning again.

al spietà indaûr siet dîs
he waited again seven days
(that is, he waited another seven days)

After the seven days’ wait, Noah released the dove again.

al tornà a molâ la colombe
he released the dove again
he sent the dove back out

In the above, the verb tornâ (to return, to go back) is used to express reoccurrence; for example: tornâ a molâ (to release again), tornâ a fâ (to start to do again, to go back to doing), tornâ a plovi (to start to rain again).

al à tornât a plovi
it has started to rain again

o ai tornât a lei chel libri
I have started to read that book again
I have gone back to reading that book
(lei, to read)

Molâ la colombe fûr da l’arcje means to send the dove out of the ark.

Verset 11

The expression tornâ dongje translates as to return, to come back. Soresere (or sore sere) means in the evening.

la colombe e tornà dongje soresere
the dove came back in the evening

The Friulian for branch (of a plant, tree) is il ramaç. Il ramaçut means little branch.

ve ch’e veve un ramaçut di ulîf
behold, she had an olive branch
thus it was that she had an olive branch

Literally, un ramaçut di ulîf translates as little branch of olive tree. The Friulian for olive tree is the masculine ulîf. The name of the fruit — the olive — is the feminine ulive.

The verb crevâ means to break (off). The branch was crevât cul bec (broken off with her beak), where the masculine il bec means beak. Gnûf means new; gnûf crevât cul bec can be taken as freshly plucked with her beak.

Verset 12

Note the uses of altri in this verse:

al spietà altris siet dîs
he waited another seven days

no tornà dongje altri
she did not come back again
she did not come back any more

Verset 13

The expression dal dut means completely.

lis aghis si suiarin dal dut
the waters dried up completely

The Friulian for 601 is sîscent e un.

The expression tirâ vie means to pull away (that is, to remove). You will recall that il cuviert means covering; you first encountered this in Gjenesi 6:16.

Noè al tirà vie il cuviert de arcje
Noah removed the covering of the ark
(literally, Noah pulled away the covering of the ark)

Noah then looked out: al cjalà fûr.

He saw that the face of the earth was dry: e jere sute.

The Friulian adjective sut means dry; its feminine form is sute. This adjective is related to the verb suiâ (to dry) that you have already encountered.

Supplementary example:

il suieman nol è ancjemò sut
the towel is not dry yet

Verset 14

This verse does not present any new usages.

The Friulian for 27 is vincjesiet.

Propit here conveys the sense of indeed, truly.

Verset 15

The verb fevelâ means to speak.

Verset 16

In Gjenesi 2:10, you encountered the following: dal Eden al saltave fûr un flum. You will recall that the expression saltâ fûr means to come out. In the current verse, God tells Noah to come out of the ark: salte fûr de arcje. Salte is the second-person singular imperative of the verb saltâ.

Verset 17

Fâs is the second-person singular imperative of the verb fâ. The imperative fasiju means make them.

fasiju saltâ fûr dutun cun te
make them come out along with you

The expression lâ pal mont means to go into the world. Pal is a contraction of par + il.

che a ledin pal mont
let them go into the world

A ledin is third-person plural of the coniuntîf presint of the verb lâ.

a van
che a ledin
they go
let them go

You find two more third-person plural coniuntîf presint forms in this verse:

che a fasin mandrie
let them make herds
(that is, let them reproduce)

che a jemplin la tiere
let them fill the earth

In the case of and jemplâ, the third-person plural presint indicatîf and coniuntîf presint forms are the same:

a fasin
che a fasin
they make
let them make

a jemplin
che a jemplin
they fill
let them fill

You first came across the noun la mandrie (herd, livestock) in Gjenesi 4:20. The sense of fâ mandrie in this verse is to reproduce.

Verset 18

This verse presents no new usages.

Verset 19

This verse presents no new usages.

In this verse and the last, note the use of the third-person singular and third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb saltâ:

al saltà
a saltarin

You will remember that the verb svolâ means to fly; al svole is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf.

Verset 20

The Friulian for altar is un altâr.

Noè i fasè dopo un altâr al Signôr
Noah then made an altar to the Lord

You will remember the meaning of the verb cjoli, which is to take.

al cjolè di ducj i nemâi monts
he took of all the clean beasts
he took of every clean beast

The verb brusâ means to burn.

al brusà dut
he burnt (it) all

The sense of al brusà dut is that he made a burnt offering to the Lord of all that he had taken.

Verset 21

The expression tirâ sù translates literally as to pull up; you can understand it in this verse as meaning to take in, to breathe in.

il Signôr al tirà sù dut chel bonodôr
the Lord took in all that pleasing odour

Il bonodôr is composed of bon (good) + odôr (odour).

In Friulian, the expression to say to oneself is dî dentri di sè (literally, to say inside of oneself).

O maludissarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb maludî.

o maludissarai
no maludissarai
I shall curse
I shall not curse

mai altri no maludissarai
never again shall I curse

Recall par colpe di, meaning by fault of, where the Friulian la colpe means fault. Par colpe dal om, then, means by fault of man.

The verb puartâ, as you have seen before, means to bear, to carry. In this verse you read: l’om al è puartât al mâl. You can understand puartât al mâl as meaning given to evil, prone to evil. The Friulian for evil is il mâl. You will remember this from l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl (tree of the knowledge of good and evil), from Gjenesi 2:9.

l’om al è puartât al mâl
man is prone to evil

di frut in sù
from childhood on

In the above, il frut is the Friulian for child, youth.

The Friulian verb fruçâ means to destroy, to strike down.

o fruçarai
no fruçarai
I shall destroy
I shall not destroy

no fruçarai plui chei che a vivin
I shall no longer destroy those who live
(that is, I shall not destroy the living again)

A vivin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb vivi.

This verse ends with: come che o ai fat cheste volte, meaning as I have done this time.

Verset 22

The expression fintremai che means for as long as.

fintremai che al durarà il mont
for as long as the world shall last

Mentioned in this verse are a number of things that will always be present: no mancjaran par mai (they shall never be missing; they shall never be lacking). The verb mancjâ means to be missing, to be lacking; a mancjaran is its third-person plural futûr sempliç form.

a mancjaran
no mancjaran
they will be lacking
they will not be lacking

That which shall never cease: il semenâ (sowing, seeding), il seselâ (harvesting, reaping), il frêt (cold), il cjalt (heat), l’istât (summer), l’unvier* (winter), il dì (day), la gnot (night).

In Friulian, the four seasons of the year are: vierte (spring), istât (summer), sierade (autumn), invier (winter). Masculine in gender are istât and invier; feminine in gender are vierte and sierade. The Friulian for season is la stagjon; its plural form is lis stagjons.

un invier crût
a frigid winter

une sierade cjalde
a warm autumn

*The form unvier found in the text is a variation of the standarised invier.