Friulian language series: Gjenesi 6:9-22, Noè e il diluvi

Continue now your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 9-22 of the sixth chapter, where the subject is il diluvi (flood). These verses take you to the end of the chapter. The two posts pertaining to chapter 6 can be found here.

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Read Gjenesi 6:9-22

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 6:9-22. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 9

Vocabulary: ve (this is), la storie (story, history, account), al jere (he was), un galantom (just man), l’unic (the only one), just (just, righteous), framieç di (amongst), altri (other), lâ indenant (to go forward), cun (with), Diu (God).

La storie is the Friulian for story, history, account. Ve la storie di Noè: this is the story of Noah; this is the account of Noah.

Depending on the context, the Friulian il galantom can be taken as gentleman or honest, just man. It is composed of the adjective galant (gentlemanly, chivalrous) and om (man). In the context of this verse, it can be taken in the sense of just man. Noè al jere un galantom: Noah was a just man; Noah was a righteous man.

The Friulian adjective just means just. As a noun, it can be taken as meaning just man: L’unic just framieç di ducj chei altris: the only just man amongst all the others. The Friulian for just man could also be rendered as om just: al jere un om just (he was a just man).

The four forms of the Friulian for all are: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). The four forms of the Friulian for that, those are: chel (masculine singular); chei (masculine plural); chê (feminine singular); chês (feminine plural). The singular chel and chê translate as that; the plural chei and chês translate as those. Ducj chei altris: all the others; all those others; that is, all the other people.

The expression lâ indenant translates literally as to go forward. Al leve indenant cun Diu: he was going forward with God; that is, he was proceeding [walking] with God. Al leve (he was going) is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ.

Verset 10

Vocabulary: (to have), al veve (he was having, he used to have), tre (three), il fi (son), i fîs (sons).

Noè al veve trê fîs: Noah had three sons. The Friulian for son is il fi; its plural form is i fîs. Al veve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê. It conveys he was having, he used to have. Note the difference between al veve un fi and al à vût un fi:

al veve un fi
he had (used to have) a son
–> he was a father

al à vût un fi
he had (begot) a son
–> he became a father

For example, to say of a man that he begot a son on a certain date, use al à vût un fi. To say that a son of his existed while he was alive, use al veve un fi. The passât prossim form al à vût expresses the idea of coming into possession at a specific moment; the imperfet indicatîf form al veve expresses the idea of being in possession across time.

Verset 11

Vocabulary: ma (but), la tiere (earth), voltâ (to turn), fâ voltâ (to make turn, to cause to turn), il stomi (stomach), ancje (even), plen (full), plen incolm (full to the brim), la tristerie (wickedness).

The Friulian for stomach is il stomi; the verb voltâ means to turn. The expression fâ voltâ il stomi, then, translates literally as to make one’s stomach turn. La tiere i faseve voltâ il stomi ancje a Diu: the earth was making even God’s stomach turn; literally, the earth was making the stomach turn even unto God; the earth was causing the stomach even unto God to turn. The sense here is that the earth revolted God; it was an abomination to him. With the use of the anthropomorphic fâ voltâ il stomi, the Friulian text conveys in a very strong way the sense of God’s having a stomach that can be turned — we must take the use of this expression as an accommodation to the human idea of disgust. E faseve is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb fâ.

La tristerie means wickedness. The expression plen incolm di translates as utterly filled with, brimming with. La tiere e jere plene incolme di tristerie: the earth was brimming with wickedness. Plene incolme di is the feminine equivalent of plen incolm di.

Verset 12

Vocabulary: Diu (God), cjalâ (to look), (down), il mont (world), a jerin (they were), la strade (way, road), fûr di strade (off the way, by the wayside; that is, in the wrong), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), (to do, to make), la robe (thing, act, matter), fâ ingomut (to disgust), su la tiere (on the earth).

means down, below. The Friulian for world is il mont. Diu al cjalà jù il mont: God looked down upon the world.

The Friulian for way, road is la strade. In the text of this verse, you encounter fûr di strade (off the way), which is to be taken in the sense of off the right path, in the wrong, corrupt. A jerin ducj fûr di strade: they were all in the wrong; they were all corrupt; literally, they were all off the way.

The masculine noun ingomut means nausea, disgust. The expression fâ ingomut, then, translates as to nauseate, to disgust, to cause disgust, to revile. You read: ogni cjar e faseve robis di fâ ingomut (every flesh was committing acts [doing things] that revile) su la tiere (on the earth).

Verset 13

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), rivâ (to arrive, to come), il moment (moment), fâle finide cun (to put an end to), i oms (men), aromai (by now), benzà (already), decidi (to decide), parcè che (because), la tiere (earth), plen di (full of), la inicuitât (iniquity), par colpe di (by fault of), fâ sparî (to destroy [to make disappear]), dutun cu la tiere (along with the earth).

The verb rivâ means to arrive, to come. As for the expression fâle finide cun, it can be taken as to put an end to, to finish off. Finide is the feminine form of the adjective and past participle finît (finished, ended); it agrees with le. A literal translation of fâle finide cun is to make it finished with. You read: Diu i disè a Noè (God said to Noah) al è rivât il moment (the time [moment] has arrived; has come) di fâle finide cui oms (to put an end to men). Note that rivâ has been conjugated with the auxiliary jessi above: al è rivât (it has arrived).

The Friulian verb decidi means to decide; its past participle is decidût. O ai decidût: I have decided; I decided. Aromai means by now; benzà means already. Aromai o ai benzà decidût: I have by now already decided; that is, my mind is now fully made up.

God states the reason for wanting to put an end to man: la tiere e je plene di inicuitât (the earth is full of iniquity) par colpe dai oms (by fault of men). Inicuitât is a feminine noun meaning iniquity, wickedness. The Friulian for fault is la colpe.

The verb sparî means to disappear; the expression fâ sparî, then, means to make disappear: jo ju fâs sparî dutun cu la tiere (I [shall] make them disappear along with the earth; that is, I shall destroy them along with the earth). The presint indicatîf has been used: jo o fâs (I make); however, the sense of it is I shall make.

Verset 14

Vocabulary: fâsi (to make oneself), la arcje (ark), il len (wood), il ciprès (cypress tree), vê di (must, to have to), il scompartiment (compartment), stabilî (to secure, to stabilise), il catram (tar, pitch), par dentri (inside, within), par fûr (outside, without).

God commands Noah to make an ark: une arcje. Fasiti une arcje: make yourself an ark. In its infinitive form, the verb from the text above is fâsi (to make oneself). The second-person singular imperative form of is fâs; of the reflexive fâsi, it is fasiti.

Il len is the Friulian for wood, and il ciprès is cypress tree; di len di ciprès, then, means (made) of cypress wood. Une arcje di len di ciprès: an ark (made) of cypress wood.

You now meet again with the expression vê di (must, to have to), and you encounter for the first time the noun il scompartiment (compartment): tu âs di fâle cui scompartiments (you must make it with compartments). The le of fâle stands in for the feminine arcje.

The Friulian verb stabilî means to stabilise, to secure. The noun il catram means tar, pitch. You read: tu âs di stabilîle cul catram (you must secure it with pitch) par dentri e par fûr (inside and out; within and without).

Verset 15

Vocabulary: vê di (must, to have to), (to make, to do), cussì (so, thus), la arcje (ark), vê di vê (must have, to have to have), tresinte (three hundred), il comedon (cubit, elbow), la lungjece (length), cincuante (fifty), la largjece (width), trente (thirty), la altece (height).

Cussì means so, thus, like this, in this way. Tu âs di fâle cussì: you must make it thus; you must make it like this. The Friulian for 300 is tresinte; for 50, cincuante; and for 30, trente. Review how to count in Friulian. In the text of this verse, you find the expression vê di vê, which translates in English as to have to have, must have. You read: L’arcje e à di vê (the ark must have; the ark has to have) tresinte comedons di lungjece (three hundred cubits in length). A cubit is the length from elbow to middle fingertip (this may not have been the actual length of a cubit at the time before the flood, however). The word for cubit is rendered in Friulian as il comedon, which translates literally as elbow.

The Friulian for length is la lungjece; for width, la largjece; for height, l’altece. All three are feminine nouns. Examples: l’arcje e à tresinte comedons di lungjece (the ark is three hundred cubits in length; literally, the ark has three hundred cubits of length); l’arcje e à cincuante comedons di largjece (the ark is fifty cubits in width; literally, the ark has fifty cubits of width); l’arcje e à trente comedons di altece (the ark is thirty cubits in height; literally, the ark has thirty cubits of height). Another way to express these is with the adjectives lunc (long), larc (wide) and alt (high, tall). The feminine forms of these are lungje, largje and alte. Examples: l’arcje e je lungje tresinte comedons (the ark is three hundred cubits long); l’arcje e je largje cincuante comedons (the ark is fifty cubits wide); l’arcje e je alte trente comedons (the ark is thirty cubits tall).

As a side note, the Friulian for metre is il metri; its plural form is i metris. The Friulian for kilometre is il chilometri; for centimetre, il centimetri. Supplementary examples: il baston al è lunc novantecinc centimetris (the cane is ninety-five centimetres long); il lât al è larc cinc chilometris (the lake is five kilometres wide); il gratecîl al è alt tresinte metris (the skyscraper is three hundred metres tall).

Verset 16

Vocabulary: vê di fâ (must make, to have to make), la arcje (ark), ancje (also, too, as well), un cuviert (covering, roof), in mût di (in order to, so as to), alçâ (to raise), il comedon (cubit, elbow), la jentrade (entrance), il flanc (side), prin (first), secont (second), tierç (third), il plan (deck, storey).

Fâi is the verb + i, where i means to it (that is, to the ark), but translates better here in English as for it (that is, for the ark). Tu âs di fâ: you must make. Tu âs di fâi a l’arcje: you must make for the ark. The Friulian il cuviert means covering, roof. The expression in mût di, followed by an infinitive, means in order to. The verb alçâ means to raise. Alçâ di un comedon: to raise by one cubit. You read: tu âs di fâi a l’arcje ancje un cuviert (you must also make a covering for the ark) in mût di alçâle di un comedon (in order to raise it by one cubit).

La jentrade is the Friulian for entrance, way in. Il flanc means side; di flanc translates as from the side. La jentrade tu je fasarâs di flanc: you shall make the entrance to it from the side. The second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb is tu tu fasarâs (you will make). Je is a contraction of i + le, where i translates as unto it (that is, unto the ark), and the feminine le translates as it (that is, it stands in for la jentrade):

la jentrade / tu je fasarâs / di flanc
the entrance / you shall make it unto it / from the side

The Friulian il plan means storey, floor (in the case of a building) or deck (in the case of watercraft). With reference to the ark, you will understand the following as meaning first deck, second deck, third deck; if they referred to a building, you would take them instead as meaning first floor, second floor, third floor: il prin plan, il secont plan, il tierç plan. If you lived on the third floor of a building, you might say: o soi a stâ al tierç plan (I live on the third floor). The expression jessi a stâ means to live, to reside, to dwell.

Verset 17

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), il diluvi (flood), la aghe (water), lis aghis (waters), la tiere (earth), par fâ fûr (in order to destroy), dut ce che (all that, everything that), tirâ il flât (to breathe), il flât (breath), sot (under), il cîl (heaven, sky), chest mont (this world), sparî (to disappear), vê di sparî (to have to disappear, must disappear).

You encounter in the text of this verse the first instance of the noun il diluvi, meaning flood. The verb mandâ means to send; jo o mandarai is its first-person singular futûr sempliç form. You read: jo o mandarai il diluvi (I shall send a [the] flood) lis aghis su la tiere (waters upon the earth).

The expression fâ fûr can be taken as meaning to destroy, to take out (of existence). You will remember that il flât means breath; you first encountered this noun in Gjenesi 4:21, where you found un strument a flât (wind instrument). In the text of the current verse, you find the expression tirâ il flât, which means to breathe; it translates literally as to draw the breath, to pull (in) the breath. You read: par fâ fûr (in order to destroy) dut ce che al tire il flât (all that which breathes; everything that breathes) sot il cîl (under the heaven). Al tire is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb tirâ (to pull, to draw).

The remainder of the verse contains usages that you have already encountered: dut ce che al è in chest mont al à di sparî (everything that is in this world must disappear).

Verset 18

Vocabulary: il pat (pact, covenant), fâ un pat (to make a pact, to make a covenant), cun te (with you), jentrâ (to enter), la arcje (ark), il frut (child), la femine (wife, woman), il fî (son), dutun cun te (along with you).

With Noah, God makes a covenant: un pat. Ma jo o fasarai un pat cun te: but I shall make a covenant (pact) with you. The Friulian pat is cognate with the English pact.

The verb jentrâ means to enter; its second-person singular futûr sempliç form is tu tu jentrarâs. Tu tu jentrarâs te arcje: you shall enter the ark; in this sentence, note the use of te, which is a contraction of in + the feminine definite article. The English to enter (something) is expressed literally in Friulian as to enter into (something): jentrâ in.

God stipulates to Noah who shall enter the ark: tu e i tiei fruts (you and your children); la tô femine (your wife); lis feminis dai tiei fîs (the wives of your sons). Dutun cun te: along with you.

Verset 19

Vocabulary: di dut ce che (of all that, from out of all that), vîf (living, alive), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), menâ dentri (to bring in), la arcje (ark), doi (two), par sorte (by sort), par che (in order that, so that), restâ (to remain), la semence (seed), sielgi (to choose; also sielzi), il mascjo (male), la mascje (female).

The Friulian adjective vîf means alive, living. Its feminine form is vive. Di dut ce che al è vîf: of all that which is living. Di ogni cjar: of every flesh. The verb menâ means to lead, to bring. Menâ dentri means to bring in(side), to lead in(side). Tu menarâs dentri cun te te arcje: you shall bring with you into the ark. The feminine la sorte means sort, kind. Doi par sorte: two of each sort; literally, two by sort.

You encounter a coniuntîf presint form in this verse: par ch’e resti la semence cun te (so that their seed may remain with you). The verb here is restâ, meaning to remain, to stay. La semence e reste: the seed remains; par che la semence e resti: so that the seed remains.

The verb sielzi (found in this verse as sielgi) means to choose, to select. Tu âs di sielzi: you must choose. Un mascjo is a male; une mascje is a female.

Verset 20

Vocabulary: menâ dentri (to bring in), par che (in order that, so that), restâ (to remain), la semence (seed), un pâr di (a pair of), ogni (every), la raze (sort, kind), un ucel (bird; also uciel), i ucei (birds; also uciei), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to slither), la tiere (ground, earth).

This verse begins with language repeated from the text of the last verse. It then follows with: un pâr di ogni raze di ucei (one pair of every sort of birds), di ogni raze di nemâi (of every sort of animals). The Friulian la raze means race, sort, kind. The word for pair is il pâr.

I nemâi is the plural of il nemâl (animal, beast). The reflexive verb strissinâsi means to slither. You read: di ogni raze che si strissine su la tiere (of every sort that slithers on the ground).

Verset 21

Vocabulary: puartâ (to bring), dentri (inside), ancje (too, also, as well), dut ce che (all that, everything that), podê (can, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), si pò mangjâ (can be eaten), ingrumâ (to gather), daprûf di (by, alongside), servî (to serve), passi (to sate).

The verb puartâ means to bring; puartâ dentri (to bring in) is synonymous with menâ dentri seen above. In the text of this verse, you find puartâsi dentri (to bring in for oneself, to bring in with oneself). Puartiti dentri dut ce che si pò mangjâ: bring in with you all that which one can eat; bring in with you everything that can be eaten. Puartiti is the second-person singular imperative of the reflexive verb puartâsi.

In the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf, the verb podê (can, to be able) conjugates as al pues. Al pues mangjâ: he can eat. Si pues followed by an infinitive can be understood as meaning one can, it is possible. Examples: si pues lâ fûr (one can go out; it is possible to go out); si pues mangjâ (one can eat; it is possible to eat). Rather than pues, you find the variant in this verse: dut ce che si pò mangjâ (all that which one can eat; everything that can be eaten).

The verb ingrumâ means to gather; you will perhaps remember this from Gjenesi 1:10, where it was question of aghis ingrumadis. Ingrumilu daprûf di te: gather it unto you; gather it near to you. Daprûf di can be understood as meaning by, alongside, near to, next to. As for the verb servî, it means to serve: al à di servî (it must serve) par passiti te e lôr (to feed you and them; to sate you and them). The verb passi means to feed, to nourish, to sate. (As for the reflexive passisi [to feed on, to sate oneself], you encountered it in Gjenesi 3:14, where you read: tu varâs di passiti di pulvin.)

Verset 22

Vocabulary: fâ cussì (to do so, to do thus), fâ propit dut ce che (to do absolutely everything that), Diu (God), ordenâ (to order, to command).

Noah did just as God had commanded. Noè al fasè cussì: Noah did so. Al fasè propit dut ce che Diu i veve ordenât: he did absolutely everything that God had commanded him. The verb ordenâ means to order, to command.

al à ordenât
he has commanded
al veve ordenât
he had commanded

i à ordenât
he has commanded him
i veve ordenât
he had commanded him

Note through the use of i that Friulian says to command something unto someone: dut ce che Diu i veve ordenât a Noè (all that which God had commanded [unto] Noah).