Friulian language series: Gjenesi 7, Noè e il diluvi

You will now examine the entirety of the seventh chapter of the book of Genesis in its Friulian version, where the subject continues with il diluvi (flood) and l’arcje di Noè (Noah’s ark).

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 7

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 7. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

In this verse, you encounter the second-person singular imperative form of the verb jentrâ:

jentre te arcje
enter the ark

tu e la tô famee
you and your family

The Friulian for family is la famee.

This is not the first time that you are meeting the wording te arcje. If you have consulted the summary of Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article, you may have been expecting ta l’arcje rather than te arcje, given that the feminine arcje begins with a vowel. You will find variation in certain Friulian contractions and, in fact, both te arcje and ta l’arcje can be found in the Bible. For example:

a jentrarin te arcje (verse 9)
a jentrarin ta l’arcje (verse 13)
they entered (into) the ark

Remember that Friulian literally says to enter into the ark. The difference between jentrâ te arcje and jentrâ ta l’arcje stems from whether or not one makes the contraction of la to l’ before arcje, which begins with a vowel. (That is, both l’arcje and la arcje are possible.)

la arcje or

jentrâ in
to enter into

jentrâ te arcje
= jentrâ in + la arcje

jentrâ ta l’arcje
= jentrâ in + l’arcje

Recall that the Friulian verb cjatâ means to find.

parcè che ti ai cjatât just
because I have found you just

denant di me
before me

You first encountered the adjective just (just, righteous) in Gjenesi 6:9.

Review the following:

o ai cjatât
ti ai cjatât
I have found
I have found you

The Friulian la razate, which is related to la raze, can be understood as bloodline here.

dome te
only you

framieç di cheste razate
amongst this bloodline

Verset 2

You now encounter the adjective mont, meaning clean, uncorrupted. (You have come across mont before, but only as a masculine noun meaning world.)

di ducj i nemâi monts
of all the clean animals

The verb cjoli means to take.

tu ’nt cjolarâs dome un pâr
you shall take of them only one pair

In the above, ’nt translates as of them. You have seen ’nt before: la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs (the day that you will eat of it), from Gjenesi 2:17. Both of it and of them may be expressed by ’nt. (You will learn more about how ’nt works in later readings.) For the moment, note also the following regarding ’nt: In English, you shall take of them only one pair could also be said as you shall take only one pair, where of them is understood but not expressed. Friulian requires the of them (that is, ’nt) to be expressed; it is not optional as it is in English.

Review: il mascjo is a male, and la mascje is a female.

Verset 3

Of the birds (ucei), God commands Noah to take siet pârs (seven pairs).

You find a third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint in this verse: e puedi, from the verb podê.


la semence e pues restâ
par che la semence e puedi restâ
the seed can remain
so that the seed can remain

Ancjemò means yet, still.

restâ ancjemò su la tiere
to yet remain on the earth

Review: un ucel (bird), i ucei (birds). (Friulian also uses the spellings uciel [sing.] and uciei [pl.].)

Verset 4

The meaning of ancjemò here is another, yet.

ancjemò siet dîs
another seven days

(that is, seven days from now)

The Friulian verb slavinâ means to pour down with rain, to downpour.

jo o fasarai slavinâ
I shall make it downpour
I shall cause it to downpour

As a sidenote, the usual Friulian verb for to rain is plovi.

al plûf, it is raining
al à plot, it rained
al plovarà, it will rain

You will remember that, for 40, the form corante is used in this Bible, rather than the standard and equally possible cuarante:

par corante dîs e corante gnots di file
for forty days and forty nights in a row

In the above, the expression di file means in a row, consecutively.

The verb netâ means to clean. In this verse, it can be taken in the sense of to wash away.

o netarai de face de tiere
I shall wash away from the face of the earth

dut ce che o ai fat
all that which I have made

Verset 5

The language in this verse is a repetition of that found in Gjenesi 6:22.

Verset 6

The Friulian for 600 is sîscent.

Noè al veve sîscent agns
Noah was six hundred years old

In the above, note that the verb (to have) is used in Friulian to say how many years old a person is; that is, a person has a certain number of years, rather than is.

Remember that the Friulian for year is the masculine an; its plural form is agns.

trops agns âstu?
how old are you?
(literally, how many years have you?)

o ai disesiet agns
I am seventeen years old
(literally, I have seventeen years)

To talk about how old a person was during a period of the past, the imperfet indicatîf is used:

o vevi disesiet agns cuant che…
al veve disesiet agns cuant che…
I was seventeen years old when…
he was seventeen years old when…

The verb capitâ means to happen, to occur.

cuant che al capità il diluvi
when the flood occurred

Verset 7

The only new usage in this verse is the verb salvâ (to save); you find it used reflexively in salvâsi di (to save oneself from).

par salvâsi des aghis dal diluvi
in order to save himself from the waters of the flood

Verset 8

The adjective soç (unclean) is the antonym of mont (clean). The rest of this verse contains language that you have already encountered.

Verset 9

You will recognise the third-person plural passât sempliç form a jentrarin (they entered).

a jentrarin te arcje di Noè
they entered Noah’s ark

You have seen the noun la sorte before, meaning sort, kind.

un pâr par sorte
one pair per sort
one pair by kind

Come che means as, how.

come che Diu i veve ordenât a Noè
as God had commanded (unto) Noah

You will remember that Friulian says to command unto someone (to do something), which is why you find i and a Noè in the above.

Verset 10

The verb spirâ means to expire (or, in the case of a dying person, to breathe one’s last). Rather than as a verb, spirâ is used here as a noun meaning expiry, end.

sul spirâ dai siet dîs
at the end of the seven days
(literally, upon the expiry of the seven days)

The verb plombâ means to pour down.

lis aghis dal diluvi a plombarin su la tiere
the waters of the flood poured down upon the earth

In the above, you will recognise a plombarin as being the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb plombâ.

Verset 11

The flood occurred in Noah’s six hundredth year of life, in the second month, on the seventeeth day of the month. You will remember that the Friulian word for month is il mês.

il secont mês
the second month

ai disesiet dal mês
on the seventeeth of the month

The flood occurred on that very day: propit in chê dì (on that very day, on that same day, right on that day).

In the phrase ai disesiet dal mês, Friulian uses the preposition a, whereas English uses on. The plural contraction ai (from a + i) is used before disesiet.

i disesiet
the seventeenth (day)
(literally, the seventeen)

ai disesiet
on the seventeeth (day)
(literally, at the seventeen)

The expression spissulâ fûr means to gush forth, to burst out.

a spissularin fûr
they gushed forth
they burst out

That which gushed forth were dutis lis risultivis (all the springs; all the fountains) dal grant abìs (of the great abyss; of the great deep). La risultive is the Friulian for source, spring; the masculine abìs is cognate with the English abyss.

The verb spalancâ means to open wide; for example:

spalancâ la puarte
to open the door wide

The reflexive spalancâsi, then, means to open oneself wide.

si spalancarin lis gataradis dal cîl
the floodgates of the heaven opened themselves wide
(or simply, the floodgates of the heaven opened wide)

The Friulian la gatarade means floodgate, watergate, sluicegate; this is a barrier that controls the flow of water. In the context of the Bible, la gatarade refers to the windows of the celestial ocean located above the firmament. You read about the firmament and celestial ocean in the notes for Gjenesi 1:1.

Verset 12

The Friulian for rain is la ploe (expressed as ploie in standardised spelling).

la ploe e vignì jù
the rain came down

The expression vignî jù means to come down. You read that the rain came down by the bucketful: e vignì jù a selis. The Friulian for bucket is la sele; its plural form is lis selis. A selis can be taken literally as by buckets. The sense here is that the rain came down in great quantity.

The rain poured down for forty days and forty nights: par corante dîs (for forty days) e corante gnots (and forty nghts).

Verset 13

The phrase ta chê stesse dì means on that same day (literally, in that same day). The adjective stes means same; its feminine form is stesse. The Friulian (day) can be either masculine of feminine; it is obviously used as a feminine noun in ta chê stesse dì.

You have already encountered the rest of the usages appearing in this verse. You may wish to review the following, however:

Verset 14

Dutun cun lôr means along with them, together with them.

Learn these three nouns: il salvadi (wild beast), il dumiesti (domestic animal; cattle), and une ale (wing). The verb svolâ means to fly; al svole, then, means it flies. Rather than al svole, you find the variant al svoe in this verse: dut ce che al svoe (all that which flies, everything that flies).

The plural of the feminine ale (wing) is alis:

dut ce che al à alis
all that which has wings
everything that has wings

Verset 15

This verse does not present any new usages. You will remember that la cjar means flesh, and la vite means life. Un pâr is the Friulian for pair.

un pâr di
a pair of
one pair of

dut ce che al è cjar
all that which is flesh

dut ce che al à la vite
all that which has life
(that is, all that is living)

Verset 16

You will remember that chei che means those who.

chei che a jentrarin
those who entered

You will also remember that a jerin is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb jessi.

a jerin un mascjo e une mascje
they were a male and a female

The masculine noun clostri refers to a bar used to keep a door shut; from this is formed the verb inclostrâ (to bar). The expression inclostrâ la puarte means to bar the door. Daûr means behind, after.

il Signôr al inclostrà la puarte daûr di Noè
the Lord barred the door behind Noah

Verset 17

The verb durâ means to last. The Friulian adjective lunc means long; as for a lunc, it is to be understood here as in duration.

il diluvi al durà
the flood lasted

corante dîs a lunc
forty days long
forty days in duration

You come across two verbs that you have already seen before: cressi (to increase, to grow) and alçâ (to raise).

lis aghis a cresserin
the waters increased

lis aghis a alçarin l’arcje
the waters raised the ark

You will also remember the meaning of the verb puartâ, which is to bring. You find it used passively in this verse:

e fo puartade
it was brought

Puartade is the feminine form of the past participle puartât; it agrees with the feminine arcje: l’arcje e fo puartade (the ark was brought).

In alt means high up.

e fo puartade in alt
it was brought high up

Sore la tiere means above the earth.

Verset 18

In this verse, you find the verb alçâ used in reflexive form: alçâsi (to raise oneself).

lis aghis si alçarin
the waters raised themselves
(that is, the waters rose; got higher)

The expression fâ pôre means to frighten, where the feminine noun la pôre is the Friulian for fear.

lis aghis a cresserin di fâ pôre
the waters increased frightfully so

The expression sul fîl des aghis means on the surface of the waters, where il fîl (line, file) is used figuratively in the sense of surface.

l’arcje e leve vie sul fîl des aghis
the ark drifted off (was drifting off) on the surface of the waters

In the above, the expression used is lâ vie; this translates literally as to go away (lâ, to go + vie, away) but you will understand it in context as meaning to drift off. E leve (she was going, it was going) is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ. L’arcje e leve vie conveys ongoing past action: the ark was drifting off.

Verset 19

The expression simpri di plui means more and more (literally, always more).

a cresserin simpri di plui
they increased more and more
they continued to increase

The feminine la mont means mount, mountain. This is not to be confused with the masculine il mont (world) or the adjective mont (clean) already encountered. The verb cuvierzi (found in the text as cuviergi) means to cover.

a cuviergerin dutis lis monts
they covered all the mounts

ancje chês plui altis
even those most high

From the above, you will remember that alt means tall, high; its four forms are alt (masculine singular), alts (masculine plural), alte (feminine singular), altis (feminine plural).

The phrase sot dal cîl, which you have seen before, means under the heaven.

Verset 20

You first encountered the noun il comedon (cubit; elbow) in Gjenesi 6:15.

si alçarin di cuindis comedons
they raised themselves by fifteen cubits
they increased by fifteen cubits

Parsore des monts means over the mounts. You first encountered the expression parsore di (over) in Gjenesi 1:2, where you read: il spirt di Diu al svualampave parsore des aghis. In both parsore des monts and parsore des aghis, des is a contraction of di + lis.

Verset 21

The reflexive inneâsi means to drown, to die by drowning.

e cussì s’inneà ogni cjar
and thus drowned every flesh

The verb balinâ means to move about, to stir.

ogni cjar ch’e baline su la tiere
every flesh that moves about on the earth

You first encountered bestiis salvadiis in Gjenesi 1:24. You will remember that lis bestiis is the plural of la bestie, and that the adjective salvadi means wild; its four forms are salvadi (masculine singular), salvadis (masculine plural), salvadie (feminine singular) salvadiis (feminine plural).

The verb sgripiâ means to scamper, to scurry, to creep about.

dut ce che al sgripie su la tiere
all that which creeps about on the earth
everything that scurries on the earth

Dute la int means all the people, where the feminine singular int is the Friulian for people.

Verset 22

You first encountered une soflade di vite (breath of life) in Gjenesi 2:7. There you read that God blew the breath of life into the man’s nostrils: tes busis dal nâs (literally, into the holes of the nose). In this verse, rather than busis dal nâs, you find narilis. La narile is the Friulian for nostril; its plural form is lis narilis. You have now seen two ways to refer to the nostril: la narile (nostril) and la buse dal nâs (nose hole).

une soflade di vite tes narilis
a breath of life in its nostrils
(literally, a breath of life in the nostrils)

Vadì means that is, that is to say.

dut ce che al jere vîf
all that which was alive
everything that was alive

su la tiere ferme
on the dry land

In the above, the adjective fer means firm, solid; its feminine form is ferme.

You will remember that the verb murî means to die.

dut al murì
everything died

As a sidenote, the past participle of the verb murî is muart; you can use this to form the passât prossim:

al è muart
he died
he has died

al è muart intun incident stradâl
he has died (he died) in a car accident
(literally, he has died in a road accident)

In the above, the Friulian word for accident is un incident. The adjective stradâl is related to the feminine noun la strade, meaning road, street, way.

Verset 23

Recall that the verb sparî means to disappear.

cussì a sparirin ducj chei che
thus disappeared all those who

ducj chei che a jerin su la face de tiere
all those who were on the face of the earth

Scomençant is the present participle of the verb scomençâ (to start, to begin). means down; jù jù can be taken as all the way down. Fint a means, depending on the context, up to or down to (it is to be understood here as down to, in conjunction with ):

scomençant dal om
starting with man

jù jù fint a lis bestiis
all the way down to the beasts

Put another way, scomençant dal om jù jù fint a lis bestiis can be taken simply as meaning from man to beast.

In the notes at verse 4, you saw that the verb netâ meant to clean but was used in the text of that verse in the more figurative sense of to wash away. In the current verse, you now find netâ vie, which, although translating literally as to clean away, is again to be taken in the more figurative sense of to wash away.

a forin netâts vie de tiere
they were washed away from the earth
(literally, they were cleaned away from the earth)

Observe the following:

al fo netât vie
a forin netâts vie
he was washed away
they were washed away

Only Noah remained: al restà dome Noè; and that which was with him in the ark: e ce che al jere cun lui ta l’arcje.

Verset 24

You have seen that the Friulian for flood is il diluvi. In the text of this verse, you now find la montane; this can be taken as meaning swelling of waters, rising of waters, or also flood. (It is related to the verb montâ, meaning to go up, to rise, to ascend, etc.) Recall that the verb durâ means to last, and that the Friulian for 150 is cent e cincuante.