Friulian language series: Gjenesi 3:14-24, pecjât di Adam

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through the third chapter of the book of Genesis by examining verses 14-24, which are the final verses of the chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 3 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 3:14-24

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 3:14-24. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 14

You will recall the expression par vie che, meaning given that.

par vie che tu âs fat chest
given that you have done this
because you have done this

You first encountered the expression par vie che in Gjenesi 2:23, when you read:

par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om
given that she was taken out of man

The verb maledî means to curse, to damn. In this verse, you find maludî, a variant of maledî. The past participle of maledî is maledît; of maludî, it is maludît.

tu sarâs maludît
you will be cursed

You will remember the masculine noun il besteam (livestock, cattle) from the post pertaining to Gjenesi 1:20-25.

fra dut il besteam
amongst all the cattle

fra dutis lis bestiis salvadiis
amongst all the wild beasts

You will also recall the reflexive verb strissinâsi (to slither) from that same post.

si strissinin su la tiere
they slither on the earth

tu ti strissinarâs su la panze
you shall slither on your belly

In the verse, you encounter once again the expression vê di (must, to have to).

tu âs di
tu varâs di
you have to
you will have to

The reflexive verb passisi means to feed on, to sate oneself. The Friulian noun il pulvin, which you have already encountered, means dust.

tu varâs di passiti di pulvin
you shall have to feed on dust
you shall have to sate yourself with dust

The plural of il dì (day) is i dîs. You will recall the feminine noun la vite, meaning life.

par ducj i dîs de tô vite
for all the days of your life

Verset 15

The feminine noun asse means hatred, enmity, animosity; the expression meti in asse, then, translates literally as to put into enmity.

O metarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb meti.

jo o metarai in asse te e la femine
I shall put into enmity you and the woman
(that is, I shall bring enmity between you and the woman)

Rather than ti as direct object, you find te in the same function. Te is a stressed form of ti, and it is coupled here with la femine, all placed after the verb: o metarai in asse te e la femine.

La gjernazie means offspring.

la tô gjernazie
your offspring

la sô gjernazie
his, her, its offspring

In this verse, la sô gjernazie means her offspring (that is, the offspring of the woman).

Review Friulian possessive adjectives.

Recall that the feminine chê means that; its masculine equivalent is chel. In this verse, you can understand chê as meaning it, in reference to la sô gjernazie (her offspring).

The Friulian verb sfracaiâ means to crush, to break. The word for head is the masculine il cjâf.

chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf
it shall crush your head
(that is, her offspring shall crush your head)

Note here that, rather than your head, Friulian uses the head; the use of ti indicates to whom the head belongs: chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf translates literally as it shall crush the head unto you.

In the remainder of the verse, you find a number of new usages: cirî di (to try to), muardi (to bite), il talon (heel).

tu tu cirarâs di
tu cirarâs di
you shall try to

muardi il talon
to bite the heel

muardii il talon
to bite its heel
(that is, to bite the heel of her offspring)

In muardii, the i attached to the end indicates to whom the heel belongs; it belongs to la sô gjernazie. Muardii il talon translates literally as to bite the heel unto it.


sfracaiâ il cjâf
muardi il talon
to crush the head
to bite the heel

sfracaiâti il cjâf
muardii il talon
to crush your head
to bite its heel

muardi il talon
muardii il talon
to bite the heel
to bite its heel (to bite the heel unto it)

Verset 16

O fasarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb fâ. As used here, the verb cressi means to increase. The feminine la doe means pain; its plural form is lis dois. The Friulian word for pregnancy is la gravidance, found here in its plural form lis gravidancis.

o fasarai cressi
I shall make increase

lis dois des tôs gravidancis
the pains of your pregnancies

The verb parturî means to give birth. Un frut is a child. In this verse, you find another word for pain: il dolôr. Tal dolôr, then, means in pain.

tu parturissarâs i fruts tal dolôr
you shall give birth to children in pain

In the second sentence of this verse, the only usages you have not seen before are the noun la passion (desire, longing) and the verb sburtâ (to push). You will recall the noun il paron, meaning ruler, master. You first encountered paron in Gjenesi 1:16, when you read that God made two lights, the larger one tant che paron dal dì, and the lesser one tant che paron de gnot.

la passion ti sburtarà
desire shall push (or drive) you

de bande dal om
unto your husband
(literally, to the side of the man [husband])

ma lui al sarà il to paron
but he shall rule over you
(literally, but he shall be your master)

Verset 17

The verb scoltâ means to listen.

tu âs scoltât
you have listened

la vôs de tô femine
the voice of your wife

tu âs scoltade la vôs de tô femine
you have listened to the voice of your wife

In verse 11 of this chapter, you encountered the wording che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ (that I had forbidden you from eating). You find the same tense used in the current verse, this time with the verb dî:

che ti vevi dit
that I had said to you

Compare these pairs:

o ai dit
o vevi dit
I said
I had said

ti ai dit
ti vevi dit
I said to you
I had said to you

In this verse, you encounter a negated imperative; by placing no sta before an infinitive, you can express do not in Friulian: no sta mangjâ (do not eat).

Remember that maludî means to curse, to damn; its past participle is maludît.

ch’e sedi maludide la tiere
let the ground be cursed
cursed be the ground

The Friulian word for fault is la colpe.

par colpe tô
by your fault

One of the meanings of la bocjade is mouthful, bite, but it is to be understood in this verse as meaning daily bread; food. The expression tirâ fûr literally means to pull out; tirâti fûr la bocjade can be understood, then, as meaning to obtain your food, to obtain your daily bread. You will remember that tu varâs di means you will have to.

The expression a sun di means by dint of, by means of, through. Vitis, which is the plural of la vite, can be understood here as meaning trouble, suffering.

a sun di vitis
through suffering
with difficulty

The sense of the entire last sentence of this verse is that man will have to suffer for all the days of his life to obtain his food from the ground that God has cursed.

Verset 18

The verb butâ as used in this verse can be understood as meaning to bring forth, to produce. Une spine is a spine, thorn; un baraç is also a thorn.

ti butarà dome spinis e baraçs
unto you it shall bring forth only spines and thorns

Il cjamp is the Friulian word for field.

tu varâs di mangjâ la jerbe dai cjamps
you shall have to eat the herb of the fields

Verset 19

The Friulian for sweat is il sudôr. In this verse, la muse refers to the face; this word will perhaps remind you of the English muzzle.

cul sudôr de tô muse
by the sweat of your face

In this verse, you encounter la bocjade again. It is used with the verb vuadagnâ (to earn), and more precisely with the reflexive vuadagnâsi (to earn oneself).

vuadagnâsi la bocjade
to earn oneself one’s daily bread

The expression fin che means until. Tornâ is the Friulian verb for to return.

fin che no tu tornarâs te tiere
until you shall return to the ground

Notice the use of no in conjunction with the expression fin che, which is not expressed in English.

The rest of the verse should not present any particular problems given that you have already encountered the usages in it. The only usage that might be unfamiliar to you is the following use of che, which you can understand as meaning for.

che tu sês stât tirât fûr di li
for you were taken out from there


tu sês
tu sês stât
tu sês stât tirât fûr
you are
you were
you were taken out

Recall that you are is expressed in Friulian as tu tu sês or simply tu sês. (This is similar to how, for example, Friulian expresses he is as lui al è or simply al è, and I am as jo o soi or simply o soi.) In the last part of this verse, you find tu tu sês.

parcè che tu tu sês pulvin
because you are dust

e in pulvin tu tornarâs
and to dust you shall return

Verset 20

Recall that il non means name. The expression meti non means to name (literally, to put name). You read that the man puts the name Eve unto his wife.

l’om i metè non a la sô femine Eve
the man named his wife Eve
(literally, the man put [the] name unto his wife ‘Eve’)

The reason she was called Eve was because she was the mother of all the living: la mari di ducj i vivents. La mari means mother; il vivent means living person.

You will perhaps recall the third-person singular, passât sempliç forms of the verb jessi:

lui al fo
jê e fo
he was
she was

parcè che e fo la mari di ducj i vivents
because she was the mother of all the living

The difference between al fo and al è stât, and between e fo and e je stade, is the same as the difference between, say, al metè and al à metût, and between al cjapà and al à cjapât.

Verset 21

In this verse, you encounter ur, which you will recall means to them; however, it translates better here as for them. Review Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

il Signôr Diu ur fasè
the Lord God made for them

al om e a la femine
for the man and for the woman

You read that God made une tonie for each of them; that is, a tunic. La piel means skin, used here in the sense of animal skins.

toniis di piel
tunics of skins

The verb vistî means to clothe; parie means likewise, equally.

ju vistì parie
he clothed them equally
he clothed them likewise

Verset 22

The expression ve che translates as behold. You will recall that the verb deventâ means to become.

ve che l’om al è deventât
behold, man has become
see now that man has become

You will notice the use of jessi as auxiliary in the above: al è deventât.

Related to ve che are the following:

velu, (t)here it is (masculine singular)
vele, (t)here it is (feminine singular)
veju, (t)here they are (masculine plural)
velis, (t)here they are (feminine plural)

For example:

vele la cjase
behold the house
here is the house
there is the house

These can also be used with ca (here) and (there), for example:

velu ca, here it is
velu là, there it is

Compagn means identical. You will understand al è deventât compagn di nô as meaning he has become the same as us; he has become identical to us.

Recall from an earlier verse the expression rivâ a, meaning to manage to, to succeed in.

al rive a cognossi il ben e il mâl
he manages to know good and evil
he succeeds in knowing good and evil

Di chi indenant means from now on (literally, from here ahead: di chi, from here; indenant, ahead). The verb slungjâ means to extend; slungjâ la man, then, translates as to extend one’s hand.

al slungje la man
nol slungje la man
he extends his hand
he does not extend his hand

che al slungji la man
che nol slungji la man
let him extend his hand
let him not extend his hand

You will recall that the verb çumâ means to pick (a fruit from a tree).

çumâ dal arbul de vite
to pick from the tree of life

al çume dal arbul
nol çume dal arbul
he picks from the tree
he does not pick from the tree

che al çumi dal arbul
che nol çumi dal arbul
let him pick from the tree
let him not pick from the tree

cussì che nol çumi dal arbul
so that he does not pick from the tree

You encounter ’nt in this verse:

che no ’nt mangji
let him not eat of it

cussì che no ’nt mangji
so that he does not eat of it

The expression vivi par simpri means to live forever.

che nol vivi par simpri
let him not live forever

cussì che nol vivi par simpri
so that he does not live forever

Verset 23

The expression parâ fûr means to drive out, to chase out.

lu parà fûr dal zardin
he drove him out of the garden

In this verse, you encounter the third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet in par che al lavoràs. Compare:

al lavore
par che al lavori
he works
so that he works

al lavorave
par che al lavoràs
he was working
so that he was working

You will recall the expression tirâ fûr, meaning to pull out, to take out.

lu veve tirât fûr di jê
he had taken him out of it

here stands in for la tiere.

Verset 24

You again encounter the expression parâ fûr (to drive out) in this verse. Recall the meaning of denant di, which is in front of, before.

denant dal zardin dal Eden
before the garden of Eden

The Friulian for cherub is un cherubin. La flame means flame; la spade means sword. Sfulminant translates as striking.

The noun la vuaite means guard, watch; the expression fâ la vuaite, then, can be translated as to guard, to watch over. The masculine il troi is a path, way.

fâ la vuaite al troi dal arbul de vite
to watch over the way of the tree of lifepass