You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 8-13 of the third chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 3 can be found here.
If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.
Read Gjenesi 3:8-13
In Gjenesi 3:7, you encountered four third-person plural passât sempliç forms: si viergerin, si inacuargerin, a cusirin, si faserin. Take note of the verb endings used. In the current verse now, you encounter a similar construction: a sintirin, which is the third-person plural, passât sempliç of the verb sintî (to hear).
The Friulian noun il sunsûr can be understood here as sound.
You will recall that the verb lâ means to go; lâ pal zardin, then, means to go through the garden, where pal is a contraction of par + il. Review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.
In the text, you read:
al leve pal zardin
it was going through the garden
You read that what was going through the garden was il sunsûr dal Signôr Diu (the sound of the Lord God).
Al leve is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ. You have seen this tense before; for example: al saltave fûr un flum (a river was coming [flowing] out), il flum si divideve (the river was dividing itself), from Gjenesi 2:10. Take note of the verb endings to help you recognise this tense: al leve, al saltave, si divideve.
La bueresine means breeze; te bueresine dal dì, then, means in the breeze of the day.
You already know the expression denant di, meaning before, in front of; in this verse, you find devant di instead, meaning the same thing.
ju menà denant dal om
he led them before the man
devant dal Signôr Diu
before the Lord God
The reflexive verb platâsi means to hide oneself; in this verse, you find this verb used as part of the expression lâ a platâsi, meaning to go hide oneself.
a lerin a platâsi
they went to hide themselves
Because of the ending a lerin takes, you will have recognised this as the third-person plural, passât sempliç; the verb here is lâ.
Framieç di means amongst, between.
The verb clamâ means to call.
il Signôr Diu al clamà l’om
the Lord God called the man
Indulà means where. Using the second-person singular, the Friulian for you are is tu tu sês, or simply tu sês. The interrogative form of tu sês is sêstu, where the atonic tu is shifted to the end of the verb.
where are you?
Notice the use of dissal here; it is used to cite a male speaker’s words. The feminine form is dissè.
«indulà sêstu?» dissal
“where are you?” he said
Recall that the Friulian for to respond is rispuindi.
The past participle of the verb sintî is sintût. You can probably guess how to use this past participle to form the third-person singular of the passât prossim to say he heard:
al à sintût
In this verse, you discover how to say this in the first-person singular:
o ai sintût
Review the present indicative of the verb vê. This conjugation is coupled with a past participle to form the passât prossim. More examples:
al à fat
o ai fat
al à metût
o ai metût
What the man heard was the pas of God: il pas means pace, step. You can understand o ai sintût il to pas as meaning I heard your walking.
Recall the expression vê rivuart from Gjenesi 2:25; in that verse, you read that the man and the woman were naked (a jerin crots), but that they were not apprehensive (no vevin rivuart); that is, they were unbothered and unashamed by their nakedness because of their lack of awareness. In the current verse, you find the expression vê rivuart used in the passât prossim:
o ai vût rivuart
I became apprehensive
(literally, I got apprehension)
Vût is the past participle of the verb vê. The man explains the source of his rivuart:
o soi crot
I am naked
More fully, you read: o ai vût rivuart parcè che o soi crot (I became apprehensive because I am naked). The man is now aware of his nakedness and is bothered by it; he has become fearful. Supplementary examples of vê rivuart to highlight its sense: cjapilu, no sta a vê rivuart (take it, do not hold back [do not be apprehensive]); jentre, no sta a vê rivuart (come in, do not be afraid [do not be apprehensive]). Rivuart does not translate directly as fear (for that, Friulian has, for example, la pôre and il timôr), but the expression vê rivuart can be used to convey the sort of fear that arises from being scrupulous about something, from having misgivings or doubts regarding it — a holding back or reservation resulting from a heightened sense of awareness of a situation; that is, apprehension. Rivuart might also be rendered as concern or consideration: see Gjenesi 21:23.
The man continues:
o soi lât a platâmi
I went to hide myself
O soi lât is the first-person singular, passât prossim of the verb lâ; the past participle of lâ is lât. You will notice that lâ has taken the auxiliary jessi here, not vê (that is, o soi and not o ai). Some verbs take the auxiliary jessi rather than vê.
o ai sintût (auxiliary vê)
o ai fat (auxiliary vê)
o ai metût (auxiliary vê)
o soi lât (auxiliary jessi)
The verb domandâ means to ask. Note that you ask unto someone in Friulian; for example, domandâ al om (to ask [unto] the man), domandâ a un amì (to ask [unto] a friend). This is why you find the use of i (unto him) in the text: i domandà (he asked [unto] him).
You encounter an interrogative in this verse: cui ti aial dit che tu jeris crot? (who told you that you were naked?).
has he?, does he have?
al à dit
he said, he has said
did he say?, has he said?
ti à dit
he told you, he has told you
cui ti aial dit?
who told you?, who has told you?
To create the interrogative form of al à, the atonic al is shifted to the end of the verb with an i inserted before it: aial.
Can you say the following in Friulian using the passât prossim?
- I ate
- you ate
- he ate
- she ate
Here are the answers:
- o ai mangjât
- tu âs mangjât
- al à mangjât
- e à mangjât
Can you now transform the four Friulian answers above into interrogative form?
Here are the answers:
- aio mangjât?
- âstu mangjât?
- aial mangjât?
- aie mangjât?
The verb inibî means to forbid, to prohibit. Its past participle is inibît.
o ai inibît
I forbade, I have forbidden
o vevi inibît
I had forbidden
ti ai inibît
I forbade you, I have forbidden you
ti vevi inibît
I had forbidden you
che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ
that I had forbidden you from eating
In this verse, you have two past participles accorded in the feminine: stade (from stât), metude (from metût).
e je stade la femine
it was the woman
che tu mi âs metude dongje
whom you put next to me
You first encountered dongje in Gjenesi 2:24, when you read si tire dongje de sô femine.
God asks the woman a question. In this question, you find the interrogative form âstu:
parcè po âstu fat chel tant?
why then did you do that?
Chel tant can be understood more literally as meaning as much (that is, why then did you do as much?), where as much means that, that thing, that deed, etc.
The woman responds that it was the serpent that tricked her.
al è stât il madrac
it was the serpent
che mi à imbroiade
that tricked me
The Friulian verb for to trick used here is imbroiâ; its past participle is imbroiât, found in this verse in its feminine form imbroiade.
Compare now these two sentences from verses 12 and 13:
e je stade la femine
al è stât il madrac
Both e je stade and al è stât translate here as it was in English, but the first agrees in gender and number with the feminine singular la femine, and the second agrees with the masculine singular il madrac.
Continue your study of chapter 3 of the book of Genesis. There are three parts in total.