Friulian language series: Gjenesi 2:15-25, paradîs dal Eden

You will now continue your study of the Friulian language through the book of Genesis by examining verses 15-25 of the second chapter, which are the final verses of the chapter. All three posts pertaining to chapter 2 can be found here.

If you are arriving on this site for the first time, begin your study of the Friulian language here.

Read Gjenesi 2:15-25

To read the Friulian text of the Bible associated with the notes below or listen to its audio, visit Bibie par un popul and consult Gjenesi 2:15-25. An archived version of the text can be found here.

Verset 15

Recall that the verb cjapâ means to take. The verb sistemâ means to place.

In this verse, you encounter once again the masculine, third-person singular coniuntîf imperfet forms al fasès and al lavoràs, following the use of par che (so that). You first encountered them in the post pertaining to Gjenesi 2:4-14.

al lavore
par che al lavori
par che al lavoràs
he works
so that he works
so that he worked

al fâs
par che al fasi
par che al fasès
he does
so that he does
so that he did

You have an example of lu in lu sistemà (he placed him), where lu stands in for l’om. You have another example of it in par che lu lavoràs (so that he worked it); here, lu stands in for il zardin. You will remember that the atonic al is not expressed in the presence of lu.

Diu al cjapà
Diu lu cjapà
God took
God took him

Il vuardian is a guardian, custodian. The expression fâ di vuardian means to act as guardian, to serve as custodian.

Verset 16

The verb precetâ means to order, to command.

In this verse, you encounter for the first time the verb podê, meaning can, to be able.

tu tu puedis
you can
you are able

tu tu puedis mangjâ
you can eat
you are able to eat

In the same way that, for example, lui al è can be expressed simply as al è, tu tu puedis can be expressed simply as tu puedis. In tu tu puedis, the tonic (first) tu is optional, but the atonic (second) tu is mandatory.

mangjâ di ducj i arbui
to eat from all the trees

Recall that the masculine l’arbul (tree) forms its plural as i arbui.

Can you say the following in Friulian?

  1. all the houses
  2. all the kingdoms
  3. all the trees
  4. all the waters
  5. all month
  6. all evening

Here are the answers:

  1. dutis lis cjasis
  2. ducj i reams
  3. ducj i arbui
  4. dutis lis aghis
  5. dut il mês
  6. dute la sere

Verset 17

You will remember that l’arbul de cognossince dal ben e dal mâl is the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

The expression vê di means must, to have to.

al à di mangjâ
he has to eat
he must eat

tu âs di mangjâ
you have to eat
you must eat

Review the present indicative of the Friulian verb .

Negated, the last pair of examples above becomes:

nol à di mangjâ
he must not eat

no tu âs di mangjâ
you must not eat

If the formation of these negations is unclear to you, follow the link provided above pointing to the review of the present indicative of vê.

In this verse, you do not find no tu âs di mangjâ; instead, you find no tu âs di mangjânt. The nt ending of mangjânt means of it, thereof. No tu âs di mangjânt, then, means you must not eat of it. You will encounter another example of this in a moment.

The text follows with parcè che la dì che, which means because the day that. Day is expressed here as dì, used as a feminine noun. can be found in both masculine and feminine forms; for example, the first day can be expressed as il prin dì, la prime dì or la prime zornade.

Tu mangjarâs (you will eat) is the second-person singular of the futûr sempliç of the verb mangjâ. Tu murarâs (you will die) is the same of the verb murî (to die).

In the text, you find tu ’nt mangjarâs. As above, ’nt means of it.

parcè che la dì che tu ’nt mangjarâs
because the day that you will eat of it

no tu âs di mangjânt
you must not eat of it

You see from the two examples above that ’nt is placed before the conjugated verb, but attached to the end of the infinitive.

Verset 18

Nol è ben means it is not good. Dibessôl translates as on one’s own. You will have recognised the use of the masculine, third-person singular, coniuntîf presint of the verb jessi in che l’om al sedi.

nol è ben
it is not good

che l’om al sedi dibessôl
that the man be on his own

The verb tocjâ literally means to touch.

al tocje
he touches

In addition to the sense of to touch, this verb can also be used in the sense of must. In this verse, mi tocje dâ means I must give.

mi tocje dâ
I must give
(literally, it touches unto me to give)

ti tocje studiâ
you must study
(literally, it touches unto you to study)

The text, in fact, reads mi tocje dâi un jutori. Dâi means to give to him, where i (to him) has been attached to the infinitive (to give). Un jutori means helper.

mi tocje dâi un jutori
I must give [to] him a helper

As used in this verse, il spieli can be understood as meaning counterpart. (Il spieli is also the Friulian for mirror.) You read: mi tocje dâi un jutori che al sedi il so spieli (I must give him a helper who may be his counterpart). To review the meaning of il so, consult this summary of Friulian possessive adjectives.

Verset 19

In this verse, dust is expressed as il pulvin. Simpri means still.

You will recall the meaning of ju in the following:

ju menà denant dal om
he led them before the man
he brought them before the man

The verb menâ means to lead, to bring. As for denant di, this means before, in front of.

denant dal om
in front of the man
before the man

denant de cjase
in front of the house
before the house

In this verse, you encounter ur. Ur means to them (indirect object); this is distinct from ju, which means them (direct object).

Diu ju menà
God led them

Gjesù ur disè (Luche 20:8)
Jesus said to them

God brought the beasts before the man so that he could name them: par che ur metès un non (so that unto them he put a name). You will perhaps have recognised the use of the coniuntîf imperfet here; the verb in question is meti (to put).

al met
par che al meti
par che al metès
he puts
so that he puts
so that he put (past time)

par che ur metès un non
so that he put a name unto them
(that is, so that he named them)

Turn your attention now to the last part of this verse. Ognidun means each one (that is, each animal). The verb puartâ translates as to bear, to carry. To it is expressed by i.

ognidun al varès vût di puartâ
each one would have had to bear

il non che l’om i varès metût
the name that the man would have put unto it

Vût is the past participle of the verb vê. In al varès vût di puartâ, you have the expression vê di, which you will recall means must, to have to:

vê di puartâ
al à vût di puartâ
to have to bear
he had to bear

Al varès is the third-person singular of the condizionâl presint of the verb vê.

al à
al varès
he has
he would have

In this verse, you encounter the condizionâl passât (second example in the first three pairs below):

al à vût
al varès vût
he had
he would have had

al à metût
al varès metût
he put
he would have put

al à vût di puartâ
al varès vût di puartâ
he had to bear
he would have had to bear

ognidun al varès vût di puartâ
each one would have had to bear

il non che l’om i varès metût
the name that the man would have put unto it

Verset 20

You have another example of ur in this verse:

l’om ur metè i nons
the man put the names unto them
(that is, the man named them)

Pal is a contraction of par and the masculine definite article. Pal om, then, means for the man. Review Friulian contractions of a preposition and definite article.

Recall that cjatâsi means to be found; it translates literally as to find oneself.

no si cjatà un jutori
a helper was not found

Al fos is in the same tense as al metès, al fasès, al lavoràs: it is the masculine, third-person singular of the coniuntîf imperfet of the verb jessi.

Compare:

no si cjate un jutori che al sedi il so spieli
a helper who is his counterpart is not found

no si cjatà un jutori che al fos il so spieli
a helper who was his counterpart was not found

Verset 21

You encounter the use of i again in this verse; it means to him, unto him. Observe how, despite the presence of al om, Friulian includes i nonetheless in the following:

i fasè vignî al om une sium
he made a sleep[iness] come unto the man
(literally, unto him he made come unto the man a sleep[iness])

In English, it is of course entirely unnecessary (and incorrect) to include both unto him (i) and unto the man (al om) as in the literal translation above; this is, however, how Friulian operates and you will encounter many more examples of this in your readings ahead.

The sleepiness was so great, or tant grande, that the man fell asleep: s’indurmidì.

The adjective grant means big, great. Here are its four forms: grant (masculine singular), grande (feminine singular), grancj (masculine plural), grandis (feminine plural).

une sium tant grande che
a sleepiness so great that

The reflexive verb indurmidîsi means to fall asleep. You find it used here in the third-person singular of the passât sempliç: s’indurmidì (he fell asleep).

The verb gjavâ means to take out, to remove. The Friulian for rib is une cueste.

i gjavà une cueste des sôs
he removed [from] unto him a rib of his
(that is, he took out one of his ribs)

i / gjavà / une cueste / des sôs
unto him / he removed / a rib / of his

In une cueste des sôs (a rib of his), you will have understood that des sôs means of his, where des is a contraction of di + lis. The feminine plural lis sôs is used because it refers to the feminine plural lis cuestis.

The verb sierâ means to close (up); the Friulian for flesh is la cjar. The masculine noun il puest means place, spot.

sierâ la cjar tal so puest
to close up the flesh in its place

More precisely, the text reads:

al tornà a sierâ la cjar tal so puest
he closed the flesh back up in its place

The verb tornâ can be used to convey what English does with back, again or with re prefixed to a verb: tornâ a sierâ (to close back up, to close again). More examples of this:

considerâ
tornâ a considerâ
to consider
to reconsider

doprâ
tornâ a doprâ
to use
to reuse, to use again

Verset 22

Po means then. The expression tirâ vie means to remove, to take out; it is synonymous with gjavâ from the last verse.

al à tirât vie
al veve tirât vie
he removed
he had removed

che i veve tirât vie al om
that he had removed from the man

As seen before, despite the inclusion of al om, i must still be expressed. Al om translates literally as unto the man, but English expresses it here as from the man.

With the rib, God made a woman: al fasè une femine. He brought her before the man: le menà denant dal om. Le means her; it stands in for la femine.

Verset 23

Near the beginning of this verse, chel refers to the man; you can simply understand it as meaning he, or perhaps better as the latter because it refers directly to l’om mentioned at the end of verse 22. Chel literally means that (one).

Cheste volte means this time. You can understand cheste volte mo sì che as meaning now indeed it is that.

The Friulian for bone is il vues (or vuès); its plural form is i vues.

e je vuès dai miei vues
she is bone of my bones

e je cjar de mê cjar
she is flesh of my flesh

In the text, you find the accented il vuès in the singular, and the non-accented i vues in the plural; this reflects a difference in pronunciation observed by some speakers between the singular and plural forms. In standardised spelling, both the singular and plural are written vues.

The verb clamâ means to call; the reflexive clamâsi, then, means to be called (literally, to call oneself).

mi clami Roberto
I am called Roberto

si clame Aldo
he is called Aldo

si clame femine
si clamarà femine
she is called woman
she will be called woman

The expression par vie che translates as given that, considering that.

cheste si clamarà femine
she will be called woman

par vie ch’e je stade gjavade fûr dal om
given that she was taken out of man

In the original Hebrew, the woman is called ish-shah because she was taken out of man, called ish. The connection between ish (man) and ish-shah (woman) is obvious but is lost in the Friulian om and femine. (The connection can be seen in the English, however: she will be called woman because she was taken out of man.)

Here you find the expression gjavâ fûr, synonymous with gjavâ already encountered. Fûr means out. You have now seen three ways to say to remove, to take out, which are gjavâ, gjavâ fûr and tirâ vie.

In this verse, you encounter gjavâ fûr used passively. Compare these active and passive forms:

al à gjavât fûr
al è stât gjavât fûr
he took out
he was taken out

e à gjavât fûr
e je stade gjavade fûr
she took out
she was taken out

From Gjenesi 2:1, you will perhaps remember this sentence using the passive:

a son stâts metûts a puest il cîl e la tiere
the heaven and the earth were put in place

Verset 24

The verb bandonâ means to abandon, to leave. The Friulian for father is il pari; mother is la mari.

par chel l’om al bandone
therefore the man abandons
for this reason the man leaves

Note that his father and his mother are expressed simply as so pari and sô mari, without the use of il and la (this omission of the article occurs with the names of family members in the singular):

al bandone so pari e sô mari
he leaves his father and his mother

The reason man is to leave his parents is so that he clings to his wife: tirâsi dongje de sô femine (to draw near to his wife). The verb tirâ means to pull; a literal translation of tirâsi dongje di results in to pull oneself near to. De sô femine is a contraction of di + la sô femine.

You have seen the verb deventâ before; you will recall that it means to become. Sôl translates as single; its feminine form is sole.

a deventin une cjar sole
they become a single flesh

Verset 25

Recall that a jerin means they were. Ducj i doi translates as both; it literally means all the two. The Friulian for naked is crot; its feminine form is crote.

a jerin crots
they were naked

a jerin ducj i doi crots
they were both naked

You can understand tant l’om che la femine as meaning the man just as much as the woman; the man and the woman equally so. In other words, they were both equally naked.

Cognate with the English regard, the masculine noun rivuart can, depending on the context, be taken as meaning concern, consideration, apprehension. In the text of this verse, you find the expression vê rivuart di, where rivuart takes on the sense of apprehension: vê rivuart di translates literally as to have apprehension of (that is, to be apprehensive of). Before continuing, familiarise yourself with the following with regard to the verb vê:

al veve
he was having
a vevin
they were having

no veve
he was not having
no vevin
they were not having

Of the man and woman, you read:

no vevin rivuart
they were not apprehensive

(literally, they were not having apprehension)

un dal altri
of one another

The sense here is that they were unconcerned by their own and the other’s nakedness; because they were unaware of it, they were unashamed. Read more about rivuart in the notes at Gjenesi 3:10, Gjenesi 21:23 and Esodo 34:30.