Friulian language series: Gjenesi 7, Noè e il diluvi

In the seventh chapter of the book of Genesis, Noah enters into the ark with his sons, his wife and his sons’ wives. The Friulian for flood is il diluvi; for Noah’s ark, it is l’arcje di Noè.

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Versets 1-5

Vocabulary: il Signôr (Lord), (to say), jentrâ (to enter), la arcje (ark), la famee (family), parcè che (for), cjatâ (to find), just (just), denant di (before), dome (but), framieç di (amongst), la razate (wicked lot), il nemâl (animal), mont (clean), ’nt (thereof), cjoli (to take), il pâr (pair), il mascjo (male), la mascje (female), ancje (also), un ucel (bird), il cîl (heaven), siet (seven), la semence (seed), podê (may), restâ (to remain), ancjemò (yet), la tiere (earth), il dì (day), (to make), slavinâ (to rain down), corante (forty), la gnot (night), di file (in a row), netâ (to clean {away}), la face (face), ordenâ (to order).

Verse 1: Il Signôr i disè a Noè (the Lord said unto Noah): *jentre te arcje* (enter into the ark) tu e la tô famee (thou and thy family), parcè che ti ai cjatât just denant di me (for I have found thee just before me), dome te framieç di cheste razate (but thee amongst this wicked lot). — *Jentre: second-person singular imperative of the verb jentrâ. Te arcje: Should the reader have consulted the summary of Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article, ta l’arcje rather than te arcje might have been expected, for the feminine arcje begins with a vowel; however, variation in certain Friulian contractions is to be found, and both te arcje and ta l’arcje are employed in this Bible. For instance: a jentrarin te arcje (verse 9); a jentrarin ta l’arcje (verse 13). The difference between jentrâ te arcje and jentrâ ta l’arcje stems from whether or not one makes the contraction of la to l’ before arcje, which begins with a vowel. (Both l’arcje and la arcje are possible.) Observe: jentrâ te arcje (= jentrâ in + la arcje); jentrâ ta l’arcje (= jentrâ in + l’arcje).

Verse 2: Di ducj i nemâi* monts (of all the clean animals), tu ’nt+ cjolarâs (thou shalt take thereof) dome un pâr (but one pair), mascjo e mascje (male and female). — *Nemâi is the plural of the masculine nemâl. +Int (contracted in the text to ’nt, for the preceding tu ends in a vowel) means thereof, or of them. Observe: tu (thou) ’nt (thereof) cjolarâs (shalt take) dome un pâr (but one pair).

Verse 3: Ancje i ucei monts dal cîl (also the birds of the heaven), siet pârs (seven pairs), mascjo e mascje (male and female), par che la semence *e puedi* restâ ancjemò (that seed may remain yet) su la tiere (on the earth). — *E puedi is the feminine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf presint of the verb podê; the use of par che ({in order} that) calls for the subjunctive. Observe: la semence e pues restâ (seed may remain); par che la semence e puedi restâ (that seed may remain).

Verse 4: Parcè che ancjemò siet dîs (for yet seven days) e jo o fasarai slavinâ (and I shall make it rain down) su la tiere (upon the earth) par corante dîs (for forty days) e corante gnots (and forty nights) di file (in a row) e o netarai de face de tiere (and I shall clean away from the face of the earth) dut ce che o ai fat (all that which I have made). — Related language: the Friulian verb for to rain is plovi: al plûf (it is raining); al à plot (it rained); al plovarà (it will rain).

Verse 5: Noè al fasè dut ce che il Signôr i veve ordenât: Noah did all that which the Lord had ordered him.

Versets 6-9

Vocabulary: (to have), sîscent (six hundred), un an (year), cuant che (when), capitâ (to come to pass), il diluvi (flood), la aghe (water), la tiere (earth), dutun cun (together with), il fî (son), la femine (wife), jentrâ (to enter), salvâ (to save), salvâsi di (to save oneself from), il nemâl (animal), mont (clean), soç (unclean), un ucel (bird), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), il pâr (pair), la sorte (sort), par sorte (by sort), il mascjo (male), la mascje (female), come che (as), ordenâ (to order).

Verse 6: Noè al veve* sîscent agns (Noah was six hundred years old) cuant che al capità il diluvi (when the flood came to pass), lis aghis su la tiere (the waters on the earth). — *The verb (to have) is employed to express how many years old a person is, wherefore a one has a certain number of years in the Friulian conception. Supplementary examples: trops agns âstu? (how old art thou? [how many years hast thou?]); o ai disesiet agns (I am seventeen years old [I have seventeen years]). To talk about how old a one was at a period in the past, the imperfet indicatîf is used: o vevi disesiet agns cuant che… (I was seventeen years old when [I had seventeen years when]); al veve disesiet agns cuant che… (he was seventeen years old when [he had seventeen years when]).

Verse 7: Noè, dutun cui siei fîs (Noah, together with his sons), la sô femine (his wife) e lis feminis dai siei fîs (and the wives of his sons), al jentrà te arcje (entered into the ark) par salvâsi (to save himself) des aghis dal diluvi (from the waters of the flood).

Verses 8-9: I nemâi monts (the clean animals) e i nemâi soçs (and the unclean animals), i ucei (the birds) e dut ce che si strissine (and all that which shuffleth itself) su la tiere (on the earth), a jentrarin te arcje di Noè (entered into Noah’s ark) un pâr par sorte (a pair by sort), mascjo e mascje (male and female), come che Diu i veve ordenât a Noè (as God had ordered Noah).

Versets 10-14

Vocabulary: spirâ (to expire), siet (seven), il dì; la dì (day), la aghe (water), il diluvi (flood), plombâ (to plummet down), la tiere (earth), cuant che (when), (to have), sîscent (six hundred), un an (year), secont (second), il mês (month), disesiet (seventeen), propit (squarely), spissulâ fûr (to burst forth), dut (all), la risultive (spring), grant (great), un abìs (abyss), spalancâsi (to spread oneself open), la gatarade (floodgate), il cîl (heaven), la ploe (rain), vignî jù (to come down), la sele (pail), corante (forty), la gnot (night), stes (same), il fi (son), la femine (wife), trê (three), jentrâ (to enter), l’arcje (ark), dutun cun (together with), ogni (every), la raze (kind), il salvadi (wild beast), il dumiesti (domestic beast), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), un ucel (bird), svolâ (to fly), la ale (wing).

Verse 10: Sul spirâ* dai siet dîs (upon the expiry of the seven days), lis aghis dal diluvi a plombarin+ su la tiere (the waters of the flood plummeted down upon the earth). — *The verb spirâ, cognate with the English expire, means to draw unto a close (or to breathe one’s last in the case of a moribund one). In the text of this verse, spirâ is not employed verbally but nominally: il spirâ (the expiry); sul spirâ di (upon the expiry of). +A plombarin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb plombâ.

Verse 11: Cuant che Noè al veve sîscent agns (when Noah was six hundred years old), il secont mês ({in} the second month), ai* disesiet dal mês (on the seventeenth of the month), propit in chê dì+ (squarely in that day) a spissularin fûr dutis lis risultivis dal grant abìs (all the springs of the great abyss burst forth) e si spalancarin lis gataradis dal cîl (and the floodgates of the heaven spread themselves open). — *Note the use of the masculine plural ai (= a + i) before disesiet. Consider: i disesiet (the seventeenth {day}); ai disesiet (on the seventeenth {day}). +The Friulian may be either masculine or feminine, but not indiscriminately so. In the text of this verse, it is employed in the feminine: propit in chê dì; the feminine chê (that) thereof reveals the gender. In the text of verse 10, is masculine, for it is used with a cardinal number: siet dîs.

Verse 12: La ploe e vignì jù (the rain came down) a selis (by the pailfuls) su la tiere (upon the earth) par corante dîs e corante gnots (for forty days and forty nights).

Verses 13-14: Ta chê stesse* (in that same day), Noè e i siei fîs (Noah and his sons), Sem, Cam e Jafet (Shem, Ham and Japheth), cu la femine di Noè (with Noah’s wife) e cu lis trê feminis dai fîs (and with the three wives of his sons), a jentrarin ta l’arcje e (entered into the ark and), dutun cun lôr (together with them), ogni raze di salvadi (every kind of wild beast), ogni raze di dumiesti (every kind of domestic beast), ogni raze che si strissine su la tiere (every kind which shuffleth itself on the earth), ogni raze di ucei (every kind of birds), dut ce che al svoe+ (all that which flieth) e dut ce che al à alis¬ (and all that which hath wings). — *The adjective stes means same; its feminine form is stesse. +Svolâ is the Friulian for to fly; its masculine form of the third-person singular of the presint indicatîf is al svole (he/it flieth). Rather than al svole, found in the text of this verse the variant al svoe. ¬The feminine ale means wing; its plural form is alis.

Versets 15-20

Vocabulary: jentrâ (to enter), la arcje (ark), ancje (also), il pâr (pair), la cjar (flesh), la vite (life), il mascjo (male), la mascje (female), come che (as), ordenâ (to order), inclostrâ (to bar), la puarte (door), daûr di (behind), il diluvi (flood), durâ (to endure), la tiere (earth), corante (forty), il dì (day), a lunc (in length), la aghe (water), cressi (to increase), alçâ (to lift), puartâ (to bear), in alt (up high), sore (over), alçâsi (to lift oneself), la pôre (fear), lâ vie (to go away), il fîl (thread), la aghe (water), simpri di plui (ever more), cuviergi (to cover), la mont (mountain), alt (high), sot di (under), il cîl (heaven), cuindis (fifteen), il comedon (cubit), parsore di (over).

Verses 15-16: Cun Noè (with Noah) al jentrà ta l’arcje ancje un pâr di dut ce che al è cjar (did enter into the ark also a pair of all that which is flesh), che al à la vite (which hath life), e chei che a jentrarin (and those which entered) a jerin un mascjo e une mascje (were a male and a female) di dut ce che al è cjar (of all that which is flesh), come che Diu i veve ordenât (as God had ordered him). E il Signôr al inclostrà la puarte (and the Lord barred the door) daûr di Noè (behind Noah).

Verse 17: Il diluvi al durà su la tiere corante dîs a lunc* (the flood endured on the earth forty days in length); lis aghis a cresserin e a alçarin l’arcje (the waters increased and lifted the ark), ch’e fo puartade+ in alt (which was borne up high), sore la tiere (over the earth). — *The adjective lunc means long; a lunc means in length. +Puartade is the feminine form of the past participle puartât; it agrees with the feminine arcje.

Verse 18: Lis aghis si alçarin (the waters lifted themselves) e a cresserin di fâ pôre (and increased fearsomely) su la tiere (on the earth) e l’arcje e leve vie (and away the ark would go) sul fîl des aghis (on the thread of the waters).

Verse 19: Lis aghis a cresserin simpri di plui (the waters increased ever more) su la tiere (on the earth) e a cuviergerin dutis lis monts (and covered all the mountains), ancje chês plui altis* (even those most high), che a son sot dal cîl (which are under the heaven). — *The four forms of the adjective alt are: alt (masculine singular); alts (masculine plural); alte (feminine singular); altis (feminine plural).

Verse 20: Lis aghis si alçarin di cuindis comedons (the waters lifted themselves unto fifteen cubits) parsore des* monts (over the mountains). — *des: contraction of di + lis

Versets 21-24

Vocabulary: cussì (so), inneâsi (to drown), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), balinâ (to tread), la tiere (earth), un ucel (bird), il nemâl (animal), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), sgripiâ (to scurry), la int (people), (to have), la soflade (breath), la vite (life), la narile (nostril), vadì (which is to say), vîf (living), fêr (still), la tiere ferme (still land), murî (to die), sparî (to vanish), la face de tiere (face of the earth), scomençâ (to start), un om (man), jù jù fint a (all the way down so far as), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), il cîl (heaven), netâ vie (to clean away), restâ (to remain), dome (but), la arcje (ark), la montane (swelling), la aghe (water), durâ (to endure), cent e cincuante (one hundred and fifty), il dì (day).

Verse 21: E cussì s’inneà ogni cjar ch’e baline su la tiere (and so every flesh which treadeth on the earth drowned): ucei, nemâi, bestiis salvadiis (birds, animals, wild beasts), dut ce che al sgripie su la tiere (all that which scurrieth on the earth), e dute la int (and all the people).

Verse 22: Dut ce che al veve une soflade di vite (all that which had a breath of life) tes narilis (in its nostrils), vadì (which is to say) dut ce che al jere vîf su la tiere ferme (all that which was living on still land), dut al murì (all died).

Verse 23: Cussì a sparirin ducj chei che a jerin su la face de tiere (so vanished all those who were on the face of the earth), scomençant dal om *jù jù fint a* lis bestiis (starting from man all the way down so far as the beasts), a chês che si strissinin (unto those which shuffle themselves) e ai ucei dal cîl (and unto the birds of the heaven): a forin netâts vie de tiere (they were cleaned away from the earth) e al restà dome Noè (and but Noah remained) e ce che al jere cun lui ta l’arcje (and that which was with him in the ark). — *The opposite of jù jù fint a (all the way down so far as) is sù sù fint a (all the way up so far as), an instance whereof is found in Gjenesi 19:4.

Verse 24: La montane des aghis (the swelling of the waters) e durà su la tiere (endured on the earth) cent e cincuante dîs (one hundred and fifty days).