Friulian language series: Gjenesi 3:1-7, pecjât di Adam

This post continues your study of the Friulian language as used in the book of Genesis. You will now examine verses 1-7 of the third chapter, where the subject of il pecjât di Adam (sin of Adam) begins. All three posts pertaining to chapter 3 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 3:1-7

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 3:1-7. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 1

The masculine noun il madrac means serpent, snake. In this verse, you read that the madrac was not only galiot (conniving, sly), but il plui galiot (the most conniving, the most sly).

il madrac al jere galiot
the serpent was conniving

il plui galiot di dutis lis bestiis
the most conniving of all the beasts

You will recall the meaning of al veve fat:

al à fat
al veve fat
he made
he had made

In this verse, you see that the past participle fat agrees in gender and number with the preceding bestiis:

dutis lis bestiis che al veve fatis
all the beasts that he had made

You have already seen that i is used to express the English to him; in this verse, it is used to express to her:

i disè a la femine
it said to the woman

I and a la femine both refer to the same person: the woman. You have seen this sort of repetition before; in Gjenesi 2:21, you read i fasè vignî al om, where i and al om both refer to the man.

Sichè means so, then, therefore. In Diu us à dit, us means to you (plural). Dit is the past participle of the verb (to say).

Diu us à dit
God said to you (plural)

Do not confuse us (to you) with the recently seen ur (to them) in Gjenesi 2:19:

par che ur metès un non
so that he put a name unto them

Gjesù ur disè (Luche 20:8)
Jesus said unto them

Consult an overview of Friulian direct and indirect object pronouns.

You will recall the second-person singular of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê (can, to be able):

tu puedis
you can

tu puedis mangjâ
you can eat

Its second-person plural form is:

o podês
you can

o podês mangjâ
you can eat

Negated, these become:

no tu puedis
no podês

no tu puedis mangjâ
no podês mangjâ

Verset 2

The verb rispuindi means to respond.

i rispuindè la femine al madrac
the woman responded to the serpent

In the above, i means to it (that is, to the snake) and is expressed in combination with al madrac.

You now encounter the first-person plural of the presint indicatîf of the verb podê:

o podìn
we can

o podìn mangjâ
we can eat

You have already seen the feminine noun la pome, meaning fruit. You first encountered it in Gjenesi 1:12.

Verset 3

Dome che means but. You will recall that tal mieç di means in the middle of.

dome che de pome dal arbul
but of the fruit of the tree

che al è tal mieç dal zardin
that is in the middle of the garden

You will also recall the expression vê di, meaning must, to have to; in this verse, you find the verb conjugated in the second-person plural, presint indicatîf:

o vês di
no vês di

you must
you must not

o vês di mangjânt
no vês di mangjânt
you must eat of it
you must not eat of it

Not only do you find nt (meaning of it) attached to the infinitive mangjâ, you also find it attached to tocjâ (to touch):


You first encountered mangjânt in Gjenesi 2:17, where you read no tu âs di mangjânt (you must not eat of it), where the second-person singular was used instead.

Ni… ni means neither… nor.

no vês ni di mangjânt ni di tocjânt
you must neither eat of it nor touch of it

Senò means otherwise.

senò o murirês
otherwise you will die

You will have guessed that o murirês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb murî (to die).

Verset 4

Compare the beginning of this verse with the wording that you saw in the second verse above:

i disè il madrac a la femine
the snake said to the woman

i rispuindè la femine al madrac
the woman responded to the serpent

You see that a la femine (to the woman) and al madrac (to the serpent) are coupled with the use of i, meaning to her (in the first example) and to him (in the second).

The verb çavareâ (or çavariâ) means to rave, to go mad. In the presint indicatîf, its second-person plural form is o çavareais (you are raving). To transform o çavareais into its interrogative form, the atonic o is shifted to the end of the verb:

are you raving?

The adjective vêr means true; its feminine form is vere.

no je vere ch’o murirês
it is not true that you will die

Note the use of the feminine in no je vere che. E je vere che (it is true that) and no je vere che (it is not true that) can be used to make an objection.

Verset 5

The verb savê means to know; al sa is its masculine, third-person singular presint indicatîf form.

Diu al sa che
God knows that

You have encountered la dì che before; you will recall that it means the day that.

The second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ is o mangjarês.

vualtris o mangjarês
o mangjarês
you will eat

From verse 17, you will recall the following text:

la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs, tu murarâs
the day that you will eat of it, you will die

In the current verse now, rather than ’nt, you find its full form int:

la dì che vualtris int mangjarês
the day that you will eat of it

tu ’nt mangjarâs
vualtris int mangjarês

Tu ends in a vowel, which has caused int to lose its initial vowel sound.

The verb vierzi (or viergi) means to open (something). The reflexive vierzisi means to open oneself; si vierzaran (they will open themselves) is its third-person plural futûr sempliç form. The masculine il voli means eye; its plural form is i vôi.

si vierzaran i vuestris vôi
your eyes will open themselves

Review Friulian possessive adjectives.

You may also wish to consult this overview of names of parts of the human head in Friulian, such as the words for eye, mouth, nose, etc.

O sarês is the second-person plural of the futûr sempliç of the verb jessi.

o sarês come i dius
you will be like the gods

The verb cognossi means to know, to be acquainted with; a cognossin is its third-person plural presint indicatîf form.

a cognossin il ben e il mâl
they know good and evil

Verset 6

Recall that the verb viodi means to see.

la femine e viodè
the woman saw

You have already encountered the wording bon di mangjâ; more precisely, you encountered it under the form bogns di mangjâ in Gjenesi 2:9.

The verb cjalâ means to look at; cjalâlu, then, means to look at it.

biel di cjalâlu
nice to look at it

The adjective golôs can be understood here as meaning enticing or even appetising. Cence fin translates as without end, endlessly. The literal meaning of the verb rivâ is to arrive, but it can take on the meaning of to manage (to do), to succeed (in doing) when followed by a and an infinitive.

l’arbul al jere
the tree was

golôs cence fin
endlessly enticing
endlessly appetising

par rivâ a cognossi dut
(as a way) to come to know all

More examples of golôs (its feminine form is golose): une propueste golose (an enticing proposition), une situazion golose (an enticing [attractive] situation), un plât golôs (an appetising dish).

Another new verb encountered in this verse is çumâ, which, in reference to fruits on a plant, means to pick.

çumâ une pome
to pick a fruit

You will have recognised the le in le mangjà as meaning it, standing in for the feminine pome.

You saw the verb puartâ in the sense of to bear, to carry, when you read in verse 19 of the second chapter that each animal would bear the name given to it by the man: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non che l’om i varès metût. In this verse, you can understand puartâ as meaning to bring, to take.

You have more examples of ’nt and int now:

i ’nt puartà ancje al so om
she also brought of it to her husband
(literally, to him of it [she] brought also to her husband)

ancje lui int mangjà
he also ate of it
(literally, also him of it ate)

You read that the man was with the woman: al jere cun jê (he was with her).

Verset 7

By this point, you have seen many examples of the passât sempliç in the third-person singular. In this verse, you will encounter four examples using the third-person plural instead.

The first example is si viergerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the reflexive verb vierzisi (to open onseself).

alore si viergerin i vôi a ducj i doi
thus both their eyes opened
(literally, thus opened themselves the eyes unto all the two)

Recall that ducj i doi means both (literally, all the two).

The second example is si inacuargerin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the reflexive verb inacuarzisi (to realise, to notice).

si inacuargerin che a jerin crots
they noticed that they were naked

The third example is a cusirin, which is the third-person plural of the passât sempliç of the verb cusî (to sew).

a cusirin fueis di figâr
they sewed (together) fig tree leaves

The Friulian word for leaf is la fuee; its plural form is lis fueis. Un figâr is a fig tree.

The fourth example is si faserin, which is the third-person plural, passât sempliç of the reflexive verb fâsi (to make oneself).

si faserin fassis
they made themselves bands

The Friulian noun la fasse means band, in the sense of a strip used as a cover; its plural form is lis fassis.

Continue your study of chapter 3 of the book of Genesis. There are three parts in total.