Friulian language series: Gjenesi 2:15-25, paradîs dal Eden

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through verses from the Bible by examining Gjenesi 2:15-25; that is, verses 15-25 of the second chapter of the book of Genesis, which are the final verses of the chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 2 can be found here. The text of the Bible that you will read is made available by Glesie Furlane, in Bibie par un popul.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here (Gjenesi 1).

Before you begin your study, you will need to access the text of the verses in Friulian; you can do so by following one of the links below, which will take you to the Bibie par un popul site:

Should the page linked above ever become unavailable, you will find an archived version of the text here.

The reading of these verses in the video starts at 1:39.

Verset 15

You will recall the verb cjapâ means to take. The verb sistemâ translates as to place.

In this verse, you encounter once again the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet conjugations al fasès and al lavoràs, following the use of par che (so that). You first encountered them in the post pertaining to Gjenesi 2:4-14.

al lavore
par che al lavori
par che al lavoràs
he works
so that he works
so that he worked

al fâs
par che al fasi
par che al fasès
he does
so that he does
so that he did

You have an example of lu in lu sistemà (he placed him), where lu stands in for l’om. You have another example in par che lu lavoràs (so that he worked it); here, lu stands in for il zardin. You will remember that the atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu.

Diu al cjapà
Diu lu cjapà
God took
God took him

Il vuardian is a guardian, custodian. The expression fâ di vuardian means to act as guardian, custodian. The sense here is to take care of.

Verset 16

The verb precetâ means to order, to command.

In this verse, you encounter for the first time the verb podê, meaning can, to be able.

tu tu puedis
you can
you are able

tu tu puedis mangjâ
you can eat
you are able to eat

In the same way that, for example, lui al è can be expressed simply as al è, tu tu puedis can be expressed simply as tu puedis. In tu tu puedis, the tonic first tu is optional, but the atonic second tu is mandatory.

mangjâ di ducj i arbui
to eat from all the trees

You will recall that the masculine l’arbul (tree) forms its plural as i arbui.

Can you say the following in Friulian?

  1. all the houses
  2. all the kingdoms
  3. all the trees
  4. all the waters
  5. all month
  6. all evening

Here are the answers:

  1. dutis lis cjasis
  2. ducj i reams
  3. ducj i arbui
  4. dutis lis aghis
  5. dut il mês
  6. dute la sere

Verset 17

You will remember that l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

The expression vê di means must, to have to.

al à di mangjâ
he has to eat
he must eat

tu âs di mangjâ
you have to eat
you must eat

You may wish to review the present indicative of the Friulian verb .

Negated, the last pair of examples above becomes:

nol à di mangjâ
he must not eat

no tu âs di mangjâ
you must not eat

If the formation of these negations is unclear to you, I encourage you to follow the link provided above pointing to the review of the present indicative of vê.

In this verse, you do not find no tu âs di mangjâ; instead, you find no tu âs di mangjânt. The nt ending means of it. No tu âs di mangjânt, then, means you must not eat of it. You will encounter another example of this in a moment.

The text follows with parcè che la dì che, which means because the day that. Day is expressed as here, used as a feminine noun. can be found in both the masculine and feminine; for example, the first day can be expressed as il prin dì, la prime dì or la prime zornade.

Tu mangjarâs (you will eat) is the second-person singular, futûr sempliç conjugation of the verb mangjâ. Tu murarâs (you will die) is the same conjugation of the verb murî (to die).

In the text, you find tu ’nt mangjarâs. As above, ’nt means of it.

parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs
because the day that you will eat of it

no tu âs di mangjânt
you must not eat of it

You see from the two examples above that ’nt is placed before the conjugated verb, but attached to the end of the infinitive.

Verset 18

Nol è ben means it is not good. Dibessôl translates as on one’s own. You will have recognised the use of the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi in che l’om al sedi.

nol è ben
it is not good

che l’om al sedi dibessôl
that the man be on his own

The verb tocjâ literally means to touch.

al tocje
he touches

In addition to the sense of to touch, this verb can also be used in the sense of must. In this verse, mi tocje dâ means I must give.

mi tocje dâ
I must give
(literally, it touches to me to give)

ti tocje studiâ
you must study
(literally, it touches to you to study)

The text, in fact, reads mi tocje dâi un jutori. Dâi means to give to him, where i (to him) has been attached to the infinitive (to give). Un jutori means helper.

mi tocje dâi un jutori
I must give him a helper
(literally, I must give to him a helper)

You can understand mi tocje dâi un jutori che al sedi il so spieli as meaning I must give him a helper who may be his same. The masculine noun il spieli, in a literal sense, means mirror. If you must review the meaning of il so, consult this summary of Friulian possessive adjectives.

Verset 19

In this verse, dust is expressed as il pulvin. Simpri means still.

You will recall the meaning of ju in the following:

ju menà denant dal om
he led them before the man

The verb to lead, or to bring, is expressed here as menâ. The expression denant di means before, in front of.

denant dal om
in front of the man
before the man

denant de cjase
in front of the house
before the house

In this verse, you encounter ur. Ur means to them (indirect object); this is distinct from ju, which means them (direct object).

Diu ju menà
God led them

Gjesù ur disè (Luche 20:8)
Jesus said to them

God led the beasts before the man so that he could put a name to them: par che ur metès un non. In other words, God brought the animals to the man so that the man could name them. You will perhaps have recognised the use of the coniuntîf imperfet here; the verb in question is meti (to put).

al met
par che al meti
par che al metès
he puts
so that he puts
so that he put (past time)

par che ur metès un non
so that he put a name to them
(that is, so that he named them)

Turn your attention now to the last part of this verse: ognidun means each one (that is, each animal); the verb puartâ translates as to bear, to carry; and to it is expressed by i.

ognidun al varès vût di puartâ
each one would have had to bear

il non che l’om i varès metût
the name that the man would have put to it

Vût is the past participle of the verb vê. In al varès vût di puartâ, you have the expression vê di, which you will recall means must, to have to:

vê di puartâ
al à vût di puartâ
to have to bear
he had to bear

Al varès is the third-person singular, condizionâl presint conjugation of the verb vê.

al à
al varès
he has
he would have

In this verse, you encounter the condizionâl passât (second example in the first three pairs below):

al à vût
al varès vût
he had
he would have had

al à metût
al varès metût
he put
he would have put

al à vût di puartâ
al varès vût di puartâ
he had to bear
he would have had to bear

ognidun al varès vût di puartâ
each one would have had to bear

il non che l’om i varès metût
the name that the man would have put to it

In other words, each animal would bear the name that the man decided each would be called: ognidun al varès vût di puartâ il non che l’om i varès metût.

Verset 20

You have another example of ur in this verse:

l’om ur metè i nons
the man put the names to them
(that is, the man named them)

Pal is a contraction of par and the masculine definite article. Pal om, then, means for the man. You may wish to review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

You will recall that cjatâsi means to be found; it translates literally as to find oneself.

no si cjatà un jutori
a helper was not found

Al fos is in the same tense as al metès, al fasès, al lavoràs: it is the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf imperfet conjugation of the verb jessi.


no si cjate un jutori che al sedi il so spieli (present time)
no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli (past time)

Verset 21

You again encounter the use of i in this verse; it means to him (that is, to the man). Despite the presence of al om here, i has still been expressed:

i fasè vignî al om une sium
he made sleep come to the man
(literally, to him he made come to the man a sleep)

The sleep was so heavy, or tant grande, that the man fell asleep: s’indurmidì.

The adjective grant literally means big. Here are its four forms: grant (masculine singular), grande (feminine singular), grancj (masculine plural), grandis (feminine plural).

une sium tant grande che
a sleep so big that
(that is, such heavy sleep that)

The reflexive verb indurmidîsi means to fall asleep. You find it used here in the third-person singular, passât sempliç: s’indurmidì (he fell asleep).

The verb gjavâ means to take out, to remove. The Friulian word for rib is une cueste.

i gjavà une cueste
he removed from him a rib

In the sentence above, i serves the same function as to him seen elsewhere, but English expresses it here instead as from him. In the phrase une cueste des sôs (a rib of his), you will have understood that des sôs means of his, where des is a contraction of di + lis. The feminine plural lis sôs is used because it refers to lis cuestis.

The verb sierâ means to close (up); the Friulian word for flesh is la cjar. The masculine noun il puest means place, spot.

sierâ la cjar tal so puest
to close up the flesh in its place

More precisely, the text reads:

al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest
he closed the flesh back up in its place

The verb tornâ can be used to convey what English does with back, again or with re prefixed to a verb: tornâ a sierâ (to close back up, to “reclose” up). More examples of this:

tornâ a considerâ
to consider
to reconsider

tornâ a doprâ
to use
to reuse, to use again

Verset 22

Po means then. The expression tirâ vie means to remove, to take out; it is synonymous with gjavâ seen in the last verse.

al à tirât vie
al veve tirât vie
he removed
he had removed

che i veve tirât vie al om
that he had removed from the man

As seen before, i in the example above can be understood as meaning from him; despite the inclusion of al om, i has still been expressed. Al om literally translates as to the man, but English expresses it here as from the man.

With the rib, God made a woman: al fasè une femine. He brought her before the man: le menà denant dal om. Le means her; it stands in for la femine.

Verset 23

Near the beginning of this verse, chel refers to the man; you can simply understand it as meaning he, or perhaps better as the latter because it refers directly to l’om mentioned at the end of verse 22. Chel literally means that (one).

Cheste volte means this time. You can understand the entire phrase cheste volte mo sì che as meaning this time it is indeed that, now it is indeed that.

The Friulian word for bone is il vues; its plural form is i vues.

e je vues dai miei vues
she is bone of my bones

e je cjar de mê cjar
she is flesh of my flesh

In the text, you find the accented il vuès in the singular, and the non-accented i vues in the plural; this reflects a difference in pronunciation observed by some speakers between the singular and plural forms. In standardised spelling, both the singular and plural are written vues.

The verb clamâ means to call; the reflexive clamâsi, then, means to be called (literally, to call oneself).

mi clami Roberto
I am called Roberto

si clame Aldo
he is called Aldo

si clame femine
si clamarà femine
she is called woman
she will be called woman

The expression par vie che translates as given that, considering that.

cheste si clamarà femine
she will be called woman

par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om
given that she was taken out of man

In the original Hebrew, the woman is called ish-shah because she was taken out of man, called ish. The connection between ish (man) and ish-shah (woman) is obvious, but this connection is lost in the Friulian words om and femine. (The connection can be seen in the English, however: she will be called woman because she was taken out of man.)

Here you find the expression gjavâ fûr, which is synonymous with gjavâ already encountered. Fûr means out. You have now seen three ways to say to remove, to take out; these are: gjavâ, gjavâ fûr, tirâ vie.

In this verse, you encounter gjavâ fûr used passively. Compare these active and passive forms:

al à gjavât fûr
al è stât gjavât fûr
he took out
he was taken out

e à gjavât fûr
e je stade gjavade fûr
she took out
she was taken out

From Gjenesi 2:1, you will perhaps remember this sentence using the passive:

a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere
the heaven and the earth were put in place

Verset 24

The verb bandonâ means to abandon, to leave. The Friulian word for father is il pari; mother is la mari.

par chel l’om al bandone
therefore the man abandons

You will note that his father and his mother are expressed simply as so pari and sô mari, without the use of il and la.

al bandone so pari e sô mari
he leaves his father and his mother

The reason man is to leave his parents is to bring himself close to his woman: tirâsi dongje de sô femine. The verb tirâ means to pull; a literal translation of the expression tirâsi dongje di results in to pull oneself near to. De sô femine is a contraction of di + la sô femine.

You have seen the verb deventâ before; you will recall that it means to become. Sôl translates as single; its feminine form is sole.

a deventin une cjar sole
they become a single flesh

Verset 25

You will recall that a jerin means they were. Ducj i doi translates as both; it literally means all the two. The Friulian word for naked is crot; its feminine form is crote.

a jerin crots
they were naked

a jerin ducj i doi crots
they were both naked

You can understand tant l’om che la femine as meaning the man just as much as the woman, the man and the woman equally so. In other words, they were both equally naked.

The masculine il rivuart can be understood as meaning concern here. The expression vê rivuart, then, translates as to have concern.

al veve
a vevin
he was having
they were having

no vevin rivuart
they were not having concern
(that is, they were not concerned, they were unconcerned)

The expression un dal altri means of each other, of one another. The sense here is that they were unaware of, and unbothered by, both their own and the other’s nakedness.