You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through verses from the Bible by examining Gjenesi 3:8-13; that is, verses 8-13 of the third chapter of the book of Genesis.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).
The Friulian Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul. You can read and listen to the Bible in Friulian by following the link.
Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:
Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.
The reading of these verses in the video starts at 1:24 and ends at 2:23.
Letôr: Lorenzo Zanon
In Gjenesi 3:7, you encountered four third-person plural passât sempliç conjugations: si viergerin, si inacuargerin, a cusirin, si faserin. Take note of the verb endings used. In the current verse now, you encounter a similar construction: a sintirin, which is the third-person plural, passât sempliç of the verb sintî (to hear).
The Friulian noun il sunsûr means murmur, whisper.
You will recall that the verb lâ means to go; lâ pal zardin, then, means to go through the garden, where pal is a contraction of par + il. You may wish to review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.
In the text, you read:
al leve pal zardin
it was going through the garden
The text says that what was going through the garden was il sunsûr dal Signôr Diu (the murmur of the Lord God).
Al leve is the masculine, third-person singular imperfet indicatîf conjugation of the verb lâ. You have seen this tense before; for example: al saltave fûr un flum (a river was flowing out), il flum si divideve (the river was dividing itself), from Gjenesi 2:10. You will take note of the endings used to help you recognise this tense: al leve, al saltave, si divideve.
La bueresine means breeze; te bueresine dal dì, then, means in the breeze of the day.
You already know the expression denant di, meaning before, in front of; in this verse, you find devant di instead, meaning the same thing.
ju menà denant dal om
he led them before the man
devant dal Signôr Diu
before the Lord God
The reflexive verb platâsi means to hide oneself; in this verse, you find this verb used as part of the expression lâ a platâsi, meaning to go hide oneself.
a lerin a platâsi
they went to hide themselves
Because of the ending a lerin takes, you will have recognised this as the third-person plural, passât sempliç; the verb here is lâ.
Framieç di means amongst, between.
The verb clamâ means to call.
il Signôr Diu al clamà l’om
the Lord God called the man
Indulà means where. Using the second-person singular, the Friulian for you are is tu tu sês, or simply tu sês. The interrogative form of tu sês is sêstu, where the atonic tu is shifted to the end of the verb.
where are you?
You will notice the use of dissal here; it is used to cite a male speaker’s words. The feminine form is dissè.
«indulà sêstu?» dissal
“where are you?” he said
You will recall that the Friulian verb for to respond is rispuindi.
The past participle of the verb sintî is sintût. You can probably guess how to use this past participle to form the third-person singular of the passât prossim to say he heard:
al à sintût
In this verse, you discover how to say this in the first-person singular:
o ai sintût
You may wish to review the present indicative of the verb vê. These conjugations are coupled with a past participle to form the passât prossim. More examples:
al à fat
o ai fat
al à metût
o ai metût
The text says that what the man heard was the pas of God: il pas means pace, step. You can understand o ai sintût il to pas as meaning I heard your walking.
You will recall the expression vê rivuart from Gjenesi 2:25; in that verse, you read that the man and the woman a jerin crots (they were naked), but that no vevin rivuart (they were not concerned). In the current verse, you find the expression vê rivuart used in the passât prossim:
o ai vût rivuart
I had concern
(that is, I was concerned)
Vût is the past participle of the verb vê.
The man explains the source of his rivuart:
o soi crot
I am naked
The man also explains what happened next:
o soi lât a platâmi
I went to hide myself
O soi lât is the first-person singular, passât prossim of the verb lâ; the past participle of lâ is lât. You will notice that lâ has taken the auxiliary jessi here, not vê (that is, o soi and not o ai). Some verbs take the auxiliary jessi rather than vê.
o ai sintût (auxiliary vê)
o ai fat (auxiliary vê)
o ai metût (auxiliary vê)
o soi lât (auxiliary jessi)
The verb domandâ means to ask. Note that you ask to someone in Friulian; for example, domandâ al om (to ask [to] the man), domandâ a un amì (to ask [to] a friend). This is why you find the use of i (to him) in the text: i domandà (he asked [to] him).
You encounter an interrogative in this verse: cui ti aial dit che tu jeris crot? (who told you that you were naked?).
has he?, does he have?
al à dit
he said, he has said
did he say?, has he said?
ti à dit
cui ti aial dit?
he told you, he has told you
who told you?, who has told you?
To create the interrogative form of al à, the atonic al is shifted to the end of the verb with an i inserted before it: aial.
Can you say the following in Friulian using the passât prossim?
- I ate
- you ate
- he ate
- she ate
Here are the answers:
- o ai mangjât
- tu âs mangjât
- al à mangjât
- e à mangjât
Can you now transform the four Friulian answers above into interrogative form?
Here are the answers:
- aio mangjât?
- âstu mangjât?
- aial mangjât?
- aie mangjât?
The verb inibî means to forbid, to prohibit. Its past participle is inibît.
o ai inibît
o vevi inibît
I forbade, I have forbidden
I had forbidden
ti ai inibît
ti vevi inibît
I forbade you, I have forbidden you
I had forbidden you
che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ
that I had forbidden you from eating
In this verse, you have two past participles accorded in the feminine: stade (from stât), metude (from metût).
e je stade la femine
it was the woman
che tu mi âs metude dongje
that you put next to me
You first encountered dongje in Gjenesi 2:24, when you read si tire dongje de sô femine.
You will recall that parcè means why. You can understand the question asked of the woman here as meaning why then did you do as much? In this question, you find the interrogative form âstu:
parcè âstu fat?
why did you do?
The woman responds that it was the serpent that tricked her.
al è stât il madrac
it was the serpent
che mi à imbroiade
that tricked me
The Friulian verb for to trick used here is imbroiâ; its past participle is imbroiât, found in this verse in its feminine form imbroiade.
Compare now these two sentences from verses 12 and 13:
e je stade la femine
al è stât il madrac
Both e je stade and al è stât translate here as it was in English, but the first agrees in gender and number with the feminine singular la femine, and the second agrees with the masculine singular il madrac.