Friulian language series: Gjenesi 3, pecjât di Adam

The third chapter of the book of Genesis tells of the snake: il madrac; and of the sin of Adam: il pecjât di Adam.

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Read Gjenesi 3

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 3. An archived version of the text is found here.

Verset 1

Il madrac al jere il plui galiot (the snake was the most sly) di dutis lis bestiis de tiere (of all the beasts of the earth) che il Signôr Diu al veve fatis (which the Lord God had made). I disè a la femine (it said to the woman): sichè Diu us à dit (so did God say to you): no podês mangjâ di ducj i arbui dal zardin? (you may not eat of all the trees of the garden?).

Vocabulary: il madrac (snake), galiot (sly), il plui galiot (the most sly), dut (all), la bestie (beast), la tiere (earth), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to make), (to say), la femine (woman), sichè (so), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), un arbul (tree), il zardin (garden).

Consider: al à fat (he made; he has made); al veve fat (he had made). The past participle fat takes the feminine plural form fatis in the text of this verse to agree in gender and number with the preceding feminine plural noun bestiis: lis bestiis […] che il Signôr Diu al veve fatis.

I disè a la femine: it said to the woman. I and a la femine refer to the same person — the woman — for Friulian makes a repetition not observed in English: i (unto her) disè (it said) a la femine (to the woman), which is to say, it said to the woman. The indirect i may mean unto him, unto her or unto it, in context.

Sichè Diu us à dit: so did God say to you. Us, meaning unto you, is a plural form. Consult: Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

The second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê is tu tu puedis; its second-person plural form is vualtris o podês. Observe: tu tu puedis mangjâ (thou mayest eat; singular); vualtris o podês mangjâ (you may eat; plural). These instances may also be expressed more simply as tu puedis mangjâ and o podês mangjâ. Negated, these become: tu no tu puedis mangjâ (or simply no tu puedis mangjâ); vualtris no podês mangjâ (or simply no podês mangjâ).

In the matter of Friulian pronunciation, care must be taken when stating how a given word is pronounced, as Friulian pronunciation is subject to considerable variation within its body of speakers. That now said, take note of how vualtris is pronounced by many speakers: /uˈatris/. There is nothing exceptional about this pronunciation. Further to this, I should like to draw the reader’s attention to the following point: whilst listening to the recordings, the reader may at times hear a single Friulian speaker pronounce a given word two different ways. Written Friulian has been standardised, but the spoken language continues to present its numerous varieties, wherefore, when reading aloud from text composed in the standard variety, the speaker in the recording may be presented with the dilemma of whether to pronounce according to his manner of Friulian, or according to the standardised manner written on the sheet before him. In this way, with certain words, he may find himself passing between the two as he reads aloud.

Versets 2-3

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), la femine (woman), il madrac (snake), podê (may), mangjâ (to eat), la pome (fruit), un arbul (tree), il zardin (garden), dome che (but), il mieç (middle), tal mieç di (in the middle of), Diu (God), (to say), vê di (to have to), mangjânt (to eat thereof), ni (nor), tocjâ (to touch), tocjânt (to touch thereof), senò (otherwise), murî (to die).

Verse 2: I* rispuindè la femine al madrac (the woman responded to the snake): +o podìn+ mangjâ (we may eat) lis pomis (the fruits) dai arbui dal zardin (of the trees of the garden). — *I here means unto it (as in unto the snake) and is expressed in combination with al madrac: i (unto it) rispuindè la femine (responded the woman) al madrac (unto the snake), which is to say, the woman responded to the snake. +O podìn is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê: o podìn (we may); o podìn mangjâ (we may eat).

Verse 3: Dome che (but) de pome (of the fruit) dal arbul (of the tree) che al è tal mieç (which is in the middle) dal zardin (of the garden), Diu al à dite (God has said): *no vês ni di mangjânt* (you are neither to eat thereof) ni di tocjânt (nor touch thereof), senò +o murirês+ (otherwise you will die). — *The verb means to have, but vê di means to have to; we find conjugated here in the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf. Consider the following: o vês; no vês (you have; you have not); o vês di; no vês di (you have to; you have not to). Taken apart: no vês ni (you have neither) di mangjânt (to eat thereof) ni di tocjânt (nor to touch thereof), which is to say, you are neither to eat thereof nor touch thereof, or you must neither eat thereof nor touch thereof. +O murirês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb murî (to die).

Versets 4-5

Vocabulary: (to say), il madrac (snake), la femine (woman), çavareâ (to rave), vêr (true), murî (to die), ma (but), Diu (God), savê (to know), la dì (day), vualtris (you), int (thereof), mangjâ (to eat), viergi (to open), viergisi (to open oneself), il voli (eye), i vuestris vôi (your eyes), come (like), il diu (god), cognossi (to know), il ben (good), il mâl (ill).

Verse 4: I disè il madrac a la femine (the snake said to the woman): çavareaiso*? (are you raving?). No je vere+ ch’o murirês: it is not true that you will die. — *The verb çavareâ (or çavariâ) means to rave, to ramble, to talk nonsense. In the presint indicatîf, its second-person plural form is o çavareais (you rave); the atonic o is shifted to the end to create its interrogative form: çavareaiso? (are you raving?). Second-person singular equivalents: tu tu çavareis (or tu tu çavariis); çavareistu? (or çavariistu?). +The Friulian for true is vêr; it is found employed here in its feminine form vere.

Verse 5: Ma Diu al sa* (but God knows) che la dì (that the day) che vualtris int mangjarês+ (when you eat [will eat] thereof), si vierzaran i vuestris vôi¬ (your eyes will open themselves) e o sarês° come i dius (and you will be like the gods), che a cognossin# il ben e il mâl (who know good and ill). — *The verb savê means to know; al sa is its masculine, third-person singular of the presint indicatîf: lui al sa (he knows); Diu al sa (God knows). +The second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ is [vualtris] o mangjarês. In Gjenesi 2:17, we read: la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, tu murarâs; in the text of the current verse, rather than ’nt, now found is int: la dì che vualtris int mangjarês. For tu ends in a vowel, it causes int to lose its initial vowel in tu ’nt mangjarâs; it is retained in vualtris int mangjarês for vualtris ends in a consonant. ¬The Friulian for eye is the masculine voli (plural voi, or vôi); as for i vuestris vôi, see: Friulian possessive adjectives; also: Parts of the human head in Friulian. °O sarês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb jessi. #A cognossin is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb cognossi.

Verset 6

La femine e viodè (the woman saw) che l’arbul al jere bon di mangjâ (that the tree was good for eating) e biel di cjalâlu (and fine to look upon) e che al jere, chest arbul, golôs cence fin (and that it was, this tree, enticing without end) par rivâ a cognossi dut (as to be able to know all). E çumà une pome (she picked a fruit) e le mangjà (and ate it). E i ’nt puartà ancje al so om (and she also bore thereof to her husband), che al jere cun jê (who was with her), e ancje lui int mangjà (and he also ate thereof).

Vocabulary: la femine (woman), viodi (to see), un arbul (tree), jessi bon (to be good), mangjâ (to eat), biel (fine), cjalâ (to look {upon}), chest (this), golôs (enticing), cence (without), la fin (end), cognossi (to know), rivâ a cognossi (to be able to know), dut (all), çumâ (to pick), la pome (fruit), int; ’nt (thereof), puartâ (to bear), ancje (also), un om (husband), cun jê (with her).

La femine e viodè: the woman saw. Consider: al viodè (he saw); l’om al viodè (the man saw); e viodè (she saw); la femine e viodè (the woman saw).

Golôs cence fin: enticing without end, the sense whereof is endlessly enticing. Supplementary examples of golôs (feminine form golose): une propueste golose (an enticing offer); une situazion golose (an enticing situation); un plât golôs (an enticing dish).

Rivâ means to arrive; when followed by a and an infinitive, the meaning is one of to be able to. Examples: rivâ a fâ (to be able to do); rivâ a cjoli (to be able to take); rivâ a cognossi dut (to be able to know all).

E çumà une pome e le mangjà: she picked a fruit and ate it. The feminine le (it) stands in for the feminine noun pome.

E i ’nt puartà ancje al so om, che al jere cun jê: and she also bore thereof to her husband, who was with her. Taken apart: e (and) i (unto him) ’nt (thereof) puartà ({she} bore) ancje (also) al so om (unto her husband) che al jere (who was) cun jê (with her).

E ancje lui int mangjà: and he also ate thereof. Taken apart: e (and) ancje (also) lui (he) int (thereof) mangjà (ate).

Verset 7

Alore si viergerin i vôi a ducj i doi (then the eyes opened themselves unto both) e si inacuargerin che a jerin crots (and they noticed that they were naked). A cusirin fueis di figâr (they sewed together fig leaves) e si faserin fassis (and made bands for themselves).

Vocabulary: alore (then), viergisi (to open oneself), il voli (eye), ducj i doi (both), doi (two), inacuargisi (to notice), crot (naked), jessi crot (to be naked), cusî (to sew {together}), la fuee (leaf), il figâr (fig tree), fâsi (to make for oneself), la fasse (band).

Encountered in this verse are four instances of the third-person plural of the passât sempliç: si viergerin (they opened themselves; from the reflexive viergisi), si inacuargerin (they noticed; from the reflexive inacuargisi), a cusirin (they sewed; from the verb cusî), si faserin (they made for themselves; from the reflexive fâsi).

Alore si viergerin i vôi a ducj i doi: then the eyes opened themselves unto both. Taken apart and literally so: alore (then) si viergerin (opened themselves) i vôi (the eyes) a ducj i doi (unto all the two). Of the masculine voli (eye), the plural is voi; the accented vôi has been preferred in the text.

The Friulian for leaf is la fuee; its plural is lis fueis. Il figâr means fig tree, whereas the Friulian for fig leaf is la fuee di figâr.

Si faserin fassis: they made bands for themselves, which is to say, they made themselves loincloths to cover their nakedness. The plural of the feminine fasse (band) is fassis.

Verset 8

A sintirin il sunsûr (they heard the noise) dal Signôr Diu (of the Lord God) che al leve pal zardin (who was going through the garden) te bueresine dal dì (in the breeze of the day) e l’om e la femine (and the man and the woman), devant dal Signôr Diu (before the Lord God), a lerin a platâsi (went to hide themselves) framieç dai arbui dal zardin (amidst the trees of the garden).

Vocabulary: sintî (to hear), il sunsûr (noise), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), lâ par (to go through), il zardin (garden), la bueresine (breeze), il dì (day), un om (man), la femine (woman), devant di (before), platâsi (to hide oneself), framieç di (amidst), un arbul (tree).

A sintirin il sunsûr: they heard the noise. A sintirin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb sintî.

Al leve pal zardin: The verb means to go. In lâ pal zardin (to go through the garden), pal is a contraction of par + il. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. Al leve (he was going) is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ.

A lerin a platâsi: they went to hide themselves. A lerin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Observe these third-person plural of the passât sempliç forms from the text of verses 7 and 8: si viergerin; si inacuargerin; a cusirin; si faserin; a sintirin; a lerin.

Versets 9-10

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), clamâ (to call), un om (man), indulà (where), dissal (he said), rispuindi (to respond), sintî (to hear), il pas (pace), il zardin (garden), il rivuart (apprehension), parcè che (for), crot (naked), lâ a platâsi (to go to hide oneself).

Verse 9: Il Signôr Diu al clamà l’om (the Lord God called the man): indulà sêstu*? (where art thou?) dissal+ (he said). — *The Friulian for thou art tu tu sês, or simply tu sês. In the interrogative, tu sês becomes sêstu, where the atonic tu is shifted to the end of the verb: indulà sêstu? (where art thou?). +Dissal is used to cite a male speaker’s words.

Verse 10: I rispuindè l’om (the man responded to him): o ai sintût* il to pas (I heard thy pace) tal zardin (in the garden) +e o ai vût rivuart+ (and I took apprehension) parcè che o soi crot (for I am naked) e o soi¬ lât a platâmi (and I went to hide myself). — *Of sintî, the past participle is sintût. +Here o ai vût takes the sense of I took or I got, rather than I had. I took apprehension is to be understood as meaning I became apprehensive. Now to say I had apprehension (meaning I was apprehensive), Friulian must instead employ o vevi rivuart. See also: Gjenesi 2:25. Of rivuart, supplementary examples: cjapilu, no sta a vê rivuart (take it, have not apprehension; or colloquially: take it, do not hold back); jentre, no sta a vê rivuart (enter, have not appehension; or colloquially: come in, do not be shy). ¬Note the use of the verb jessi as auxiliary (rather than ) in o soi lât a platâmi.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: domandâ (to ask), cui (who), (to say), crot (naked), alore (then), mangjâ (to eat), chel arbul (that tree), inibî (to bar), rispuindi (to respond), un om (man), la femine (woman), meti dongje (to put alongside), (to give), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), parcè po (why then), chel tant (such thing), il madrac (snake), imbroiâ (to deceive).

Verse 11: *I domandà* (he asked him): e cui ti aial+ dit che tu jeris crot? (and who said to thee that thou wast naked?). Alore tu âs mangjât di chel arbul (then thou hast eaten of that tree) che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ (whereof I had barred thee to eat). — *A question is asked unto a one in Friulian: i (unto him) domandà ({he} asked). +Observe: al à dit (he said; he has said); ti à dit (he said to thee; he has said to thee); aial dit (said he?; has he said?); cui ti aial dit? (who said to thee?; who has said to thee?). Aial is the interrogative form of al à, wherefore aial dit is the interrogative form of al à dit. To create the interrogative aial, the atonic al of al à is shifted to the end of the verb: al àaial. More examples: o ai mangjâtaio mangjât?; tu âs mangjâtâstu mangjât?; al à mangjâtaial mangjât?; e à mangjâtaie mangjât?

Verse 12: I rispuindè l’om (the man responded to him): e je stade la femine (it was the woman) che tu mi âs metude* dongje (whom thou hast put alongside me) che mi à dât di chel arbul (who gave to me of that tree), e jo o ai mangjât (and I ate). — *The past participle metût is in its feminine form metude to agree with the feminine noun femine.

Verse 13: Il Signôr Diu i disè a la femine (the Lord God said to the woman): parcè po âstu fat chel tant? (why then hast thou done such thing?). E la femine i rispuindè (and the woman responded to him): *al è stât il madrac* (it was the snake) che mi à imbroiade+ (which deceived me), e jo o ai mangjât (and I ate). — *In verse 12, encountered was the feminine construction e je stade la femine (it was the woman); now met with is the masculine al è stât il madrac (it was the snake). +The past participle imbroiât (deceived) is found in the text of this verse in its feminine form imbroiade, to agree with the direct object mi preceding it, which refers to the woman.

Verset 14

Alore il Signôr Diu i disè al madrac (then the Lord God said to the snake): par vie che tu âs fat chest (given that thou hast done this), tu sarâs maludît (thou wilt be cursed) fra dut il besteam (amongst all the cattle) e dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (and all the wild beasts). Tu ti strissinarâs su la panze (thou wilt shuffle thyself on thy belly) e tu varâs di passiti di pulvin (and wilt have to sate thyself of dust) par ducj i dîs (through all the days) de tô vite (of thy life).

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (the Lord God), (to say), il madrac (snake), par vie che (given that), (to do), chest (this), maludît (cursed), fra (amongst), dut (all), il besteam (cattle), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), strissinâsi (to shuffle oneself), la panze (belly), vê di (to have to), passisi (to sate oneself), il pulvin (dust), il dì (day), la vite (life).

Maludît is the past participle of the verb maludî (to curse). This verb is also expressed as maledî, with its past participle maledît.

Tu ti strissinarâs su la panze: thou wilt shuffle thyself on thy belly. Su la panze translates literally as on the belly, but, in combination with the second-person singular tu, may be read as thy belly.

The plural of il dì (day) is i dîs.

Verset 15

Jo o metarai (I shall put) in asse (into hatred) te e la femine (thee and the woman), la tô gjernazie e la sô (thy line and hers); chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf (that one will crush thy head) e tu tu cirarâs di muardii il talon (and thou wilt seek to bite its heel).

Vocabulary: meti (to put), la asse (hatred), la femine (woman), la gjernazie (line), sfracaiâ (to crush), il cjâf (head), cirî (to seek), cirî di (to seek to), muardi (to bite), il talon (heel).

O metarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb meti.

Consider the following: la tô gjernazie (thy line); la sô gjernazie (her* line); la tô gjernazie e la sô (thy line and hers). *Note that la sô gjernazie could, in a different context, also mean his line or its line. The feminine la sô is employed given that gjernazie is a feminine noun, not for it refers back to a female. Review: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf: that one will crush thy head. The feminine singular chê (that one) stands in for the feminine singular la sô gjernazie (her line). Taken apart: chê (that one) ti (unto thee) sfracaiarà (will crush) il cjâf (the head).

E tu tu cirarâs di muardii il talon: and thou wilt seek to bite its heel. Taken apart: e (and) tu tu cirarâs (thou wilt seek) di muardii (to bite unto it) il talon (the heel). Consider the following: cirî (to seek); tu tu cirarâs (thou wilt seek); tu tu cirarâs di (thou wilt seek to); tu tu cirarâs di muardi (thou wilt seek to bite); muardi il talon (to bite the heel); muardii il talon (to bite unto it the heel); e tu tu cirarâs di muardii il talon (and thou wilt seek to bite unto it the heel). The i (unto it) attached to the end of muardi (to bite) stands in for a la sô gjernazie.

Verset 16

I disè a la femine (he said to the woman): o fasarai cressi lis dois des tôs gravidancis (I shall make the pangs of thy childbearings increase); tu parturissarâs i fruts tal dolôr (thou wilt bear thy children in pain). La passion ti sburtarà de bande dal om (yearning will press thee towards thy husband) ma lui al sarà il to paron (but he will be thy ruler).

Vocabulary: (to say), la femine (woman), (to make), cressi (to increase), fâ cressi (to make increase), lis dois ({birth} pangs), la gravidance (childbearing), parturî (to bear), i fruts (children), il dolôr (pain), la passion (yearning), sburtâ (to press), la bande (side), un om (husband), ma (but), il paron (ruler).

The plural dois (standardised doiis) from the singular doe (standardised doie) refers to birth pangs. For instance, of a woman who has gone into labour, it may be said: i àn tacât lis doiis, where the verb tacâ means to start. Once in labour, so may it be said of her: e à lis doiis. If her pains endured all night, so may it be said: lis doiis a son duradis dute la gnot, where the verb durâ means to endure.

Tu parturissarâs i fruts: literally, thou wilt bear the children, where the plural definite article i may be read in context as thy.

Verset 17

Al om i disè (to the man he said): par vie che tu âs scoltade la vôs de tô femine (given that thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife), e che tu âs mangjât dal arbul che ti vevi dit (and that thou hast eaten from the tree whereof I had said to thee): no sta mangjâ (eat not), ch’e sedi maludide la tiere (let the earth be cursed) par colpe tô (by thy fault). Tu varâs di tirâti fûr la bocjade (thou wilt have to draw forth for thyself thy meat) a sun di vitis (by dint of toilings) par ducj i dîs de tô vite (through all the days of thy life).

Vocabulary: un om (man), (to say), par vie che (given that), scoltâ (to hearken), la vôs (voice), la femine (wife), mangjâ (to eat), un arbul (tree), no sta (do not), maludît (cursed), la tiere (earth), la colpe (fault), vê di (to have to), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), la bocjade (meat), lis vitis (toilings), a sun di vitis (by dint of toilings), il dì (day), la vite (life).

Par vie che tu âs scoltade la vôs de tô femine: given that thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife. The past participle scoltât has taken the feminine form scoltade to agree with the direct object la vôs de tô femine following it.

By placing no sta before an infinitive, a negated command of the second-person singular is created; for instance, no sta mangjâ means eat not; no sta scoltâ means hearken not. The Lord says: [par vie] che* tu âs mangjât dal arbul che ti vevi dit: no sta mangjâ: given that thou hast eaten of the tree whereof I had said to thee: eat not. *This che follows on from par vie che employed farther back in the verse: par vie che tu […], e che tu […].

Consider the following pairs: o ai dit; o vevi dit (I said; I had said); ti ai dit; ti vevi dit (I said to thee; I had said to thee).

Bocjade: meat, in the sense of food.

Versets 18-20

Vocabulary: butâ (to cast), dome (but), la spine (thorn), il baraç (thistle), vê di (to have to), mangjâ (to eat), la jerbe (grass), il cjamp (field), il sudôr (sweat), la muse (face), vuadagnâsi (to earn for oneself), la bocjade (meat), fin che (until), tornâ (to return), la tiere (earth), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), di li (thence), parcè che (for), il pulvin (dust), un om (man), meti (to put), il non (name), la femine (wife), la mari (mother), il vivent (living {person}).

Verse 18: Ti butarà (unto thee it will sprout [unto thee it will cast]) dome spinis e baraçs (but thorns and thistles) e tu varâs di mangjâ (and thou wilt have to eat) la jerbe dai cjamps (the grass of the fields).

Verse 19: Cul sudôr de tô muse (with the sweat of thy face) tu ti vuadagnarâs la bocjade (wilt thou earn for thyself thy meat), fin che no tu tornarâs te tiere (until thou returnest [wilt return] to the earth), *che tu sês stât tirât fûr di li* (whence thou wast drawn forth). Parcè che tu tu sês pulvin (for thou art dust) e in pulvin tu tornarâs (and into dust wilt thou return). — *Taken apart: che (that) tu sês stât (thou wast) tirât (drawn) fûr (forth) di li (thence). The employment of che and di li produce whence in English.

Verse 20: L’om i metè non a la sô femine Eve (the man put the name Eve unto his wife), parcè che e fo la mari (for she was the mother) di ducj i vivents (of all the living). — Observe: lui al fo (he was); jê e fo (she was); these are both third-person singular forms of the passât sempliç of the verb jessi (to be). Al fo and al è stât (see verse 13) may both be taken as he was or it was (the first uses the passât sempliç; the second uses the passât prossim); e fo and e je stade (see verse 12) may both be taken as she was or it was.

Versets 21-24

Vocabulary: (to make), un om (man), la femine (woman), la tonie (tunic), la piel (skin), vistî (to clothe), parie (therewith), po (then), deventâ (to become), compagn di (like), rivâ a cognossi (to be able to know), il ben (good), il mâl (ill), di chi indenant (henceforth), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), cussì (so), çumâ (to pick), un arbul (tree), la vite (life), ’nt (thereof), mangjâ (to eat), vivi (to live), par simpri (for ever), parâ fûr (to drive forth), il zardin (garden), lavorâ (to work), la tiere (earth), tirâ fûr (to draw forth), meti denant di (to put before), il cherubin (cherub), la flame (flame), la spade (sword), sfulminâ (to blaze), la vuaite (watch), il troi (path).

Verse 21: Il Signôr Diu (the Lord God) ur fasè al om e a la femine (made for the man and the woman) toniis di piel (tunics of skin) e ju vistì parie (and clothed them therewith). — Review: Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

Verse 22: Po il Signôr Diu al disè (then the Lord God said): ve che (so it is that) l’om al è deventât (man has become) compagn di nô (like us), che al rive a cognossi ({he} who is able to know) il ben e il mâl (good and ill). Di chi indenant (henceforth) che nol slungji la man (let him not extend his hand) e cussì che nol çumi dal arbul de vite (and so, that he may not pick from the tree of life), no ’nt mangji (not eat thereof) e nol vivi par simpri (and not live for ever). — Observe the following: al slungje la man; nol slungje la man (he extends his hand; he extends not his hand); che al slungji la man; che nol slungji la man (let him extend his hand; let him not extend his hand). Observe also: al çume; nol çume (he picks; he picks not); che al çumi; che nol çumi (let him pick; let him not pick).

Verse 23: E il Signôr Diu (and the Lord God) lu parà fûr (drove him forth) dal zardin dal Eden (from the garden of Eden) par che al lavoràs la tiere (that he should work the earth) *che lu veve tirât fûr di jê* (whence he had drawn him forth). — *Taken apart: che (that) lu (him) veve tirât ({he} had drawn) fûr (forth) di jê (from it). stands in for the feminine tiere. Di jê is not carried over into the English translation, as English resolves this by way of the use of whence.

Verse 24: Al parà fûr l’om (he drove the man forth) e al metè denant dal zardin dal Eden i cherubins (and put before the garden of Eden the cherubim) e la flame de spade sfulminant* (and the flame of the blazing sword), par fâ la vuaite (to make watch) al troi (over the path) dal arbul de vite (of the tree of life). — *Sfulminant (blazing) is the present participle of the verb sfulminâ.