You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through verses from the Bible by examining Gjenesi 3:14-24; that is, verses 14-24 of the third chapter of the book of Genesis, which are the final verses of the chapter.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).
The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.
Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:
Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.
The reading of these verses in the video starts at 2:23.
Letôr: Lorenzo Zanon
You will recall the expression par vie che, meaning given that.
par vie che tu âs fat chest
given that you have done this
because you have done this
You first encountered the expression par vie che in Gjenesi 2:23, when you read:
par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om
given that she was taken out of man
The verb maledî means to curse, to damn. In this verse, you find maludî, a variant of maledî. The past participle of maledî is maledît; of maludî, it is maludît.
tu sarâs maludît
you will be cursed
You will remember the masculine noun il besteam (cattle) from the post pertaining to Gjenesi 1:20-25.
fra dut il besteam
amongst all the cattle
fra dutis lis bestiis salvadiis
amongst all the wild beasts
You will also recall the reflexive verb strissinâsi (to slither) from that same post.
si strissinin su la tiere
they slither on the earth
tu ti strissinarâs su la panze
you will slither on your belly
In the verse, you encounter once again the expression vê di (must, to have to).
tu âs di
tu varâs di
you have to
you will have to
The reflexive verb passisi means to nourish oneself, to feed oneself; that is, to eat. The Friulian noun il pulvin, which you have already encountered, means dust.
tu varâs di passiti di pulvin
you will have to eat dust
(literally, you will have to nourish yourself of dust)
The plural of il dì (day) is i dîs. You will recall the feminine noun la vite, meaning life.
par ducj i dîs de tô vite
for all the days of your life
The feminine noun asse means hatred, enmity, animosity; the expression meti in asse, then, translates literally as to put into enmity.
O metarai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb meti.
jo o metarai in asse te e la femine
I shall put into enmity you and the woman
(that is, I shall bring enmity between you and the woman)
Rather than ti as direct object, you find te in the same function. Te is a stressed form of ti, and it is coupled here with la femine, all placed after the verb: o metarai in asse te e la femine.
La gjernazie means offspring.
la tô gjernazie
la sô gjernazie
his, her, its offspring
In this verse, la sô gjernazie means her offspring (that is, the offspring of the woman).
You will recall that the feminine chê means that; its masculine equivalent is chel. In this verse, you can understand chê as meaning it, in reference to la sô gjernazie (her offspring).
The Friulian verb sfracaiâ means to crush, to break. The word for head is the masculine il cjâf.
chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf
it will crush your head
(that is, her offspring will crush your head)
You will note here that, rather than your head, Friulian has used the head; the use of ti indicates to whom the head belongs.
In the remainder of the verse, you find a number of new usages: cirî di (to try to), muardi (to bite), il talon (heel).
tu tu cirarâs di
tu cirarâs di
you will try to
muardi il talon
to bite the heel
muardii il talon
to bite its heel
(that is, to bite the heel of her offspring)
In muardii, the i attached to the end indicates to whom the heel belongs; it belongs to la sô gjernazie.
sfracaiâ il cjâf
muardi il talon
to crush the head
to bite the heel
sfracaiâti il cjâf
muardii il talon
to crush your head
to bite its heel
O fasarai is the first-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb fâ. As used here, the verb cressi means to increase. The feminine la doe means pain; its plural form is lis dois. The Friulian word for pregnancy is la gravidance, found here in its plural form lis gravidancis.
o fasarai cressi
I shall make increase
lis dois des tôs gravidancis
the pains of your pregnancies
The verb parturî means to give birth. Un frut is a child. In this verse, you find another word for pain: il dolôr. Tal dolôr, then, means in pain.
tu parturissarâs i fruts tal dolôr
you will give birth to children in pain
In the second sentence of this verse, the only usages you have not seen before are the noun la passion (desire, longing) and the verb sburtâ (to push). You will recall the noun il paron, meaning ruler, master. You first encountered paron in Gjenesi 1:16, when you read that God made two lights, the larger one tant che paron dal dì, and the lesser one tant che paron de gnot.
The verb scoltâ means to listen.
tu âs scoltât
la vôs de tô femine
the voice of your wife
tu âs scoltade la vôs de tô femine
you listened to the voice of your wife
In verse 11 of this chapter, you encountered the wording che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ (that I had forbidden you from eating). You find the same tense used in the current verse, this time with the verb dî:
che ti vevi dit
that I had said to you
Compare these pairs:
o ai dit
o vevi dit
I had said
ti ai dit
ti vevi dit
I said to you
I had said to you
In this verse, you encounter a negated imperative; by placing no sta before an infinitive, you can express do not (verb) in Friulian: no sta mangjâ (do not eat).
You will remember that maludî means to curse, to damn; its past participle is maludît.
ch’e sedi maludide la tiere
let the ground be cursed
cursed be the ground
The Friulian word for fault is la colpe.
par colpe tô
by your fault
One of the meanings of la bocjade is mouthful, bite, but it is to be understood in this verse as meaning daily bread; food. The expression tirâ fûr literally means to pull out; tirâti fûr la bocjade can be understood, then, as meaning to obtain your food, to obtain your daily bread. You will remember that tu varâs di means you will have to.
The expression a sun di means by dint of, by means of, through. Vitis, which is the plural of la vite, can be understood here as meaning trouble, suffering.
a sun di vitis
The sense of the entire last sentence of this verse is that man will have to suffer for all the days of his life to obtain his food from the ground that God has cursed.
The verb butâ as used in this verse can be understood as meaning to bring forth, to produce. Une spine is a spine, thorn; un baraç is also a thorn.
ti butarà dome spinis e baraçs
to you it will bring forth only spines and thorns
Il cjamp is the Friulian word for field.
tu varâs di mangjâ la jerbe dai cjamps
you will have to eat the herb of the fields
The Friulian word for sweat is il sudôr. In this verse, la muse refers to the face; this word will remind you of the English muzzle.
cul sudôr de tô muse
by the sweat of your face
In this verse, you encounter la bocjade again. It is used with the verb vuadagnâ (to earn), and more precisely with the reflexive vuadagnâsi (to earn oneself).
vuadagnâsi la bocjade
to earn oneself one’s daily bread
The expression fin che means until. Tornâ is the Friulian verb for to return.
fin che no tu tornarâs te tiere
until you will return to the ground
You will notice the use of no following the expression fin che, which is not used in English.
The rest of the verse should not present any particular problems given that you have already encountered the usages in it. The only usage that might be unfamiliar to you is the following use of che, which you can understand as meaning for.
che tu sês stât tirât fûr di li
for you were taken out from there
tu sês stât
tu sês stât tirât fûr
you were taken out
You will recall that you are is expressed in Friulian as tu tu sês or simply tu sês. (This is similar to how, for example, Friulian expresses he is as lui al è or simply al è, and I am as jo o soi or simply o soi.) In the last part of this verse, you find tu tu sês.
parcè che tu tu sês pulvin
because you are dust
e in pulvin tu tornarâs
and to dust you will return
You will recall that il non means name. The expression meti non means to name (literally, to put name). The text tells you that the man put the name Eve to his wife.
l’om i metè non a la sô femine Eve
the man named his wife Eve
The text tells you the reason she was called Eve was because she was the mother of all the living: la mari di ducj i vivents. La mari means mother; il vivent means living person.
Perhaps you will recall the third-person singular, passât sempliç forms of the verb jessi:
lui al fo
jê e fo
parcè che e fo la mari di ducj i vivents
because she was the mother of all the living
The difference between al fo and al è stât, and between e fo and e je stade, is the same as the difference between, say, al metè and al à metût, and between al cjapà and al à cjapât.
In this verse, you encounter ur, which you will recall means to them; however, it translates better here as for them. You may wish to review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.
il Signôr Diu ur fasè
the Lord God made for them
al om e a la femine
for the man and for the woman
The text tells you that God made une tonie for each of them; that is, a tunic. La piel means skin, used here in the sense of animal skins.
toniis di piel
tunics of skins
The verb vistî means to clothe.
ju vistì parie
he clothed them both
The expression ve che translates as behold. You will recall that the verb deventâ means to become.
ve che l’om al è deventât
behold, man has become
You will notice the use of jessi as auxiliary in the above: al è deventât.
Related to ve che are the following:
velu, (t)here it is (masculine singular)
vele, (t)here it is (feminine singular)
veju, (t)here they are (masculine plural)
velis, (t)here they are (feminine plural)
vele la cjase
behold the house
here is the house
there is the house
These can also be used with ca (here) and là (there), for example:
velu ca, here it is
velu là, there it is
The noun il compagn is cognate with the English companion. You will understand al è deventât compagn di nô as meaning he has become as one of us.
You will recall from an earlier verse the expression rivâ a, meaning to manage to, to succeed in.
al rive a cognossi il ben e il mâl
he manages to know good and evil
he succeeds in knowing good and evil
Di chi indenant means from now on (literally, from here ahead; i.e., ahead from here). The verb slungjâ means to extend; slungjâ la man, then, translates as to extend one’s hand.
al slungje la man
nol slungje la man
he extends his hand
he does not extend his hand
che al slungji la man
che nol slungji la man
let him extend his hand
let him not extend his hand
You will recall that the verb çumâ means to pick (a fruit from a tree).
çumâ dal arbul de vite
to pick from the tree of life
al çume dal arbul
nol çume dal arbul
he picks from the tree
he does not pick from the tree
che al çumi dal arbul
che nol çumi dal arbul
let him pick from the tree
let him not pick from the tree
cussì che nol çumi dal arbul
so that he does not pick from the tree
You encounter ’nt in this verse:
che no ’nt mangji
let him not eat of it
cussì che no ’nt mangji
so that he does not eat of it
The expression vivi par simpri means to live forever.
che nol vivi par simpri
let him not live forever
cussì che nol vivi par simpri
so that he does not live forever
The expression parâ fûr means to drive out, to chase out.
lu parà fûr dal zardin
he drove him out of the garden
In this verse, you encounter the third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet in par che al lavoràs. Compare:
par che al lavori
so that he works
par che al lavoràs
he was working
so that he was working
You will recall the expression tirâ fûr, literally meaning to pull out.
lu veve tirât fûr di jê
he had taken him out of it
Jê here stands in for la tiere.
You encounter the expression parâ fûr (to drive out) again in this verse. You will recall the expression denant di, meaning in front of, before.
denant dal zardin dal Eden
before the garden of Eden
The Friulian word for cherub is un cherubin. La flame means flame; la spade means sword. Sfulminant translates as striking.
The noun la vuaite means guard, watch; the expression fâ la vuaite, then, translates as to guard, to watch over. The masculine il troi is a path, way.
fâ la vuaite al troi dal arbul de vite
to watch over the way of the tree of life