Friulian language series: Gjenesi 6, coruzion dai oms

The subjects of the sixth chapter of the book of Genesis are: la coruzion dai oms (the corruption of men); il diluvi (the flood).

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Read Gjenesi 6

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Versets 1-2

Cuant che i oms a scomençarin a cressi (when men started to increase) sun dute la tiere (on all the earth) e a nasserin ancje lis fiis (and daughters were also born), i fîs di Diu a vioderin (the sons of God saw) che lis fiis dai oms a jerin nininis (that the daughters of men were fine), e a cjolerin chês che ur plasevin (and they took those who were pleasing to them).

Vocabulary: cuant che (when), un om (man), i oms (men), scomençâ (to start), cressi (to increase), la tiere (earth), dut (all), sun dute la tiere (on all the earth), nassi (to be born), ancje (also), la fie (daughter), lis fiis (daughters), il fi (son), i fîs (sons), Diu (God), viodi (to see), jessi (to be), ninine (fine; of a woman), cjoli (to take), chês (those {ones}; feminine), ur (unto them), plasê (to please).

A scomençarin, a nasserin, a vioderin and a cjolerin are all third-person plural forms of the passât sempliç. Observe the formation of the third-person plural of the passât sempliç in relation to its infinitive: scomençâ > a scomençarin; nassi > a nasserin; viodi > a vioderin; cjoli > a cjolerin; viergi > a viergerin; cusî > a cusirin; sintî > a sintirin; plasê > a plaserin.

A jerin (from the verb jessi) has been encountered a number of times before; despite ending in erin, this is not the passât sempliç (which is instead a forin) but the imperfet indicatîf. Lis fiis dai oms a jerin nininis: the daughters of men were fine.

In the text of this verse, found is the verb plasê used in the imperfet indicatîf. A cjolerin chês che ur plasevin: they took those who were pleasing to them. The feminine plural chês means those {ones}; it refers to lis fiis here. A plasevin (they were pleasing) is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb plasê. Ur means unto them. Review: Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns. Ur plasevin: they were pleasing to them.

It is with the verb plasê that Friulian expresses that which English does with the verb to like; for instance, chest libri mi plâs (this book is pleasing to me) may also be read I like this book. The difference between the Friulian plasê and the English to like is in the subject. In English, the one doing the liking is the subject: I like this book. In Friulian, that which is liked is the subject: chest libri mi plâs (this book is pleasing to me).

Verset 3

Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): nol pò il gno spirt (my spirit cannot) tignî sù l’om par simpri (keep up man for ever), parcè che al è cjar (for he is flesh); pa la cuâl nol vivarà (therefore he will not live) plui di cent e vincj agns (more than one hundred and twenty years).

Vocabulary: (to say), dissal (he said), il Signôr (the Lord), podê (can), nol pò (it cannot), il spirt (spirit), il gno spirt (my spirit), tignî sù (to keep up), un om (man), par simpri (for ever), parcè che (for), la cjar (flesh), pa la cuâl (therefore), vivi (to live), plui di (more than), cent e vincj (one hundred and twenty), un an (year), i agns (years).

Al pues is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê; its negated form is nol pues. In this verse, we find instead the variant pò, wherefore we read: dissal il Signôr (the Lord said) nol pò il gno spirt (my spirit cannot) tignî sù l’om par simpri (keep up man for ever).

The Friulian for 120 is cent e vincj. Review: How to count in Friulian.

Verset 4

Ta chei timps (in those times), e ancje dopo (and also afterwards), cuant che i fîs di Diu (when the sons of God) a cjolerin lis fiis dai oms (took the daughters of men) che ur meterin al mont ancje une dissendence (who for them put into the world also a lineage), su la tiere a vivevin i nefilim (on the earth used to live the nephilim), che a saressin stâts i omenons di une volte (who would have been the great men of a time {past}), oms une vore innomenâts (very renowned men).

Vocabulary: il timp (time), ta chei timps (in those times), ancje (also), dopo (afterwards), cuant che (when), il fi (son), Diu (God), cjoli (to take), la fie (daughter), un om (man), ur (unto them), meti (to put), il mont (world), meti al mont (to put into the world), la dissendence (lineage), la tiere (earth), vivi (to live), i nefilim (nephilim), un omenon (great man), une volte (one time), une vore (very), innomenât (renowned).

Meti al mont: to put into the world, the sense whereof is to bring into the world. A meterin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb meti.

A vivevin is the third-person plural of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vivi.

The third-person plural of the condizionâl presint the verb jessi is a saressin. Employed in the text is a saressin stâts, which is the third-person plural of the condizionâl passât. A saressin: they would be; a saressin stâts: they would have been.

Verset 5

Il Signôr al viodè (the Lord saw) che la tristerie dal om (that the wickedness of man) e jere masse grande su la tiere (was very great on the earth) e che dentri di sè (and that inside himself) al masanave dome robatis (he would mash but wicked matters) dute la mari dal dì (all day long).

Vocabulary: il Signôr (the Lord), viodi (to see), la tristerie (wickedness), un om (man), masse (very), grant (great), la tiere (earth), dentri di sè (inside oneself), masanâ (to mash), dome (but), la robate (wicked matter), il dì (day), dute la mari dal dì (all day long).

Related to the feminine tristerie (wickedness) is the adjective trist, meaning wicked.

Robate identifies a wicked matter; it is formed from the feminine robe, meaning matter. The at ending (ate in the feminine) conveys wretchedness. For instance, un frut is a lad, whereas un frutat is a bad lad.

Al masanave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb masanâ. It is used figuratively here to talk of one’s continual revolving or rumination of thoughts within.

Verset 6

Il Signôr si pintì (the Lord regretted) di vê fat l’om su la tiere (having made man on the earth) e al provà un grant dolôr di cûr (and he experienced a great pain of heart).

Vocabulary: il Signôr (the Lord), pintîsi (to regret), (to make), un om (man), la tiere (earth), provâ (to experience), grant (great), un dolôr (pain), il cûr (heart).

The reflexive pintîsi means to regret. Observe the following: (to make); vê fat (to have made); pintîsi di vê fat (to regret having made). More examples: viodi; vê viodût; pintîsi di vê viodût (to see; to have seen; to regret having seen); dî; vê dit; pintîsi di vê dit (to say; to have said; to regret having said); tocjâ; vê tocjât; pintîsi di vê tocjât (to touch; to have touched; to regret having touched).

Verset 7

Dissal il Signôr (the Lord said): o vuei parâ vie (I will drive away) de face de tiere (from the face of the earth) l’om che o ai creât e (man whom I have created and), dutune cul om (together with man), ancje lis bestiis (also the beasts), chês che si strissìnin (those which shuffle themselves) e i ucei dal cîl (and the birds of the heaven), parcè che mi pintìs di vêju fats (for I regret having made them).

Vocabulary: (to say), dissal (he said), il Signôr (the Lord), volê (to will), parâ vie (to drive away), la face de tiere (face of the earth), la tiere (earth), un om (man), creâ (to create), dutune cul om (together with man), ancje (also), la bestie (beast), chês (those; feminine), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), un ucel (bird), i ucei (birds), il cîl (heaven), parcè che (for), pintîsi (to regret), (to make), vê fat (to have made).

Observe: mi pintìs (I regret); mi pintìs di vê fat (I regret having made); mi pintìs di vêju fats (I regret having made them). Fats agrees in gender (masculine) and number (plural) with the masculine plural ju (them) of vêju. Consider: mi pintìs di vêlu fat (I regret having made it; masculine singular); mi pintìs di vêju fats (I regret having made them; masculine plural); mi pintìs di vêle fate (I regret having made it; feminine singular); mi pintìs di vêlis fatis (I regret having made them; feminine plural).

Verset 8

Ma Noè (but Noah) Diu lu cjalave di bon voli (would God look of good eye upon).

Vocabulary: ma (but), Diu (God), cjalâ (to look {upon}), bon (good), il voli (eye).

Al cjalave is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb cjalâ.

Verset 9

Ve la storie di Noè: this is the story of Noah. Noè al jere un galantom (Noah was a righteous man), l’unic just framieç di ducj chei altris (the only just man amongst all those others), e al leve indenant cun Diu (and he would go forwards with God).

Vocabulary: ve (this is), la storie (story), al jere (he was), un galantom (righteous man), unic (only), il just (just man), framieç di (amongst), altri (other), lâ indenant (to go forwards), cun (with), Diu (God).

Depending on the context, the Friulian il galantom may be read as either gentleman or righteous man. In the context of this verse, it is righteous man.

The Friulian adjective just means just. As a noun, it may be read as just man. L’unic just: the only just man. The Friulian for just man may also be rendered as om just, as in: al jere un om just (he was a just man).

The four forms of dut (all) are: dut (masculine singular); ducj (masculine plural); dute (feminine singular); dutis (feminine plural). The four forms of chel (that) are: chel (that; masculine singular); chei (those; masculine plural); chê (that; feminine singular); chês (those; feminine plural). The singular chel and chê translate as that; the plural chei and chês translate as those. Ducj chei altris: all those others, the sense whereof is all the other men.

Al leve indenant cun Diu: he would go forwards with God. Al leve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ. Accordingly as the context requires, al leve is rendered he was going; he used to go; he kept going; he would [ever in the past] go.

Verset 10

Noè al veve trê fîs (Noah had three sons): Sem, Cam e Jafet (Shem, Ham and Japheth).

Vocabulary: (to have), tre (three), il fi (son), i fîs (sons).

Noè al veve trê fîs: Noah had three sons. Al veve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb vê. Note the difference between al veve un fi and al à vût un fi: the first, al veve un fi, conveys he used to have a son; the second, al à vût un fi, conveys he begot a son. To say of a man that he begot a son on a certain date, use al à vût un fi. To say that a son of his existed whilst he was living, use al veve un fi. The passât prossim form al à vût communicates one’s coming into possession of a thing; the imperfet indicatîf form al veve communicates possession thereof across time. Now, Noè al veve trê fîs may be rendered Noah had three sons, as from this will the reader understand in context that they had already been born to him; it may also be rendered Noah used to have three sons.

Verset 11

Ma la tiere i faseve voltâ il stomi ancje a Diu (but the earth would make even God’s stomach turn) e e jere plene incolme di tristerie (and it was brimming with wickedness).

Vocabulary: ma (but), la tiere (earth), voltâ (to turn), fâ voltâ (to make turn), il stomi (stomach), fâi voltâ il stomi a un (to make one’s stomach turn), ancje (even), plen incolm di (brimming with), la tristerie (wickedness).

Ma la tiere i faseve voltâ il stomi ancje a Diu: the earth would make even God’s stomach turn [but the earth would make turn the stomach even unto God], which is to say that the earth revolted God. With the use of the anthropomorphic fâ voltâ il stomi, the Friulian text conveys in a very strong way the sense of God’s having a stomach which may be turned: the use of this expression must be taken as an accommodation to the human idea of disgust. E faseve is the feminine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb fâ.

Plen incolm di: brimming with, where plene incolme is its feminine form.

Verset 12

Diu al cjalà jù il mont (God looked below upon the world): a jerin ducj fûr di strade (they were all off the way) e ogni cjar e faseve robis di fâ ingomut (and every flesh would do nauseating matters) su la tiere (on the earth).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), cjalâ (to look {upon}), (below), il mont (world), a jerin (they were), la strade (way), fûr di strade (off the way), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), (to do), la robe (matter), l’ingomut (nausea), fâ ingomut (to nauseate), su la tiere (on the earth).

The feminine strade means way, road. In the text of this verse, we encounter fûr di strade: in regard to morality, to be fûr di strade (off the way) is to be wicked. In a different context altogether, a vehicle which has veered off the way and driven into the landscape may also be said to be fûr di strade.

The Friulian text continues with words relating to upset stomach: first was fâ voltâ il stomi in verse 11, and now ingomut in verse 12.

Verset 13

Diu i disè a Noè (God said to Noah): al è rivât il moment (the moment has arrived) di fâle finide cui oms (to put an end to men). Aromai o ai benzà decidût (as of now I have already decided), parcè che la tiere e je plene di inicuitât (for the earth is filled with iniquity) par colpe dai oms (by fault of men) e jo ju fâs sparî dutun cu la tiere (and I {hereby} make them vanish together with the earth).

Vocabulary: Diu (God), (to say), rivâ (to arrive), il moment (moment), fâle finide cun (to put an end to), i oms (men), aromai (as of now), benzà (already), decidi (to decide), parcè che (for), la tiere (earth), plen di (filled with), la inicuitât (iniquity), la colpe (fault), sparî (to vanish), fâ sparî (to make vanish), dutun cu la tiere (together with the earth).

Al è rivât il moment: the moment has arrived. Note the use of jessi as auxiliary in al è rivât.

Fâle finide cun: to put an end to. Here finît (finished) agrees with the feminine singular le forming part of this expression, to become finide. Very literally, fâle finide cun translates as to make it finished with, which is to say, to put an end to.

Of the verb decidi, the past participle is decidût.

Jo ju fâs sparî: I make them vanish, the sense whereof, in context, is I hereby make them vanish. O fâs is the first-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb fâ. Consider: jo o fâs (I make); jo ju fâs (I make them).

Verset 14

Fasiti une arcje di len di ciprès (make unto thyself an ark of cypress wood): tu âs di fâle cui scompartiments (thou art to make it with compartments) e stabilîle cul catram (and to plaster it with pitch) par dentri e par fûr (inside and out).

Vocabulary: (to make), fâsi (to make for oneself), la arcje (ark), il len (wood), il ciprès (cypress tree), vê di (to have to), il scompartiment (compartment), stabilî (to plaster), il catram (pitch), par dentri (inside), par fûr (outside).

Fasiti une arcje: make unto thyself an ark. Of the verb fâ, the second-person singular imperative is fâs. With the addition of ti, an i is inserted: fâsiti. Fâsiti is read as make unto thyself, or make for thyself.

Tu âs di fâle cui scompartiments: thou art to make it with compartments. The le of fâle stands in for the feminine arcje.

Verset 15

Tu âs di fâle cussì (thou art to make it so): l’arcje e à di vê tresinte comedons di lungjece (the ark is to have three hundred cubits in length), cincuante di largjece (fifty in breadth) e trente di altece (and thirty in height).

Vocabulary: vê di (to have to), (to make), cussì (so), la arcje (ark), vê di vê (to have to have), tresinte (three hundred), il comedon (cubit), la lungjece (length), cincuante (fifty), la largjece (breadth), trente (thirty), la altece (height).

The Friulian for three hundred is tresinte; for fifty, cincuante; and for thirty, trente. Review: How to count in Friulian.

The Friulian for length is la lungjece; for breadth, la largjece; for height, l’altece. All three are feminine nouns. Examples: l’arcje e à tresinte comedons di lungjece (the ark has three hundred cubits in length); l’arcje e à cincuante comedons di largjece (the ark has fifty cubits in breadth); l’arcje e à trente comedons di altece (the ark has thirty cubits in height). Another way to express these is with the adjectives lunc (long), larc (broad) and alt (high). The feminine forms of these are lungje, largje and alte. Examples: l’arcje e je lungje tresinte comedons (the ark is three hundred cubits long); l’arcje e je largje cincuante comedons (the ark is fifty cubits broad); l’arcje e je alte trente comedons (the ark is thirty cubits high).

Following is a word-for-word, very literal breakdown of the text of this verse for study purposes: tu (thou) âs (hast) di (to) fâle (make it) cussì (so): l’arcje (the ark) e (she) à (has) di (to) (have) tresinte (three hundred) comedons (cubits) di (of) lungjece (length), cincuante (fifty) di (of) largjece (breadth) e (and) trente (thirty) di (of) altece (height).

Related: The Friulian for metre is il metri; its plural form is i metris. The Friulian for kilometre is il chilometri; for centimetre, il centimetri. Supplementary examples: il baston al è lunc novantecinc centimetris (the staff is ninety-five centimetres long); il lât al è larc cinc chilometris (the lake is five kilometres broad); il gratecîl al è alt tresinte metris (the skyscraper is three hundred metres high).

Verset 16

Tu âs di fâi a l’arcje ancje un cuviert (thou art to make unto the ark also a covering), in mût di alçâle di un comedon (to lift it by one cubit); la jentrade tu je fasarâs di flanc (the entrance wilt thou make unto it from the flank) e tu fasarâs il prin, il secont e il tierç plan (and thou wilt make its first, second and third decks).

Vocabulary: vê di fâ (to have to make), la arcje (ark), ancje (also), un cuviert (covering), in mût di ({in order} to), alçâ (to lift), il comedon (cubit), la jentrade (entrance), il flanc (flank), prin (first), secont (second), tierç (third), il plan (deck).

Fâi is composed of the verb + i, where i means unto it. Consider: tu âs di fâ (thou art to make); fâi a l’arcje (to make unto the ark); tu âs di fâi a l’arcje (thou art to make unto the ark).

La jentrade tu je fasarâs di flanc: the entrance wilt thou make unto it from the flank. The second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb is tu tu fasarâs. Je is a contraction of i + le, where i means unto her (as in unto the ark) and the feminine le, meaning it, stands in for la jentrade. Consider: la jentrade (the entrance) tu (thou) je (unto her + it) fasarâs (wilt make) di (from) flanc (flank).

The masculine plan means floor (in the case of a building) or deck (in the case of watercraft). With regard to the ark, prin plan, secont plan, tierç plan are read as first deck, second deck, third deck; if these same were used in the context of a building, they would be read as first floor, second floor, third floor. If a one lived on the third floor of a building, so may it be said: o soi a stâ al tierç plan (I dwell on the third floor). O soi a stâ is the first-person singular of jessi a stâ, meaning to dwell.

E tu fasarâs il prin, il secont e il tierç plan: literally, and thou wilt make the first, the second and the third deck. Ideally, English ought to employ the plural decks here rather than the singular deck as in the Friulian, and il may be read in context as its, wherefore the translation which I have retained is: and thou wilt make its first, second and third decks.

Verset 17

Jo o mandarai il diluvi (I shall send the flood), lis aghis su la tiere (waters upon the earth), par fâ fûr (to do away with) dut ce che al tire il flât (all that which draws breath) sot il cîl (under the heaven): dut ce che al è in chest mont (all that which is in this world) al à di sparî (must vanish).

Vocabulary: mandâ (to send), il diluvi (flood), la aghe (water), lis aghis (waters), la tiere (earth), fâ fûr (to do away with), dut ce che (all that which), tirâ (to draw), il flât (breath), sot (under), il cîl (heaven), chest mont (this world), sparî (to vanish).

The masculine flât means breath; the reader first encountered this noun in Gjenesi 4:21, with un strument a flât (wind instrument). Tirâ il flât means to draw breath. Al tire is the masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb tirâ.

Verset 18

Ma jo o fasarai un pat cun te (but I shall make a pact with thee) e tu tu jentrarâs te arcje (and thou wilt enter into the ark), tu e i tiei fruts (thou and thy children), la tô femine (thy wife) e lis feminis dai tiei fîs (and the wives of thy sons) dutun cun te (together with thee).

Vocabulary: il pat (pact), fâ un pat (to make a pact), cun te (with thee), jentrâ (to enter), la arcje (ark), i fruts (children), la femine (wife), il fî (son), dutun cun (together with).

The verb jentrâ means to enter; its second-person singular form of the futûr sempliç is tu tu jentrarâs. Tu tu jentrarâs te arcje: thou wilt enter into the ark. Note the use of te, which is a contraction of in + the feminine definite article la. Note moreover that, whereas it is possible in English to say to enter the ark and other such-like utterances, Friulian must say to enter into the ark, which is also possible in English, wherefore I have retained it in translation.

The masculine singular frut means lad, male child; in the plural, fruts may be read as either lads or children {of both genders}, depending on the context. For instance, the children of a mixed-gender group may be referred to as fruts, as may the children of a group composed entirely of lads. The children of a group composed entirely of girls are frutis, from the singular frute (girl).

The feminine noun femine means woman; it is read as wife in the context of marriage. Likewise is the masculine om (man) read as husband in such context.

Verset 19

Di dut ce che al è vîf (of all that which is living), di ogni cjar (of every flesh), tu menarâs dentri cun te te arcje doi par sorte (wilt thou lead inside with thee into the ark two by sort), par ch’e resti la semence cun te (that seed may remain with thee); tu âs di sielgi un mascjo e une mascje (thou art to select a male and a female).

Vocabulary: di dut ce che (of all that which), vîf (living), ogni (every), la cjar (flesh), menâ dentri (to lead inside), la arcje (ark), doi (two), la sorte (sort), par sorte (by sort), restâ (to remain), la semence (seed), sielgi (to select), il mascjo (male), la mascje (female).

Tu menarâs dentri cun te te arcje doi par sorte: The first te means thee and forms part of cun te (with thee), whereas the second te means into and is a contraction of in + la. Observe: tu (thou) menarâs (wilt lead) dentri (inside) cun te (with thee) te (into the) arcje (ark) doi (two) par (by) sorte (sort).

Consider: e reste la semence (seed remains); par ch’e resti la semence (that seed may remain).

Verset 20

Tu menarâs dentri cun te (thou wilt lead inside with thee), par ch’e resti la semence (that seed may remain), un pâr di ogni raze di ucei (one pair of every kind of birds), di ogni raze di nemâi (of every kind of animals), di ogni raze che si strissine su la tiere (of every kind which shuffles itself on the earth).

Vocabulary: menâ dentri (to lead inside), restâ (to remain), la semence (seed), il pâr (pair), un pâr di (one pair of), ogni (every), la raze (kind), un ucel (bird), i ucei (birds), il nemâl (animal), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), la tiere (earth).

The plural of nemâl is nemâi. Of ucel, the plural is ucei. When a noun ends in a vowel + l, the l becomes i to form the plural.

Verset 21

Puartiti dentri ancje (bear inside unto thee also) dut ce che si pò mangjâ (all that which may be eaten) e ingrumilu daprûf di te (and gather it by thee): al à di servî (it is to serve) par passiti te e lôr (to sate thee thyself, and them).

Vocabulary: puartâ dentri (to bear inside), ancje (also), dut ce che (all that which), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), si pò mangjâ (may be eaten), ingrumâ (to gather), daprûf di (by), servî (to serve), passi (to sate).

The masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê is al pues. Al pues mangjâ: he may eat. Si pues followed by an infinitive may be read as one may. Examples: si pues lâ fûr (one may go forth); si pues mangjâ (one may eat). With regard to the text of this verse, a passive rendering into English may be employed: dut ce che si pò mangjâ (all that which may be eaten); found here is si pò, a variant of si pues.

Of ingrumâ, the second-person singular imperative form is ingrume. When lu is added, the final e becomes i. Observe: ingrume (gather); ingrumilu (gather it).

Par passiti te e lôr: to sate thee thyself, and them. Note the use of stress; passiti means to sate thee, further emphasised by the following te. Observe: par ({in order} to) passiti (sate thee) te (thyself) e lôr (and them).

Verset 22

Noè al fasè cussì (Noah did so); al fasè propit dut (he did squarely all) ce che Diu i veve ordenât (that which God had ordered him).

Vocabulary: (to do), cussì (so), propit dut (squarely all), ordenâ (to order).

Note the use of the indirect object: ce che (that which) Diu (God) i (unto him) veve (had) ordenât (ordered). Consider moreover the following: al à ordenât (he has ordered; he ordered); al veve ordenât (he had ordered).