Friulian language series: Gjenesi 4:17-26, dissendence di Cain

Continue now your study of the Friulian language by examining verses 17-26 of the fourth chapter of the book of Genesis, where the subject is la dissendence di Cain (lineage of Cain). These are the final verses of the chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 4 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 4:17-26

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 4:17-26. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 17

The first sentence of this verse uses language that you encountered in Gjenesi 4:1. You will recall that cognossi means to know (here, in the carnal sense), cjapâ sù means to conceive, and parturî translates as to bear, to give birth to.

The name Enoc is the Friulian for Enoch.

You read that Cain built a village:

al fasè sù un paîs
he built a village

The expression used in the above is fâ sù (to build, to establish). The Friulian il paîs translates here as village.

He named the village after his son:

i metè al paîs
he put unto the village

il non di so fi Enoc
the name of his son Enoch

The Friulian for son is il fi. Recall that il non means name.

You will note that the definite article is not used in the Friulian for his son; it is rendered here as so fi.

Verset 18

You encounter a number of names in this verse; they are Irad (Irad), Mecuiael (Mehujael), Matusael (Methusael), Lamec (Lamech).

The verb (to have) is used here in the sense of to beget.

Matusael al à vût Lamec
Mathusael begot Lamech

You will recall Eve’s words from the first verse of this chapter, where you encountered the same usage: o ai vût un om midiant dal Signôr.

The passât prossim of as used here is also employed in colloquial language to express past time of to get.

al à vût un regâl
he got a gift

o ai vût il messaç
I got the message

Verset 19

The reflexive maridâsi means to get married.

Lamec si maridà dôs voltis
Lamec got married twice

Dôs voltis translates literally as two times; the Friulian la volte means time. There is a masculine and feminine form of the Friulian for two: doi (masculine), dôs (feminine). Because volte is a feminine noun, dôs is used: dôs voltis. Two books, on the other hand, would be expressed as doi libris because libri is a masculine noun. When counting, the masculine form is used: un, doi, trê (one, two, three).

Recall the Friulian for first and second:

prin (masculine singular)
prime (feminine singular)

secont (masculine singular)
seconde (feminine singular)

In this verse, you read the names of the first and second wives of Lamech:

la prime femine e veve non Ade
the first wife was named Adah

la seconde femine e veve non Sile
the second wife was named Zillah

Recall the expression used above, which you have already seen: vê non (to be named; literally, to have name). You find the verb conjugated here in the third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf.

e veve non Ade
she was named Adah
(literally, she was having name Adah)

Verset 20

A new name appears in this verse: Jabal, which is the same in English.

Recall the Friulian for father: il pari.

al è stat lui il pari
he was the father
(literally, it was him the father)

il pari di chei che
the father of those who

Now would be a good time to review the Friulian for that, those: chel (masculine singular), chê (feminine singular), chei (masculine plural), chês (feminine plural).

chel om, that man
chei oms, those men

chê cjase, that house
chês cjasis, those houses

The Friulian verb vivi means to live. The expression sot di translates as under. The Friulian for tent is la tende.

chei che a vivin sot de tende
those who live under the tent
(that is, those who live in tents)

The Friulian verb tignî means to keep, to hold; as for la mandrie, this is the Friulian for herd.

chei che a tegnin mandrie
those who keep herds

Verset 21

You read that the brother of Jabal was called Jubal:

so fradi al veve non Jubal
his brother was named Jubal

In the previous verse, you read that chei che meant those who. In the current verse, you encounter ducj chei che, which translates as all those who.

The name of an instrument, or un strument, appears in this verse: la citare (kithara), which is a stringed instrument.

Il flât means breath; when talking about instruments, it translates as wind: un strument a flât (wind instrument).

When talking about using an instrument to make music, the Friulian verb sunâ is used, whereas English employs to play. Sunâ literally means to sound; it is related to the noun il sun, meaning sound.

sunâ un strument
to play an instrument

A sunin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb sunâ.

Verset 22

Two new names appear in this verse: Tubalcain, which is the same in English, and Naame (Naamah).

Invezit means on the other hand.

The Friulian verb for to teach is insegnâ.

al à insegnât
he taught

The expression par prin means primarily.

In the text, you find insegnâ a lavorâ, which translates to teach how to work.

al à insegnât a lavorâ cun mistîr
he taught how to work with skill

Il mistîr is the Friulian word for skill, trade. The expression lavorâ cun mistîr translates as to work with skill.

Two masculine nouns follow in the text: il ram (copper) and il fier (iron).

insegnâ a lavorâ il ram e il fier
to teach how to work copper and iron

The Friulian word for sister, which you encountered in the notes of an earlier post, is la sûr.

il pari, father
la mari, mother
il fi, son
la fie, daughter
il fradi, brother
la sûr, sister

la sûr di Tubalcain
the sister of Tubalcain

e veve non Naame
she was named Naamah

Verset 23

You have seen how Friulian makes combined use of, for example, i and a la sô femine, or i and al Signôr:

l’om i metè non a la sô femine Eve
the man named his wife Eve

Cain i ufrì al Signôr
Cain offered to the Lord

You now find its plural equivalent in this verse:

Lamec ur disè a lis sôs feminis
Lamech said to his wives

Ur means to them; that is, in the above, ur stands in for a lis sôs feminis and has been expressed even in the presence of a lis sôs feminis.

Review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

The verb scoltâ means to listen to. The second-person plural imperative form of this verb is scoltait:

Ade e Sile, scoltait ce che us dîs
Adah and Zillah, listen to that which I tell you

The plural us means to you; follow the last link above should you need to review. Jo o dîs is the first-person singular presint indicatîf form of the verb dî.

jo o dîs
o dîs
I say

jo us dîs
us dîs
I say to you

The imperative scoltait is the second-person plural; the second-person singular form is scolte.

scolte! (singular)
scoltait! (plural)
listen!

scolte ce che ti dîs!
scoltait ce che us dîs!
listen to what I say to you!

The expression tignî a ments means to keep in mind, where il ment is the Friulian for mind. The Friulian for word is la peraule.

tignît a ments lis mês peraulis
keep in mind my words
bear my words in mind
remember my words

Tignît is the second-person plural imperative form of tignî; the second-person singular form is ten.

In the remainder of the verse, you encounter new nouns: la feride (wound), il frut (child, young boy), la macjadure (bruise).

jo o ai copât un om
I killed a man

Verset 24

The verb svindicâ means to avenge.

al sarà svindicât siet voltis
he will be avenged seven times

In Gjenesi 4:15, you encountered siet viaçs (seven times); in the current verse, it is siet voltis. The singular of lis voltis, as you have already seen, is la volte.

The Friulian for seventy-seven is setantesiet (setante, 70 + siet, 7).

Verset 25

In this verse, you find the expression un’altre volte; this literally means another time, but you will understand it as meaning again.

Altre is the feminine form of the Friulian for other; the masculine form is altri.

un altri libri
another book

un’altre volte
another time; again

In this verse, you read i parturì un frut. Because i means unto him (that is, to Adam), you will have understood i parturì un frut as meaning unto him she bore a child (that is, she bore a child unto [Adam]). The Friulian for the name Seth is Set. In i metè non Set, the i also means unto him, but this time replaces to the child; you will have understood i metè non Set as meaning unto him she put name Seth (that is, she named him Seth).

La gracie is grace, kindness, abundance. Diu mi à dât means God has given me; God gave me, where dât is the past participle of the verb (to give). The past participle is found accorded here as the feminine dade, to agree with la gracie following it.

Impen di means in place of.

un’altre vite impen di Abêl
another life in place of Abel

In mal à copât Cain, mal is a contraction of mi + lu. Mi means to me, but translates better here in English as on me. Lu means him, and stands in for Abêl.

mal à copât Cain
= mi + lu à copât Cain
Cain killed him on me

Verset 26

A new name appears in this verse: Enos, which is the same in English. The first sentence of this verse employs usages that you have already seen.

Similar to the wording al è stat lui il pari from verse 20, you encounter now al è stât lui il prin (it was him the first; that is, he was the first). You will remember that the verb clamâ means to call.