Friulian language series: Gjenesi 4:17-26, dissendence di Cain

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through verses from the Bible by examining Gjenesi 4:17-26; that is, verses 17-26 of the fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la dissendence di Cain (lineage of Cain). These are the final verses of the chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 4 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of these verses in the video starts at 3:42 and ends at 6:02.

Verset 17

The first sentence of this verse uses language that you encountered in the post pertaining to Gjenesi 4:1-7. You will recall that cognossi means to know (here, in the carnal sense), cjapâ sù means to conceive, and parturî translates as to bear, to give birth to.

The name Enoc is the Friulian for Enoch.

You read that Cain built a village:

al fasè sù un paîs
he built a village

The expression used in the above is fâ sù (to build, to establish). The Friulian il paîs translates here as village.

He named the village after his son:

i metè al paîs
he put to the village

il non di so fi Enoc
the name of his son Enoch

The Friulian for son is il fi. You will recall that il non means name.

You will note that the definite article is not used in the Friulian for his son; it is rendered here as so fi.

Verset 18

You encounter a number of names in this verse; they are Irad (Irad), Mecuiael (Mehujael), Matusael (Methusael), Lamec (Lamech).

The verb (to have) is used here in the sense of to beget.

Matusael al à vût Lamec
Mathusael begot Lamech

You will recall Eve’s words in the first verse of this chapter, where you encountered the same usage: o ai vût un om midiant dal Signôr.

The passât prossim of as used here is also employed in regular language to express past time of to get.

al à vût un regâl
he got a gift

o ai vût il messaç
I got the message

Verset 19

The reflexive maridâsi means to get married.

Lamec si maridà dôs voltis
Lamec got married twice

Dôs voltis translates literally as two times; the Friulian la volte means time. There is a masculine form and a feminine form for the Friulian word for two: doi (masculine), dôs (feminine). Because volte is a feminine noun, dôs is used: dôs voltis. Two books, on the other hand, would be expressed as doi libris because libri is a masculine noun. When counting, the masculine form is used: un, doi, trê (one, two, three).

You will recall the Friulian for first and second:

prin (masculine singular)
prime (feminine singular)

secont (masculine singular)
seconde (feminine singular)

In this verse, you read the names of the first and second wives of Lamech:

la prime femine e veve non Ade
the first wife was named Adah

la seconde femine e veve non Sile
the second wife was named Zillah

You will recall the expression used above, which you have already seen: vê non (to be named; literally, to have name). You find the verb conjugated here in the third-person singular, imperfet indicatîf.

e veve non Ade
she was named Adah

Verset 20

A new name appears in this verse: Jabal, which is the same in English.

You will recall the Friulian word for father: il pari.

al è stat lui il pari
he was the father
(literally, it was him the father)

il pari di chei che
the father of those who

Now would be a good time to review the Friulian words for that, those: chel (masculine singular), chê (feminine singular), chei (masculine plural), chês (feminine plural).

chel om, that man
chei oms, those men

chê cjase, that house
chês cjasis, those houses

The Friulian verb vivi means to live. The expression sot di translates as under. The Friulian word for tent is la tende.

chei che a vivin sot de tende
those who live under the tent
(that is, those who live in tents)

The Friulian verb tignî means to keep, to hold. La mandrie translates as herd (i.e., of livestock).

chei che a tegnin mandrie
those who keep livestock; herds

Verset 21

You read that the brother of Jabal was called Jubal:

so fradi al veve non Jubal
his brother was named Jubal

In the previous verse, you read that chei che meant those who. In the current verse, you encounter ducj chei che, which translates as all those who.

The name of an instrument, or un strument, appears in this verse: la citare (kithara), which is a stringed instrument.

Il flât means breath; when talking about instruments, it translates as wind: un strument a flât (wind instrument).

When talking about using an instrument to make music, the Friulian verb sunâ is used, whereas English employs to play. Sunâ literally means to sound; it is related to the noun il sun, meaning sound.

sunâ un strument
to play an instrument

A sunin is the third-person plural, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb sunâ.

Verset 22

Two new names appear in this verse: Tubalcain, which is the same in English, and Naame (Naamah).

Invezit means on the other hand.

The Friulian verb for to teach is insegnâ.

al à insegnât
he taught

The expression par prin means primarily.

In the text, you find insegnâ a lavorâ, which translates to teach how to work.

al à insegnât a lavorâ cun mistîr
he taught how to work with skill

Il mistîr is the Friulian word for skill, trade. The expression lavorâ cun mistîr translates as to work with skill.

Two masculine nouns follow in the text: il ram (copper) and il fier (iron).

insegnâ a lavorâ il ram e il fier
to teach how to work copper and iron

The Friulian word for sister, which you encountered in the notes of an earlier post, is la sûr.

il pari, father
la mari, mother
il fi, son
la fie, daughter
il fradi, brother
la sûr, sister

la sûr di Tubalcain
the sister of Tubalcain

e veve non Naame
she was named Naamah

Verset 23

You have seen how Friulian makes combined use of, for example, i and a la sô femine, or i and al Signôr:

l’om i metè non a la sô femine Eve
the man named his wife Eve

Cain i ufrì al Signôr
Cain offered to the Lord

You now find its plural equivalent in this verse:

Lamec ur disè a lis sôs feminis
Lamech said to his women

Ur means to them; that is, in the above, ur stands in for a lis sôs feminis and has been expressed even in the presence of a lis sôs feminis.

You may wish to review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

The verb scoltâ means to listen to. The second-person plural, imperative form of this verb is scoltait:

Ade e Sile, scoltait ce che us dîs
Adah and Zillah, listen to that which I tell you

The plural us means to you; follow the last link above should you need to review. Jo o dîs is the first-person singular, presint indicatîf conjugation of the verb dî.

jo o dîs
o dîs
I say

jo us dîs
us dîs
I say to you

The imperative scoltait is the second-person plural; the second-person singular form is scolte.

scolte! (singular)
scoltait! (plural)

scolte ce che ti dîs!
scoltait ce che us dîs!
listen to what I say to you!

The expression tignî a ments means to keep in mind, where il ment is the Friulian for mind. The Friulian for word is la peraule.

tignît a ments lis mês peraulis
keep in mind my words

Tignît is the second-person plural imperative form of tignî; the second-person singular form is ten.

In the remainder of the verse, you encounter new nouns: la feride (wound), il frut (child, young boy), la macjadure (bruise).

jo o ai copât un om
I killed a man

Verset 24

The verb svindicâ means to avenge.

al sarà svindicât siet voltis
he will be avenged seven times

In verse 15, you read siet viaçs (seven times); in the current verse, it is siet voltis. The singular of lis voltis, as you have already seen, is la volte.

The Friulian for seventy-seven is setantesiet (setante, 70 + siet, 7).

Verset 25

In this verse, you find the expression un’altre volte; this literally means another time, but you will understand it as meaning again.

Altre is the feminine form of the Friulian for other; the masculine form is altri.

un altri libri, another book
un’altre volte, another time

In this verse, you read i parturì un frut. Because i means to him (i.e., to Adam), you will have understood i parturì un frut as meaning to him (=to Adam) she bore a child.

The Friulian for the name Seth is Set. In i metè non Set, the i also means to him, but this time in the sense of to the child; you will have understood i metè non Set as meaning to him (=to the child) she put name Seth (that is, she named him Seth).

La gracie is grace, kindness, abundance from God. Diu mi à dât means God has given me; God gave me, where dât is the past participle of the verb (to give). The past participle is found accorded here as the feminine dade, to agree with la gracie following it.

Impen di means in place of.

un’altre vite impen di Abêl
another life in place of Abel

In mal à copât Cain, mal is a contraction of mi + lu. Mi means to me, but translates better here in English as on me. Lu means him, and stands in for Abêl.

mal à copât Cain
= mi + lu à copât Cain
Cain killed him on me

Verset 26

A new name appears in this verse: Enos, which is the same in English. The first sentence of this verse employs usages that you have already seen.

Similar to the wording al è stat lui il pari from verse 20, you encounter now al è stât lui il prin (it was him the first; that is, he was the first). You will remember that the verb clamâ means to call.