Friulian language series: Gjenesi 6:9-22, Noè e il diluvi

Continue now your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 9-22 of the sixth chapter, where the subject is il diluvi (flood). These verses take you to the end of the chapter. The two posts pertaining to chapter 6 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 6:9-22

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 6:9-22. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 9

You have seen the Friulian ve a number of times now; you will remember it means behold. La storie is the Friulian for history, account, record.

ve la storie di Noè
this is the account of Noah
here is the record of Noah

Depending on the context, the Friulian il galantom can be translated as gentleman, honest man, just man, etc. It is composed of the adjective galant (gentlemanly, chivalrous) and om (man).

Noè al jere un galantom
Noah was a just man
Noah was a righteous man

In the next part of text, Noah is described as being just with the Friulian just. Just can be used as an adjective; in the following, it is a noun:

l’unic just framieç di ducj chei altris
the only just man amongst all the others

As an adjective, the Friulian just means, as you will have expected, just. As a noun, you will understand it as meaning just person, just man. L’unic just means the only just man, where the adjective unic means only. You could, of course, also render just man in Friulian as un om just.

al jere un om just
he was a just man

In the above, framieç di translates as amongst. You will perhaps remember this expression from when you first encountered it in the following: a lerin a platâsi framieç dai arbui dal zardin (Gjenesi 3:8).

Recall the four forms of the Friulian for all: dut (masculine singular), ducj (masculine plural), dute (feminine singular), dutis (feminine plural). Review also the four forms of the Friulian for that, those: chel (masculine singular), chei (masculine plural), chê (feminine singular), chês (feminine plural). The singular chel and chê translate as that; the plural chei and chês translate as those.

ducj chei altris
all the others
all those others

(that is, all the other people)

The expression lâ indenant translates literally as to go forward.

al leve indenant cun Diu
he was going forward with God
(that is, he was proceeding [walking] with God)

In the above, you will recognise the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ.

Verset 10

In this verse, you read that Noah had three sons:

Noè al veve trê fîs
Noah had three sons

Remember that the Friulian for son is il fi; its plural form is i fîs.

Al veve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê. It can be understood as meaning as he was having, he used to have.

You may be wondering at this point what the difference is between al veve un fi and al à vût un fi.

al veve un fi
he had a son (across a period of time)
he used to have a son

–> he was a father

al à vût un fi
he had a son (he “got” one at a specific moment)
he begot a son
–> he became a father

For example, to say of a man that he had (or “got”) a son on a certain date, use al à vût un fi. To say that a son of his existed while he was alive, use al veve un fi. The passât prossim form al à vût expresses the idea of coming into possession at a specific moment; the imperfet indicatîf form al veve expresses the idea of being in possession across time.

Can you now say of a boy in Friulian he got a dog (for example, on his birthday) and he had a dog (for example, during his boyhood years)? The Friulian for dog is il cjan.

Verset 11

The Friulian for stomach is il stomi; the verb voltâ means to turn. The expression fâ voltâ il stomi, then, translates literally as to make one’s stomach turn.

la tiere i faseve voltâ il stomi a Diu
the earth was making God’s stomach turn

Translated even more literally, the above produces the earth was making turn the stomach unto God; the earth was causing to turn the stomach unto God. The sense here is the earth revolted God; the earth was an abomination to God. With the use of the anthropomorphic fâ voltâ il stomi, the Friulian text conveys in a very strong way the sense of God’s having a stomach that can be turned — we must take the use of this expression as an accommodation to the human idea of disgust.

E faseve is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb fâ.

Recall that the Friulian la tristerie means wickedness. The expression plen incolm di translates as full of, filled with, brimming with.

la tiere e jere plene incolme di tristerie
the earth was filled with wickedness

Plene incolme di is the feminine equivalent of plen incolm di.

Verset 12

means down, below, down below. Recall that the Friulian il mont means world.

Diu al cjalà jù il mont
God looked at the world down below

The Friulian for street, way is la strade. In this verse, you encounter the expression fûr di strade (off the way) which you will understand as meaning off the right path, in the wrong, corrupt, wicked.

a jerin ducj fûr di strade
they were all corrupt
they were all wicked
(more literally, they were all off the way)

The masculine noun ingomut means nausea, disgust. The expression fâ ingomut, then, translates as to nauseate, to disgust, to cause disgust, to revile.

ogni cjar e faseve robis di fâ ingomut
every flesh was doing things that cause disgust
every flesh was doing things that revile
(that is, every flesh was doing abhorrent things; committing abominations)

Verset 13

The verb rivâ means to arrive. As for the expression fâle finide cun, it translates as to put an end to, to finish off. Finide is the feminine form of the adjective and past participle finît (finished, ended); it agrees with le. A literal translation of fâle finide cun is to make it finished with.

al è rivât il moment
the moment has arrived

di fâle finide cui oms
to put an end to men

You will notice that rivâ has been conjugated with the auxiliary jessi above: al è rivât (it has arrived).

The Friulian verb decidi means to decide; its past participle is decidût.

o ai decidût
I have decided
I decided

Aromai means by now; benzà means already.

aromai o ai benzà decidût
I have by now already decided
(that is, my mind is now fully made up)

God states the reason for wanting to put an end to man:

la tiere e je plene di inicuitât
the earth is full of iniquity

par colpe dai oms
by fault of men

Inicuitât is a feminine noun meaning iniquity, wickedness. The Friulian for fault is la colpe.

The verb sparî means to disappear; the expression fâ sparî, then, means to make disappear.

In Gjenesi 6:7, you read dutune cul om (along with man). In the current verse, you read dutun cu la tiere (along with the earth).

jo ju fâs sparî dutun cu la tiere
I (shall) make them disappear along with the earth
(that is, I shall destroy them along with the earth)

In the above, the presint indicatîf has been used: jo o fâs (I make); however, the sense of it in English is I shall make.

Verset 14

In this verse, God commands Noah to make an ark: une arcje.

fasiti une arcje
make yourself an ark

The verb in the above is fâsi (to make oneself) in its infinitive form. The second-person singular imperative form of is fâs; of the reflexive fâsi, it is fasiti.

Il len is Friulian for wood, and il ciprès is cypress tree; di len di ciprès, then, translates as (made) of cypress wood.

une arcje di len di ciprès
an ark (made) of cypress wood

You review the expression vê di (must, to have to) in this verse, and you encounter for the first time the noun il scompartiment (compartment):

tu âs di fâle cui scompartiments
you must make it with compartments

In the above, the le in fâle stands in, of course, for the feminine arcje.

The Friulian verb stabilî means to stabilise, to secure. The noun il catram means tar, pitch.

tu âs di stabilîle cul catram
you must secure it with pitch

par dentri e par fûr
inside and out

Verset 15

Cussì means so, thus.

tu âs di fâle cussì
you must make it thus
you must make it like this

The Friulian for 300 is tresinte; for 50, cincuante; and for 30, trente. Review Friulian cardinal numbers.

In this verse, you find the expression vê di vê, which translates to English as to have to have, must have.

l’arcje e à di vê
the ark has to have
the ark must have

tresinte comedons di lungjece
three hundred cubits in length

A cubit is the length from elbow to middle fingertip; this may not have been the actual length of a cubit at the time before the flood, however. The word for cubit is rendered in Friulian as il comedon, which translates literally as elbow.

The Friulian for length is la lungjece; for width, la largjece; for height, l’altece. All three are feminine nouns.

l’arcje e à tresinte comedons di lungjece
the ark is three hundred cubits in length
(literally, the ark has three hundred cubits of length)

l’arcje e à cincuante comedons di largjece
the ark is fifty cubits in width
(literally, the ark has fifty cubits of width)

l’arcje e à trente comedons di altece
the ark is thirty cubits in height
(literally, the ark has thirty cubits of height)

Another way to express the above is with the adjectives lunc (long), larc (wide) and alt (high, tall). The feminine forms of these are lungje, largje and alte.

l’arcje e je lungje tresinte comedons
the ark is three hundred cubits long

l’arcje e je largje cincuante comedons
the ark is fifty cubits wide

l’arcje e je alte trente comedons
the ark is thirty cubits tall

As a side note, the Friulian for metre is il metri; its plural form is i metris. The Friulian for kilometre is il chilometri; for centimetre, il centimetri.

il baston al è lunc novantecinc centimetris
the cane is ninety-five centimetres long

il lât al è larc cinc chilometris
the lake is five kilometres wide

il gratecîl al è alt tresinte metris
the skyscraper is three hundred metres tall

Verset 16

Fâi here is the verb + i, where i means to it (that is, to the ark), but translates more accurately here in English as for it (that is, for the ark).

tu âs di fâ
you must make

tu âs di fâi a l’arcje
you must make for the ark

The Friulian il cuviert means covering, roof.

The expression in mût di, followed by an infinitive, translates as so that. The verb alçâ means to raise. Alçâ di un comedon translates as to raise by one cubit.

La jentrade is the Friulian for entrance, way in. Il flanc means side; di flanc translates as from the side.

la jentrade tu je fasarâs di flanc
you shall make the entrance to it from the side
you shall make the way in to it from the side

The second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb is tu tu fasarâs (you will make). Je in the above is a contraction of i + le, where i translates as unto it (that is, unto the ark), and the feminine le translates as it (that is, it stands in for la jentrade):

la jentrade / tu je fasarâs / di flanc
the way in / you shall make it unto it / from the side

The Friulian il plan means storey, floor (in the case of a building) or deck (in the case of watercraft). With reference to the ark, you will understand the following as meaning first deck, second deck, third deck; if they referred to a building, you would understand them as meaning first floor, second floor, third floor:

il prin plan
il secont plan
il tierç plan

If you lived on the third floor of a building, you might say:

o soi a stâ al tierç plan
I live on the third floor

The expression jessi a stâ means to live, to reside, to dwell.

Verset 17

You encounter in this verse the first instance of the noun il diluvi, meaning flood. The verb mandâ means to send; jo o mandarai is its first-person singular futûr sempliç form.

jo o mandarai il diluvi
I shall send a flood
(literally, I shall send the flood)

The expression fâ fûr can be understood as meaning to destroy, to take out (of existence).

Perhaps you will remember that il flât means breath; you first encountered this noun in Gjenesi 4:21, where you found un strument a flât (wind instrument). In the current verse, you find the expression tirâ il flât, which means to breathe; it translates literally as to draw the breath, to pull the breath.

par fâ fûr
in order to destroy

dut ce che al tire il flât
all that which breathes

sot il cîl
under the heaven

Al tire is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb tirâ (to pull, to draw).

The remainder of the verse contains usages that you have already encountered:

dut ce che al è in chest mont
all that which is in this world

al à di sparî
it must disappear

Verset 18

With Noah, God makes a covenant: un pat.

jo o fasarai un pat cun te
I shall make a covenant with you

The Friulian pat is cognate with the English pact.

The verb jentrâ means to enter; its second-person singular futûr sempliç form is tu tu jentrarâs.

tu tu jentrarâs te arcje
you shall enter the ark

In the above, you will notice the use of te, which is a contraction of in + the feminine definite article. The English to enter (something) is expressed literally in Friulian as to enter into (something): jentrâ in.

God stipulates to Noah who shall enter the ark:

tu e i tiei fruts
you and your children

la tô femine
your wife

lis feminis dai tiei fîs
the wives of your sons

Dutun cun te means along with you.

Verset 19

The Friulian adjective vîf means alive, living. Its feminine form is vive.

di dut ce che al è vîf
from all that which is living

You will remember that ogni means every.

The verb menâ means to lead, to bring. Menâ dentri means to bring in(side), to lead in(side).

tu menarâs dentri cun te te arcje
you shall bring in with you into the ark

The feminine la sorte means sort, kind.

doi par sorte
two of each sort
(literally, two by sort)

You encounter a coniuntîf presint form in this verse:

par ch’e resti la semence cun te
so that their seed remains with you

The verb in the above is restâ, meaning to remain, to stay.

la semence e reste
par che la semence e resti
the seed remains
so that the seed remains

The verb sielzi (found in this verse as sielgi) means to choose, to select.

tu âs di sielzi
tu âs di sielgi

you must choose

Il mascjo is a male; la mascje is a female.

Verset 20

This verse begins with language repeated from the last verse.

The Friulian la raze means race, sort, kind. The word for pair in Friulian is il pâr.

un pâr di ogni raze di ucei
one pair of every sort of birds

You will recall that i nemâi is the plural of il nemâl (animal, beast).

You have seen the reflexive verb strissinâsi (to slither) a number of times now:

ogni raze che si strissine su la tiere
every sort that slithers on the ground

Verset 21

The verb puartâ means to bring; the expression puartâ dentri (to bring in) is synonymous with menâ dentri seen above. In this verse, you find the expression used in reflexive form: puartâsi dentri (to bring in for oneself, to bring in with oneself).

puartiti dentri dut ce che si pò mangjâ
bring in with yourself all that which one can eat
bring in with yourself everything that can be eaten

In the above, puartiti is the second-person singular imperative form of the reflexive verb puartâsi.

In the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf, the verb podê (can, to be able) conjugates as al pues.

al pues mangjâ
he can eat

Si pues followed by an infinitive can be understood as meaning one can, it is possible.

si pues lâ fûr
one can go out
it is possible to go out

si pues mangjâ
one can eat
it is possible to eat

Rather than pues, you find the variant in this verse.

dut ce che si pò mangjâ
all that which one can eat
everything that can be eaten

The verb ingrumâ means to gather, to join; you will perhaps remember this from Gjenesi 1:10, where it was question of aghis ingrumadis.

ingrumilu daprûf di te
gather it with you
gather it near to you

In the above, daprûf di can be understood as meaning near to, next to, with.

The verb servî means to serve.

al à di servî
it must serve

par passiti te e lôr
to feed you and them
to nourish you and them

The verb passi means to feed, to nourish, to sate. As for the reflexive passisi (to feed on, to sate oneself), you will perhaps recall having encountered it in Gjenesi 3:14, where you read: tu varâs di passiti di pulvin.

Verset 22

You read in this verse that Noah did just as God had commanded.

Noè al fasè cussì
Noah did so

al fasè propit dut ce che Diu i veve ordenât
he did absolutely everything that God had commanded him

The verb ordenâ means to order, to command.

al à ordenât
al veve ordenât
he has commanded
he had commanded

i à ordenât
i veve ordenât
he has commanded him
he had commanded him

You will notice in the above through the use of i that Friulian says to command something unto someone: dut ce che Diu i veve ordenât a Noè (all that which God had commanded [unto] Noah).