Friulian language series: Gjenesi 3, pecjât di Adam

The third chapter of the book of Genesis tells of the serpent (il madrac) and the sin of Adam (il pecjât di Adam).

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Verset 1

Vocabulary: il madrac (snake, serpent), galiot (sly), il plui galiot (the most sly), dut (all), la bestie (beast), la tiere (earth, land), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), (to make, to do), (to say), la femine (woman), sichè (so), podê (can, may, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), un arbul (tree), il zardin (garden).

This first verse tells of the serpent: il madrac al jere il plui galiot (the serpent was the most sly) di dutis lis bestiis de tiere (of all the beasts of the earth) che il Signôr Diu al veve fatis (that the Lord God had made). Consider: al à fat (he made; he has made); al veve fat (he had made). The past participle fat takes the feminine plural form fatis here to agree in gender and number with the preceding feminine plural noun bestiis.

I disè a la femine: it said to the woman. Not only does i mean unto him, it is also means unto her. I and a la femine refer to the same person; Friulian makes a repetition: i (unto her) disè (he said) a la femine (to the woman). The serpent says: sichè Diu us à dit (so did God say to you): no podês mangjâ (you may not eat) di ducj i arbui dal zardin? (of any tree [of all the trees] of the garden?). Us, meaning unto you, is a plural form. Consult: Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

The second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê is tu tu puedis; its second-person plural form is vualtris o podês. Observe: tu tu puedis mangjâ (you can eat; you may eat; singular); vualtris o podês mangjâ (you can eat; you may eat; plural). These can also be expressed more simply as tu puedis mangjâ and o podês mangjâ. Negated, these become: tu no tu puedis (or simply no tu puedis); vualtris no podês (or simply no podês); no tu puedis mangjâ (you cannot eat; you may not eat; singular); no podês mangjâ (you cannot eat; you may not eat; plural).

Versets 2-3

Vocabulary: rispuindi (to respond), la femine (woman), il madrac (serpent, snake), podê (can, may, to be able), mangjâ (to eat), la pome (fruit), un arbul (tree), il zardin (garden), dome che (but), il mieç (middle), tal mieç di (in the middle of, in the midst of), Diu (God), (to say), vê di (must, to have to), mangjânt (to eat of it, to eat thereof), ni (nor), tocjâ (to touch), tocjânt (to touch of it, to touch thereof), senò (otherwise), murî (to die).

Verse 2: I rispuindè la femine al madrac (the woman responded to the serpent): o podìn mangjâ (we may eat) lis pomis (the fruits) dai arbui dal zardin (of the trees of the garden). I here means unto it (that is, unto the serpent) and is expressed in combination with al madrac: i (unto it) rispuindè la femine (responded the woman) al madrac (unto the serpent); that is, the woman responded to the serpent. O podìn is the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê: o podìn (we can; we may); o podìn mangjâ (we can eat; we may eat).

Verse 3: The woman continues: dome che (but) de pome (of the fruit) dal arbul (of the tree) che al è tal mieç (that is in the middle) dal zardin (of the garden), Diu al à dite (God said; God has said): no vês ni di mangjânt (you are neither to eat thereof) ni di tocjânt (nor touch thereof), senò o murirês (otherwise you will die). Vê di means must, to have to; you find the verb conjugated here in the second-person plural of the presint indicatîf. Consider the following: o vês di; no vês di (you must; you must not); o vês di mangjânt; no vês di mangjânt (you must eat of it; you must not eat of it). God’s words as reported by the woman taken literally: no vês (you have not) ni (neither) di mangjânt (to eat thereof) ni (nor) di tocjânt (to touch thereof); that is, you must neither eat thereof nor touch thereof; you must not eat of it nor touch of it; you are neither to eat thereof nor touch thereof. O murirês (you will die) is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb murî (to die). Note that the past participle dit is expressed in this verse as dite (feminine singular) to agree with pome (feminine singular) preceding it.

Versets 4-5

Vocabulary: (to say), il madrac (snake, serpent), la femine (woman), çavareâ (to ramble, to rave; also çavariâ), vêr (true), murî (to die), ma (but), Diu (God), savê (to know), la dì (day), vualtris (you), int (of it, thereof), mangjâ (to eat), vierzi (to open), vierzisi (to open oneself, to open up), il voli (eye), i vuestris vôi (your eyes), come (like, as), il diu (god), cognossi (to know), il ben (good), il mâl (bad, evil).

Verse 4: I disè il madrac a la femine: the serpent said to the woman. Çavareaiso?: what are you saying?; what are you on about? The verb çavareâ (or çavariâ) can be taken as meaning to ramble, to rave, to talk nonsense. In the presint indicatîf, its second-person plural form is o çavareais (you ramble; you rave); the atonic o is shifted to the end to create its interrogative form: çavareaiso? (are you rambling?; are you raving?). The Friulian for true is vêr; you find it used in its feminine form (vere) in what the serpent says: no je vere ch’o murirês (it is not true that you will die).

Verse 5: ma Diu al sa (but God knows) che la dì (that the day) che vualtris int mangjarês (that you eat [will eat] thereof), si vierzaran i vuestris vôi (your eyes will open [open themselves]) e o sarês come i dius (and you will be like gods), che a cognossin il ben e il mâl (who know good and bad; who know good and evil). The verb savê means to know; al sa is its masculine, third-person singular form of the presint indicatîf: lui al sa (he knows); Diu al sa (God knows). The second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ is o mangjarês: vualtris o mangjarês; o mangjarês (you will eat). In Gjenesi 2:17, you read: la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, tu murarâs; in the text of the current verse, rather than ’nt, you now find int: la dì che vualtris int mangjarês. Because tu ends in a vowel, it causes int to lose its initial vowel in tu ’nt mangjarâs; it is retained in vualtris int mangjarês because vualtris ends in a consonant. The Friulian for eye is the masculine voli (plural voi; vôi); as for i vuestris vôi, see: Friulian possessive adjectives; also: Parts of the human head in Friulian. O sarês (you will be) is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb jessi. A cognossin (they know) is the third-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb cognossi.

Verset 6

Vocabulary: la femine (woman), viodi (to see), un arbul (tree), jessi bon (to be good), mangjâ (to eat), biel (nice, fine), cjalâ (to look), chest (this), golôs (enticing, appetising), cence fin (endlessly), cognossi (to know), rivâ a cognossi (to come to know, to manage to know), dut (all), çumâ (to pick, to pluck), la pome (fruit), int, ’nt (of it, thereof), puartâ (to bring, to take), ancje (also, too, as well), un om (man, husband), cun jê (with her).

La femine e viodè che l’arbul al jere bon di mangjâ: the woman saw that the tree was good for eating. Observe: al viodè (he saw); l’om al viodè (the man saw); e viodè (she saw); la femine e viodè (the woman saw). The text continues: e biel di cjalâlu (and fine to look upon [look upon it]) e che al jere (and that it was), chest arbul (this tree), golôs cence fin (endlessly appetising) par rivâ a cognossi dut ([as a way] to come to know all). The feminine fin means end, and cence means without; taken literally, cence fin translates as without end. Rivâ means to arrive, to come; when followed by a and an infinitive, it takes on the sense of to come to, to manage to, to succeed in. Supplementary examples of golôs (its feminine form is golose): une propueste golose (an enticing proposition); une situazion golose (an enticing situation); un plât golôs (an appetising dish).

E çumà une pome e le mangjà: she picked a fruit and ate it. The feminine le (it) stands in for the feminine noun pome. E i ’nt puartà ancje al so om, che al jere cun jê: and she also brought of it to her husband, who was with her; taken literally: e (and) i (unto him) ’nt (of it) puartà ([she] brought) ancje (also) al so om (unto her husband) che al jere (who was) cun jê (with her). E ancje lui int mangjà: and he too ate of it; taken literally: e (and) ancje lui (he too) int (of it) mangjà ([he] ate).

Verset 7

Vocabulary: alore (then), viergisi (to open oneself, to open up; also vierzisi), il voli (eye), i ducj i doi (both of them), inacuargisi (to notice, to realise; also inacuarzisi), jessi crot (to be naked), cusî (to sew), la fuee (leaf), il figâr (fig tree), fâsi (to make [for] oneself), la fasse (band).

In the text of this verse, you encounter four instances of the third-person plural of the passât sempliç: si viergerin (they opened up; from the reflexive viergisi [standardised as vierzisi]), si inacuargerin (they noticed; from the reflexive inacuargisi [standardised as inacuarzisi]), a cusirin (they sewed; from the verb cusî), si faserin (they made themselves; from the reflexive fâsi).

Alore si viergerin i vôi a ducj i doi: then they eyes of both of them opened; taken literally: alore (then) si viergerin (opened themselves) i vôi (the eyes) a ducj i doi (unto both of them [unto all the two]). The plural of the masculine voli (eye) is voi (the accented vôi has been preferred in the text). Si inacuargerin che a jerin crots: they noticed that they were naked. A cusirin fueis di figâr: they sewed (together) fig leaves. The Friulian for leaf is la fuee; its plural is lis fueis. A fig tree is called un figâr; une fuee di figâr is a fig leaf. Si faserin fassis: they made themselves bands; that is, they made loincloths for themselves to cover their nakedness. The plural of the feminine fasse (band) is fassis.

Verset 8

Vocabulary: sintî (to hear), il sunsûr (sound), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), lâ par (to walk [go] through), il zardin (garden), la bueresine (breeze), il dì (day), un om (man), la femine (woman), devant di (before, in front of), platâsi (to hide oneself), framieç di (amongst, between), un arbul (tree).

A sintirin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb sintî. You read: a sintirin (they heard) il sunsûr dal Signôr Diu (the sound of the Lord God) che al leve pal zardin (who was walking [going] through the garden) te bueresine dal dì (in the breeze of the day). means to go; lâ pal zardin is to be understood as to walk [go] through the garden, where pal is a contraction of par + il. Review: Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article. Al leve (it was going; he was going) is the masculine, third-person singular of the imperfet indicatîf of the verb lâ.

The text of this verse continues: e l’om e la femine (and the man and woman), devant dal Signôr Diu (from [before] the Lord God), a lerin a platâsi (went to hide themselves) framieç dai arbui dal zardin (amongst the trees of the garden). Devant di (or denant di) means before, in front of; platâsi devant di is to be taken as meaning to hide from (literally, to hide before). Lâ a platâsi means to go hide oneself. A lerin a platâsi: they went to hide (hide themselves); a lerin is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb lâ. Observe these third-person plural of the passât sempliç forms from the text: si viergerin; si inacuargerin; a cusirin; si faserin; a sintirin; a lerin.

Versets 9-10

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), clamâ (to call), un om (man), indulà (where), dissal (he said), rispuindi (to respond), sintî (to hear), il pas (step, footstep), il zardin (garden), vê rivuart (to become concerned, to draw back, to pull away), parcè che (because), crot (naked), lâ a platâsi (to go hide oneself).

Verse 9: Il Signôr Diu al clamà l’om: the Lord God called the man. The Friulian for you are in the second-person singular is tu tu sês. In the interrogative, tu sês becomes sêstu, where the atonic tu is shifted to the end of the verb. Indulà sêstu?, dissal: where are you?, he said. Dissal is used to cite a male speaker’s words; the feminine form is dissè.

Verse 10: I rispuindè l’om: the man responded to him. The past participle of the verb sintî is sintût; the man says: o ai sintût (I heard) il to pas (your walking [your (foot)step]) tal zardin (in the garden) e o ai vût rivuart (and I drew back [took concern]) parcè che o soi crot (because I am naked) e o soi lât a platâmi (and I went to hide [hide myself]). Rivuart can be taken in the sense of concern in the context of this verse; supplementary examples of it: cjapilu, no sta a vê rivuart (take it, do not hold back); jentre, no sta a vê rivuart (come in, do not be shy). Note the use of the verb jessi as auxiliary (rather than ) in o soi lât a platâmi.

Versets 11-13

Vocabulary: domandâ (to ask), cui (who), (to say), crot (naked), alore (so, then), mangjâ (to eat), chel arbul (that tree), inibî (to forbid), rispuindi (to respond), un om (man), la femine (woman), meti dongje (to put alongside), (to give), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), parcè po (why then, why ever), chel tant (such thing), il madrac (serpent, snake), imbroiâ (to deceive, to trick).

Verse 11: I domandà: he asked (unto) him; a question is asked unto a person in Friulian. The Lord asks: e cui ti aial dit che tu jeris crot? (and who told you [said to you] that you were naked?). Observe: al à dit (he said; he has said); ti à dit (he said to you; he has said to you); aial dit (said he?; has he said?); cui ti aial dit? (who said to you?; who has said to you?); aial is the interrogative form of al à; aial dit, then, is the interrogative form of al à dit. To create the interrogative aial, the atonic al of al à is shifted to the end of the verb: al àaial. More examples: o ai mangjâtaio mangjât?; tu âs mangjâtâstu mangjât?; al à mangjâtaial mangjât?; e à mangjâtaie mangjât? The Lord God continues: alore tu âs mangjât di chel arbul che ti vevi inibît di mangjâ (you have eaten then of the tree from which I had forbidden you to eat); taken literally: alore (then) tu âs mangjât (you have eaten) di chel arbul (of that tree) che ti vevi inibît ([from] which I had forbidden unto you) di mangjâ (to eat).

Verse 12: I rispuindè l’om: the man responded to him. The man says to the Lord: e je stade la femine (it was the woman) che tu mi âs metude dongje (whom you put alongside me [whom unto me you put alongside]) che mi à dât di chel arbul (who gave to me of that tree), e jo o ai mangjât (and I ate).

Verse 13: The Lord asks the woman: parcè po âstu fat chel tant? (why ever did you do such a thing?). She says: al è stât il madrac (it was the serpent) che mi à imbroiade (that deceived me), e jo o ai mangjât (and I ate). In verse 12, you encountered the feminine construction e je stade la femine (it was the woman); you now meet with the masculine al è stât il madrac (it was the serpent). The past participle imbroiât (deceived, tricked) is found in the text of this verse in its feminine form imbroiade, to agree with the direct object mi preceding it, which refers to the woman.

Verset 14

Vocabulary: alore (then), il Signôr Diu (Lord God), (to say), il madrac (serpent, snake), par vie che (given that, because), (to do, to make), chest (this), maludît (cursed, damned), fra (amongst), dut (all), il besteam (cattle, livestock), la bestie (beast), salvadi (wild), la bestie salvadie (wild beast), strissinâsi (to slither), la panze (belly), vê di (must, to have to), passisi (to sate oneself), il pulvin (dust), il dì (day), la vite (life).

The Lord addresses the serpent: par vie che tu âs fat chest (because you have done this), tu sarâs maludît (you shall be cursed) fra dut il besteam (amongst all the cattle) e dutis lis bestiis salvadiis (and all the wild beasts). The verb maledî means to curse, to damn; you find the variant maludî in the text of this verse. The past participle of maledî is maledît; of maludî, it is maludît. Both maledît and maludît can be used as adjectives meaning cursed, damned.

Tu ti strissinarâs su la panze: you shall slither on your belly. You find the expression vê di (must, to have to) in the following: e tu varâs di passiti (and you shall have to sate yourself) di pulvin (of dust) par ducj i dîs (for all the days) de tô vite (of your life). Consider the following: tu âs di fâ (you have to do; you must do; you are to do); tu varâs di fâ (you will have to do). Note the plural of il dì (day): i dîs.

Verset 15

Vocabulary: meti (to put, to place), la asse (hatred, enmity, animosity), meti in asse (to put into [a state of] enmity), la femine (woman), la gjernazie (offspring), sfracaiâ (to crush), il cjâf (head), cirî (to seek), cirî di (to seek to, to try to), muardi (to bite), il talon (heel).

Meti in asse translates literally as to put into (a state of) enmity; it can be taken as meaning to put enmity between. O metarai is the first-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb meti. The Lord says: jo o metarai (I shall put) in asse (into [a state of] enmity) te e la femine (you and the woman), la tô gjernazie e la sô (your offspring and hers); that is, I shall put enmity between you and the woman (and between) your offspring and hers. Consider the following: la tô gjernazie (your offspring); la sô gjernazie (her offspring); la tô gjernazie e la sô (your offspring and hers). Note that la sô gjernazie could, in a different context, also mean his offspring or its offspring. Review: Friulian possessive adjectives.

Chê ti sfracaiarà il cjâf: it shall crush your head (that one shall crush the head unto you); the feminine chê stands in for la sô gjernazie (her offspring). Tu tu cirarâs di muardii il talon: you shall seek to bite its heel (you shall seek to bite the heel unto it). Consider the following: cirî (to seek); tu tu cirarâs (to shall seek); tu tu cirarâs di (you shall seek to); tu tu cirarâs di muardi (you shall seek to bite); muardi il talon (to bite the heel); muardii il talon (to bite unto it the heel); tu tu cirarâs di muardii il talon (you shall seek to bite unto it the heel; that is, you shall seek to bite its heel). The i (unto it) attached to the end of muardi (to bite) stands in for a la sô gjernazie.

Verset 16

Vocabulary: (to say), la femine (woman), (to make, to do), cressi (to grow, to increase), fâ cressi (to make grow, to cause to increase), lis dois (labour pains, birth pangs, contractions; also doiis), la gravidance (pregnancy, childbearing), parturî (to bear), il frut (child), il dolôr (pain), la passion (desire, longing), sburtâ (to push, to drive), la bande (side), de bande di (towards), un om (husband), ma (but), il paron (master, ruler).

The Lord now addresses the woman: o fasarai cressi (I shall increase [I shall make increase]) lis dois (the pangs) des tôs gravidancis (of your childbearing[s]), tu parturissarâs i fruts (you shall bear children) tal dolôr (in pain). The plural dois (standardised as doiis) from the singular doe (pang, pain; standardised as doie) refers to birth pangs; supplementary examples: e à lis doiis (she is in labour); lis doiis a son duradis dute la gnot (the contractions lasted all night); i àn tacât lis doiis (her contractions have begun [the contractions have begun unto her]).

The Lord continues: la passion ti sburtarà (desire shall drive [push] you) de bande dal om (unto [towards] your husband) ma lui al sarà il to paron (but he shall be your master).

Verset 17

Vocabulary: un om (man), (to say), par vie che (given that, because), scoltâ (to listen, to heed), la vôs (voice), la femine (wife), mangjâ (to eat), un arbul (tree), no sta (do not), maludît (cursed, damned), la tiere (earth, ground), la colpe (fault), par colpe tô (on account of you, because of you), vê di (must, to have to), tirâ fûr (to obtain), la bocjade (daily bread), a sun di (by dint of, by means of), lis vitis (toil, hardships), il dì (day), la vite (life).

The Lord now addresses the man: par vie che tu âs scoltade la vôs de tô femine (because you heeded the voice of your wife); the past participle scoltât has taken the feminine form scoltade to agree with the direct object la vôs de tô femine.

By placing no sta before an infinitive, a negated command of the second-person singular is created; for example, no sta mangjâ means do not eat; no sta scoltâ means do not listen, do not heed. The Lord continues: [par vie] che tu âs mangjât dal arbul che ti vevi dit: no sta mangjâ (because you ate of the tree about which I had said to you: do not eat). Consider the following pairs: o ai dit; o vevi dit (I said; I had said); ti ai dit; ti vevi dit (I said to you; I had said to you).

Ch’e sedi maludide la tiere par colpe tô: may the ground be cursed because of you (by your fault). The punishment continues: tu varâs di tirâti fûr (you shall have to obtain for yourself) la bocjade (your [the] daily bread) a sun di vitis (by dint of toil) par ducj i dîs de tô vite (for all the days of your life); that is, you shall have to obtain your daily bread by toil for all the days of your life.

Versets 18-20

Vocabulary: butâ (to sprout, to produce), dome (only), la spine (thorn), il baraç (thistle), vê di (must, to have to), mangjâ (to eat), la jerbe (grass), il cjamp (field), il sudôr (sweat), la muse (face), vuadagnâ (to earn), vuadagnâsi (to earn for oneself), la bocjade (daily bread), fin che (until), tornâ (to return, to go back), la tiere (earth, ground), tirâ fûr (to take out), di li (from there), parcè che (because, for), il pulvin (dust), un om (man), meti (to put), il non (name), meti non (to name), la femine (wife), la mari (mother), il vivent (living person, one who lives).

Verse 18: Ti butarà (it shall sprout for you [unto you]) dome spinis e baraçs (only thorns and thistles) e tu varâs di mangjâ (and you shall have to eat) la jerbe dai cjamps (the grass of the fields).

Verse 19: Cul sudôr de tô muse (by [with] the sweat of your face) tu ti vuadagnarâs la bocjade (shall you earn your daily bread [you shall earn for yourself the daily bread]), fin che no tu tornarâs te tiere (until you return [will return] to the ground), che tu sês stât tirât fûr di li (out of which you were taken [that you were taken out from there]). Note the use of no in fin che no tu tornarâs (until you return). Parcè che tu tu sês pulvin e in pulvin tu tornarâs: for you are dust and to dust (in dust) you shall return.

Verse 20: L’om (the man) i metè non a la sô femine Eve (named his wife Eve [put unto his wife (the) name Eve]), parcè che e fo la mari (because she was the mother) di ducj i vivents (of all the living). Observe: lui al fo (he was); jê e fo (she was); these are both third-person singular forms of the passât sempliç of the verb jessi (to be). Al fo and al è stât (see verse 13) can both be taken as he was or it was (the first uses the passât sempliç; the second uses the passât prossim); e fo and e je stade (see verse 12) can both be taken as she was or it was.

Versets 21-24

Vocabulary: il Signôr Diu (Lord God), (to make, to do), un om (man), la femine (woman), la tonie (tunic), la piel (skin), vistî (to clothe, to dress), parie (likewise), po (then), ve che (now it is that, thus it is that), deventâ (to become), compagn di (just like, identical to), rivâ a (to come to, to manage to), cognossi (to know), il ben (good), il mâl (bad, evil), di chi indenant (henceforth, from now on), slungjâ (to extend), la man (hand), cussì (thus, so), çumâ (to pick, to pluck), un arbul (tree), la vite (life), ’nt (of it, thereof), mangjâ (to eat), vivi (to live), par simpri (forever), parâ fûr (to drive out), il zardin (garden), par che (in order that, so that), lavorâ la tiere (to till [work] the ground), tirâ fûr (to take out), meti denant di (to place before), il cherubin (cherub), la flame (flame), la spade (sword), sfulminâ (to flash), la vuaite (guard, watch), fâ la vuaite (to keep watch), il troi (path, way).

Verse 21: Il Signôr Diu (the Lord God) ur fasè al om e a la femine (made for [unto] the man and woman) toniis di piel (tunics of skin) e ju vistì parie (and clothed them likewise). Review: Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

Verse 22: The Lord says: ve che (thus it is that) l’om al è deventât (man has become) compagn di nô (identical to us), che al rive a cognossi (capable of knowing [who comes to know]) il ben e il mâl (good and bad; good and evil). He continues: di chi indenant (henceforth) che nol slungji la man (may he not extend his hand) e cussì (and thus) che nol çumi dal arbul de vite (may he not take [pick] from the tree of life), no ’nt mangji ([may he] not eat thereof) e nol vivi par simpri (and [may he] not live forever). Observe the following: al slungje la man; nol slungje la man (he extends his hand; he does not extend his hand); che al slungji la man; che nol slungji la man (may he extend his hand; may he not extend his hand). Observe also: al çume; nol çume (he picks; he does not pick); che al çumi; che nol çumi (may he pick; may he not pick).

Verse 23: E il Signôr Diu (and the Lord God) lu parà fûr (drove him out) dal zardin dal Eden (of the garden of Eden) par che al lavoràs la tiere (in order that he till [was working] the ground) che lu veve tirât fûr di jê (out of which he had taken him [that he had taken him out of it]). In fûr di jê (out of it), stands in for the feminine tiere. Observe the following: al lavore; par che al lavori (he works; in order that he works); al lavorave; par che al lavoràs (he was working; in order that he was working).

Verse 24: Al parà fûr l’om (he drove the man out) e al metè denant dal zardin dal Eden (and he put before the garden of Eden) i cherubins (the cherubim) e la flame de spade sfulminant (and the flame of the flashing sword), par fâ la vuaite (in order to keep watch) al troi (over the way) dal arbul de vite (to [of] the tree of life). Sfulminant (flashing) is the present participle of the verb sfulminâ.